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THE 


PROCEEDINGS 


OF  THE 


LINNEAN  SOCIETY 


OP 


NEW  SOUTH  WALES. 

'   ■  '     '  .--^  h^  <-4 


FOR  THE  YEAR 

IQOT. 

Vol.  XXXII. 


>A/ITH      FIFTY-TWO     PLATES 


<Sj2i)n£j9  : 


PRI^TED  AND  PUBLISHED  FOR  THE  SOCIETY 

BY 

F.    CUNNINGHAM E   &   CO.,    146   PITT   STREET, 

AND 

SOLD  BY  THE  SOCIETY. 
1907-08. 


F.  CUXXINGHAME  K-  CO.,  PRINTERS,  SYDNEY. 


LIST   OF   CONTRIBUTORS    AND  TITLES  OF  PAPERS. 

Andrews,  E.  C,  B.A. —  page 

The  Geographical  Significance  of  Floods,  with  especial 

Reference  to  Glacial  Action.     (Plates  xliv.-xlv.)     795 

Benson,  W.  Noel — 

The   Geology  of  Newbridge,   near  Bathurst,  N.  S.W. 

(Plates  xxii.-xxiii.)...  ...  ...  ...  ..      523 

Chapman,  Frederick,  A.L.S.,  F.R.M.S.,  National  Museum, 
Melbourne — 

On  the  Tertiary  Limestones  and  Foraminiferal  Tuffs 

of  Malekula,  New  Hebrides.     (Plates  xxxvii.-xli.)     745 

GoDDARD,  E.  J.,  B.A,  B.Sc,  Junior  Demonstrator  in  Bi- 
ology, Sydney  University,  and  H.  T.Jensen,  B.Sc, 
Linnean  Macleay  Fellow  of  the  Society  in 
Geology — 

Contribution  to  a  Knowledge  of  Australian  Foramini- 

fera.     Part  ii.      (Plate  vi.)  291 

Grant,  F.  E.,  F.L.S.,  and  Allan  R.  McCulloch,  Austra- 
lian Museum  — 

Decapod  Crustacea  from  Norfolk  Island.     (Plate  i.)...      151 

Grouvelle,  a. — 

Description  d'une  nouvelle  Esp^ce  d'Oxyhamiis  (Cole- 

OPTERA :   Colydiidoi)  ...  ...  ...  •••      ^35 


27790 


iv.  LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTORS  AND  TITLES  OF  PAPERS. 

PAGE 

Hedley,  Charles,  F.L.S.— 

The  Mollusca  of  Mast  Head  Reef,  Capricorn  Group, 

Queensland.     (Plates  xvi.-xxi.)    ...  ...  ...     476 

Jensen,  H.  I.,  B.Sc,  Linnean  Macleay  Fellow  of  the  Society 
in  Geology — 

The  Geology  of  the  War rumbungle  Mountains.    ( Plates 

xxiv.-xxxii.)  ^  ...         ...         ...  ...     657 

Note  on  a  Glaucophane  Schist  from  the  Conandale 

Range,  Queensland  ...  ...  ...  ..       701 

Chemical  Note  on  a  recent  Lava  from  Savaii  ...     706 

The  Geology  of  the  Nandewar   Mountains.     (Plates 

xlvi.-lii.)      842 

Jensen,  H.  I.,  B.Sc,  Linnean  Macleay  Fellow  of  the 
Society  in  Geology,  and  E.  J.  Goddard,  B.A., 
B.Sc,  Junior  Demonstrator  in  Geology,  Sydney 
University — 

Contribution  to  a  Knowledge  of  Australian  Foramini- 

fera.     Part  ii.     (Plate  vi.)  291 

Kirkaldy,  G.  W.,  F.E.S.— 

Memoir   on    a   few    Heteropteroua    Hemiptera   from 

Eastern  Australia.     (Plate  xliii.) 768 

Lea,  Arthur  M.,  F.E.S.— 

Revision  of  the  Australian  Curculionidce  belonging  to 
the  Subfamily  Cryptorhi/iichides  [Coleoptera|. 
Part  viii.     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ,,,     40O 

McCulloch,  Allan  R.,  Australian  Museum,  and  F.  E. 
Grant,  F.L.S.— 

Decapod  Crustacea  from  Norfolk  Island.     (Plate  i.)...      151 


LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTORS  AND  TITLES  OF  PAPERS.  V. 

PAGE 

Meyrick,  Edward,  B.A.,  F.R.S.,  Corresponding  Member — 

Descriptions  of  Australian  Micro-Lepidoptera.     Part 

xix.  FliUellidce        ...  ...  ...  ...  ...        47 

Petrie,  James  M.,  D.Sc,  F.I.C,  Linnean  Macleay  Fellow 
of  the  Society  in  Bio-Chemistry — 

Solandrine,  a  new  Midriatic  Alkaloid...  ...  ...     789 

Playfair,  G.  I. — 

Some  new  or  less  known  Desmids  found  in  New  South 

Wales.     (Plates  ii.-v.)       160 

Sloane,  Thomas  G. — 

Studies  in  Australian  Entomology.  No.  xv.  New 
Genera  and  Species  of  Carabidce,  with  some 
Notes  on  Synonymy  (Clivi7iini,  Scaritini,  Cunei- 
2)ectini,  Trigoyiotomini  and  Lehiini)  ...  ...      346 

Steel,  Thomas,  F.C.S.,  F.L.S.— 

Presidential  Address  delivered  at  the  Thirty-Second 

Annual  General  Meeting,  March  27th,  1907      ...  1 

Taylor,  T.  Griffith,  B.Sc,  B.E.,  Assistant  Demonstrator 
in  Geology,  and  Lecturer  in  Commercial  Geo- 
graphy in  the  University  of  Sydney — 

The  Lake  George  Senkungsfeld,  a  Study  of  the  Evolu- 
tion of  Lakes  George  and  Bathurst,  N.  S.W. 
(Plates  vii.-x.)         325 

TiLLYARi),  R.  J.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.— 

On  Dimorphism  in  the  Females  of  Australian  Agri- 

o?iiVZfe  [Neuroptera  :  Odonata\    ...  ...  ...     382 

New  Australian  Species  of  the  Family  CalojHerygidcE 

[Neuroptera  :  Odonata\  ...  ...  ...  ...      394 


vi.  LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTORS  AND  TITLES  OF  PAPERS. 

PAGE 

On  the  Genus  Petalura,  with  Description  of  a  new 

Species.     (Plate  xxxiii.)    ..  ...  ...         ...     708 

The  Dragonflies  of  South- Western  Australia.    (Plates 

xxxiv.-xxxvi.)         ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     719 

On  a  Collection  of  Dragonflies  from  Central  Australia, 

with  Descriptions  of  new  Species.     (Plate  xlii.)...     761 

Turner,  A.  Jefferis,  M.D.,  F.E.S. — 

Revision  of  Australian  Lepidoptera,  iv.  ...  ...     631 

Turner,  Rowland  E.,  F.E.S.— 

A  Revision  of   the  Thynnidce  of  Australia  [Hymen- 

optera].     Part  i.    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      206 

Revision  of  the  Australian  Species  of  the  Genus  Antho- 
bosca  [Hymenoptera  :  Family  ScoIiidcB]  with 
Descriptions  of  New  Species        ...  ...  ...     514 

Woolnough,  W.  G.,  D.Sc,  F.G.S.,  Assistant  Lecturer  in 
Geology  and  Mineralogy,  University  of  Sydney — 

A  Contribution   to   the   Geology  of   Viti  Levu,   Fiji. 

(Plates  xi.-xv.)        431 


CONTEiNTS  OF  PROCEEDINGS,  190T, 


PART  I.     (No.   125). 

(lasiied  June  20th,  1007  ) 


PAGE 


Presidential  Address  delivered  at  the  Thirty-second  Annual  General 

Meeting,  March  27th,  1907,  by  Thomas  Steel,  F.C.S.,  F.L.S.  ...  1 

Descriptions  of  Australasian  Micro-Lepidoptera,  Part  xix.  Flutellidce. 

By  E.  Meyrick,  B.A.,  F.R.S.,  Corresponding  Member 47 

Decapod  Crustacea  from  Norfolk  Island.  By  the  late  F.  E.  Grant 
F.L.S.,  and  Allan  R.  McCulloch,  Australian  Museum. 
{Plate  i.) 151 

Some  new  or  less  known  Desmids  found  in  New  South  Wales.     By 

G.  1.  Playfair.    (Comniunicatedhy  ihc  Secretary).    (Plates  ii. -v.)       160 

Balance  Sheet,  &c 42 

Elections  and  Announcements      ...  46,157 

Notes  and  Exhibits  ...  ..         ...         ...         ...         ..  ...         ...       158 

List  of  Fungi  exhibited  by  Mr.  Cheel  at  the  April  Meeting  (see  p.  159).       202 

Note. — In  Messrs.  Maiden  and  Betche's  paper  in  the  last  Part  of  the 
Proceedings  (1906,  p.  738)  the  name  of  the  common  Rough-leaved  Fig  should 
be  Ficus  stephanocarpa  and  not  Ficus  stenocarpa,  as  there  printed. 


PART  II.     (No.   126). 

(Issued  Augusl  20th,  1907.) 

A  Revision  of  the  Thyniiida  of  Australia  [Hyjienoptera].    Part  i.     By 

Rowland  E.  Turner,  F.E.S 206 

Contributions  to  a  Knowledge  of  Australian  Foraminifera.  Pattii. 
By  E.  J.  GoDDARD,  B.A.,  B.Sc,  Junior  Demonstrator  in  Biology, 
Sydney  University;  and  H.  I.  Jensen,  B.Sc,  Linnean  Macleay 
Fellow  of  the  Society  in  Geology.     (Plate  vi.)        291 

Notice  of  the  Special  General  Meeting  held  on  2;hd  May,   ]907,  to 

Commemorate  the  Bicentenary  of  Carl  von  Linne  (1707-1907)       .     319 


Vlll.  CONTENTS. 

PART   II.   (continued.) 

PAGE 

The  Lake  George  Senkungsfeld,  a  Study  of  the  Evolution  of  Lakes 
George  and  Bathurst,  N.S.W,  By  T.  Griffith  Taylor,  B.Sc, 
B.E.,  Assistant  Demonstrator  in  Geology  and  Lecturer  in  Com- 
mercial Geography  at  the  University  of  Sydney.     (Plates  vii.-x.)       325 

Studies  in  Australian  Entomology.  No.  xv.  New  Genera  and  Species 
of  Carahidce,  with  some  Notes  on  Synonymy  {Clivinini,  Scaritini, 
Cuneipectini,  Trigonotomini  and  Lthiini),     By  Thomas  G.  Sloane     346 

On  Dimorphism  in  the  Females  of  Australian  Agrionidoi   [Neurop- 

TKYik-.  Odonata\     By  R.  J.  Tillyard,  M.A.,  F.E.S 382 

New  Australian  Species  of  the  Family  Calopterygidce  [Neuroptera  : 

Odonata].     By  R.  J.  Tillyard,  M. A.,  F.E.S 394 

Revision  of  the  Australian  Gurculionidfe  belonging  to  the  Subfamily 

CryptorJnjnchides  [Coleoptera].     Part  viii.     By  APvTHUR  M.  Lea      400 

Elections  and  Announcements         319,  323,  391 

Notes  and  Exhibits 393 


PART  III.     (No.  127). 

(Issued  October  Soth,  1907.) 

A  Contribution  to  the  Geology  of  Viti  Levu,  Fiji.  By  W.  G. 
WooLNOUGH,  D.Sc,  F.G.S.,  Assistant  Lecturer  in  Geology  and 
Mineralogy,  University  of  Sydney.     (Plates  xi.-xv.)         ..  ...     431 

The  Mollusca  of   Mast  Head  Reef,   Capricorn   Group,  Queensland. 

Partii.     By  C.  Hedley,  F.L.S.     (Plates  xvi.-xxi.)  476 

Revision  of  the  Australian  Species  of  the  Genus  Anthohosca  [Hymenop- 
TERA  :  Family  Scoliidce]  with  Descriptions  of  New  Species.  By 
Rowland  E.  Turner,  F.E.S 514 

The  Geology  of  Newbridge,  near  Bathurst,  N.S.W.     By  W.  N.  Benson, 

Student  at  the  University  of  Sydney.     (Plates  xxii.-xxiii.)  ...     523 

The  Geology  of  the  Warrumbungle  Mountains.  By  H.  I.  Jensen, 
B.Sc,  Linnean  Macleay  Fellow  of  the  Society  in  Geology. 
(Plates  xxiv.-xxxii.)       557 

Elections  and  Announcements         -         ...        475,  554 

Notes  and  Exhibits 475,554 


CONTENTS.  IX. 

PART  IV.     (No.   128). 

{Issued  March  11th,  190S). 

PAOK 

Revision  of  Australian  Lepidoptera,  iv.      By  A.  J.  Turner,  M.D., 

F.E.S 631 

Note  on  a  Glaucophane  Schist  from  the  Conandale  Range,  Queens- 
land. By  H.  I.  Jensen,  B.Sc,  Linnean  Macleay  Fellow  of  the 
Society  in  Geology  701 

Chemical  Note  on  a  recent  Lava  from  Savaii.     By  H.  I.  Jensen,  B.Sc, 

Linnean  Macleay  Fellow  of  the  Society  in  Geology..  706 

On  the  Genus  Petalura  [Neuroptera  :  Odonata],  with  Description  of  a 

new  Species.      By  R.  J.  Tillyard,  M.  A.,  F.E.S.      (Plate  xxxiii.)     708 

The  Dragonflies  of    South- Western  Australia.      By  R.  J.  Tillyard, 

M. A.,  F.E.S.     (Plates  xxxiv.-xxxvi.)  719 

On  the  Tertiary  Limestones  and  Foraminiferal  Tuffs  of  Malekula, 
New  Hebrides.  By  Frederick  Chapman,  A.L.S.,  F.R.M.S., 
National  Museum,  Melbourne,  (Communicated  hy  D.  Mmoson). 
(Plates  xxxvii.-xli.)        745 

On  a  Collection  of  Dragonflies  from  Central  Australia,  with  Des- 
criptions of  new  Species.  By  R.  J.  Tillyard,  M.A.,  F.E.S. 
(Plate  xlii.)  761 

Memoir  on  a  few  Heteropterous  Hemiptera  from  Eastern  Australia. 

By.  G.  W.  KiRKALDY,  F.E.S.     (Plate  xliii.) 768 

Solandrine,  a  new  Midriatic  Alkaloid.     By  James  M.  Petrie,  D.Sc, 

F.I.C.,  Linnean  Macleay  Fellow  of  the  Society  in  Bio-Chemistry      789 

The  Geographical  Significance  of  Floods,  with  especial  Reference  to 

Glacial  Action.     By  E.  C.  Andrews,  B. A.     (Plates  xliv.-xlv.)    ...     795 

Description  d'une  nouvelle  Espece  d'Oxylmnus  (Coleoptera  :    Coly- 

diidce\     Par  A.  Grouvelle.     (Communicated  hy  A.  M.  Lea)      ...     835 

The  Geology  of  the  Nandewar  Mountains.  By  H.  I.  Jensen,  B.Sc, 
Linnean  Macleay  Fellow  of  the  Society  in  Geology.  (Plates  xlvi.- 
lii.) 842 

Elections  and  Announcements        627,  743,  837 

Notes  and  Exhibits 627,744,837 

Donations  and  Exchanges    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...     915 

Title  Page        i. 

List  of  Contributors  and  Titles  of  Papers iii. 

Contents  ...  ...      vii. 

List  of  Plates x. 

List  of  New  Tribal,  Subfamily,  Generic,  and  Subgeneric  Names        ...     xii, 

Corrigenda       ...  ...         ..,         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...     xii. 

Index. 


LIST    OF    PLATES. 

PEOCEEDINGS,  1907. 

Plate  I. — Decapod  Crustacea  from  Norfolk  Island  ( ^ripAia  norfolcensis,  n.sp., 

and  Pachycheles  lifuensis  Borr.). 
Plates  II. -V. — New  South  Wales  Desmids. 
Plate  VI. — Australian  Foraminifera. 
Plate  VII.— Map    of    the    Lake    George    Senkungsfeld    and    Fault    Scarp 

(Cullarin  Range). 
Plate  VIII.— Stereogram  of  Lake  George  showing  Fault  Scarp  and  Drainage 

Modifications. 
Plate  IX. — View  of  the  dry  bed  of  Lake  George,  in  February,  1907. 
Plate  X. — View  of  Lake  George,  in  1881,  when  nearly  full  of  water. 
Plate  XI. — Geological  Sketch  Map  of  Viti  Levu,  Fiji. 
Plate  XII. — Map  of  Viti  Levu,  Fiji. 
Plate  XIII. — Fig.l.  Mount  Korobasabasaga  from  the  east. 

Fig. 2.  Mount  Voma  at  the  head  of  the  Waidina  River. 
Plate  XIV. — Fig.l.  Mount  Nabui  on  the  Wainikoroiluva  River. 

Fig. 2.  View  of  the  Upper  Waidina  Valley. 
Plate  XV.  — Figs.  1-2.  Sections   of  upraised  (Tertiary)  coral  reef  exposed   in 

road-cutting  at  Walu  Bay,  Suva. 
Plates  XVI. -XXI. — Mast  Head  Reef  Mollusca. 
Plate  XXII. — Geological  Map  of  Newbridge. 
Plate  XXIII. — Newbridge  Rocks  and  Rock-Sections. 
Plate  XXIV, — Sketch    Map    of    the     Warrumbungle     Mountains,    showing 

Geological  Formations. 
Plate  XXV. — Stereogram  of  the  Warrumbungles. 
Plate  XXVI.— Fig.  1.  BuUeamble  Mountains  from  Siding  Spring  Mountain. 

Fig. 2.  The  Spire  (Tonduron)  from  Needle  Mountain. 
Plate  XXVII. — Fig.l.  The  Needle  and   Mountains  beyond   it,  from   Needle 
Mountain. 
Fig.2.   View  of  Siding  Spring  Mountain,  looking  north. 
Plate  XXVIII. —Fig.l.  Bugaldi   Valley   and  Wheoh   Mountain,  from  Siding 
Spring  Mountain. 
Fig.2.  The    Bluff    and  Mt.    Exmouth   from    Siding    Spring 
Mountain. 
Plate  XXIX. — Fig.l.  Siding  Spring  Mountain,  High  Peak,  etc.,  from  Needle 
Mountain. 
Fig.2.  A  Sandstone  "  Mesa  "  near  Baradine  Creek. 
Plate  XXX. — Microphotographs  of  Trachytes  (Warrumbungle  Mountains). 
Plate  XXXI. — Microphotographs    of     Phonolite,    Leucitophyre    and    Basalt 
Warrumbungle  Mountains). 


LIST    OF    PLATES.  xi. 

Plate  XXXII.— Figs.  1-3.  Microphotographs  of  Basalt  (Warrumbungle  Mts.). 
Figs.  N.1-N.3.  Microphotographs  of  Pitchstone,  etc.  (Nande- 
war  Mountains). 
Plate  XXXIII. — Petalura  ingentissima,  n.sp.,  and  P.  gigantea  Leach  [Neurop- 

TERA :  Odonata]. 
Plate  XXXIV. — Map  of  South-West  Australia  showing  Isohyetals. 
Plate  XXXV. — South- West  Australian  Dragonflies  {Synthemis  Martini,  n.sp., 

S.  cyanitincta,  n.sp.,   Austrogomphus  occidentalism  n.sp.,  Austro- 

ceschna  anacantha,  n.sp.,  Argiolestes  minimus,  n.sp.,  Pseudagrion 

carxdeum,  n.sp.). 
Plate  XXXVI. — Synthemis  cyanitincta,  S.  Martini,  Austrogomphusoccidentalis, 

Austrooischna  anacantha. 
Plate  XXXVII. —Miocene  Foraminiferal  Limestones:  Malekula,  New  Hebrides. 
Plate  XXXVIII. — Foraminifera  from  the  Older  Limestones  :  Malekula,  N.H. 
Plate  XXXIX. — Foraminifera  [Trillina  and  Lepidocyclina)  from  the  Older 

Limestones  :  Malekula,  N.H. 
Plate  XL. — Encrusting  Organisms  in  the  Post-Miocene  Limestones :  Male- 
kula, N.H. 
Plate  XLi.— Foraminifera,  etc.,  in  Post-Miocene  Limestones:  Malekula,  N.H. 
Plate  XLii. — Central    Australian    Dragonflies    [Isosticta    simplex    Martin, 

Aust7'osticta  Fieldi,  n.sp.,  Lestes  analis  Ramb.,  Lestes  aridus, n.B^. 
Plate  XLiii. — Eastern  Australian  HeteropterousHemiptera  [Thaumastocoris 

[Thanmastothe.riiun']   australicus,  gen.et  sp.n.,  Hypsipyrgias  tela- 

monides,   gen.et  sp.nov.,    Cyateorrhacha    cacti/era,    gen.et  sp.n., 

Synthlipsis  chanibersi,  gen.et  sp.n.). 
Plate  XLiv. — Junction  of  the  Arthur  and  Cleddau  Rivers,  Milford  Sound, 

N.Z.,  showing  Cafion-convergence. 
Plate  XLV. — Preservation  Inlet,  N.Z.,  showing  Cafion-divergence. 
Plate  XLVi. — Geological  Sketch  Map  of  the  Nandewar  Mountains,  and  the 

country  between  the  Nandewars  and  New  England,  N.S.W. 
Plate  XLViL — Geological  Sketch  Map  of  the  Nandewar  Mountains  only. 
Plate  XLViii. — Two   views     of    Ningadhun    and    Yullundunida   from   the 

Bullawa  Creek  Valley. 
Plate  XLix. — Fig.  1.  View  of  the  Lindesay  Group  from  Bullawa  Creek. 

Fig. 2.  Scabby  Rock,  Pilliga  Scrub. 
Plate  L. — Microphotographs  of  Perlitic  Pitchstone,  Dolerite,  Solvsbergite, 

Pulaskite  Porphyry,  Bostonite,  and  Akerite  (Nandewar  Mountains). 
Plate  Li. — Microphotos   of    Labradorite    Porphyry,    Arfvedsonite-^girine 

Trachyte,    Monzonose,    Andesite,    Phenocryst   of    Labradorite    in 

alkaline  basalt,  and  Akerite  (Nandewar  Mountains). 
Plate  Lii. — Handspecimens  of  Monchiquitic  Lamprophyre  and  Labradorite 

Porphyry  (Nandewar  Mountains), 


Xll.        LIST  OF  NEW  TRIBAL,  SUBFAMILY,  GENERIC,  ETC.,  NAMES. 


LIST  OF  NEW  TRIBAL*,  SUBFAMILYf,  GENERIC 
AND  SUBGENERIC§  NAMES 

Proposed  in  this  Volume  (1907). 

Anaphantis  (Lepidoptera) 
Aristaea  (Lepidoptera) 
Austrosticta  (Neuroptera) 
Autanepsia  (Lepidoptera) 
Copidoris  (Lepidoptera) 
Cos7nodiscus  (Coleoptera) 
*Cuneipectini     ... 
Cuneipectus  (Coleoptera) 
Cyclotorna  (Lepidoptera) 
Cyphosticha  (Lepidoptera) 
Cysteorrhaca  (Hemiptera) 
Dasybela  (Lepidoptera) 
Derhyiella  (Coleoptera) 
Diathryptica  (Lepidoptera) 
Epicroesa  (Lepidoptera) 
Epimixia  ( Hemiptera) . . . 
Eurocrypha  (Hemiptera) 
Homadaida  (Lepidoptera) 
Hypsipyrgias  (Hemiptera) 
%Lepteiront  (Hymenoptera) 
X  See  Slip  opposite  p. 

CORRIGENDA. 

Page  104,  line  23— for  170.  Af.  centropus,  n.sp.  read  170.  M.  centropis,  n.sp. 
Page  18.3,  line  14 — for  St.  orh.  ^  verruco  sum  read  St.  orh.  /3  verrucosum. 
Page  301,  line  25 -/or  14.  T.  quadrilateralis  read  14.  T.  quadrilatera. 
Page  402,  line  24— /o?- Anipigraphocis  read  Anepiqraphocis. 
Page  742,  line  4 — for  Argiolestes  minima  read  Argiolestes  minimus. 

Pale  77o'  line    7  1  •^'^^  Geocorid^  read  Myodichid^. 

Page  769,  line    3  I  for  Thaumastotherium  australicum  read  Thaumaatocoris 

Page  788,  line  28  [  aiistralicus. 

Page  777,  line  2— for  THAUMASTOTHERIINiE,  sub-fam,  nov.  read  THAU- 

MASTGCGRINiE,  sub-fam.  nov. 
Page  777,  line  l^^or  Thaumastotherium,  gen.  nov.  read  T  h  a  u- 

MASTOcoRis,  gen.  nov. 
Page  778,  line  10— /or    T[haumastotherium]    australicum,    sp.nov.    read 

T[haumastocoris]  australicus,  sp.nov. 
Page  xiii.,  line  20  (left  column  of  the  Index)— /or  Kennedya  sp.  ...  52  read 

Kennedy  a  rubicunda  ..,  52. 


...       90 

Loxogenius  (Coleoptera) 

..     369 

...       52 

Macarostola  (Lepidoptera) 

..       62 

...     764 

Metaphrastis  (Lepidoptera) 

..     134 

...     673 

Microherosiris  (Coleoptera) 

..     418 

...     140 

Opsidines  (Lepidoptera) 

..       68 

...     371 

Paraphyllis  (Lepidoptera) 

..     140 

...     358 

Paratituacia  (Coleoptera) 

..     423 

...     358 

Phalangitis  (Lepidoptera) 

..     136 

...       72 

Piestoceros  (Lepidoptera) 

..       94 

...       61 

Rhytidogaster  ( Hymenoptera ^ 

229 

...     785 

Sympediosoma  (Coleoptera) 

..     419 

..     667 

Synthlipsis  (Hemiptera) 

..     786 

...     430 

t  ThaumastocorincR  (Hemiptera):J: 

...     139 

Thaumastocoris  (Hemiptera) 

+ 

...       94 

t  Thanmastotheriince     (Hemip- 

...    779 

tera)  i|          

..     777 

...     784 

Thaumastotherium('H.emi]^ieYa)\\   777 

...       73 

VuUurnia  (Hemiptera) 

..     776 

...     779 

Xyrosaris  (Lepidoptera) 

..      71 

...     249 

.763. 

II  To  be  treated  as  synonyms. 

/^ 


M 


:F»ROOEE3DIlsrGI-S 


OF    THE 


LINNEAN     SOCIETY 


OP 


:^TE"X^     SOXTTH    X'vT-.i^.IjES. 


WEDNESDAY,  MARCH  27th,   1907. 


The  Thirty-second  Annual  General  Meeting,  and  the  Ordinary 
Monthly  Meeting,  were  held  in  the  Linnean  Hall,  Ithaca  Road, 
Elizabeth  Bay,  on  Wednesday  evening,  March  27th,  1907. 


ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING. 
Mr.  T.  Steel,  F.C.S.,  F.L.S.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 
The    Minutes    of    the    preceding    Annual    General    Meetim 
(March  28th,  1906)  were  read  and  confirmed. 
The  President  delivered  the  Annual  Address. 


PRESIDENTIAL  ADDRESS. 

The  remembrance  of  the  Society's  well-sustained  activities 
during  the  past  year,  and  a  hopeful  outlook  for  the  future  may 
very  well  encourage  us  to  celebrate  the  thirty-second  anniversary 
in  no  despondent  frame  of  mind,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that 
very  important  and  unlooked  for  changes,  affecting  the  personnel 
of  the  Society  in  almost  every  grade,  have  transpired  since  the 
last  annual  ^atllerinc^  The  removal  of  Dr.  J.  P.  Hill  to  London, 
to  take  up  the  work  of  Professor  of  Zoology  at  University  College, 


Z  PRESIDENT  S  ADDRESS. 

following  close  upon  that  of  Mr.  Waite  to  New  Zealand,  has 
depiived  us  of  an  active  worker  of  the  stamp  that  we  much 
prefer  to  welcome  rather  than  to  lose.  Mr.  P.  R.  Pedley,  OJie  of 
the  oldest  Members  of  the  Council,  has  found  it  necessary  to 
withdraw;  and  in  starting  upon  his  visit  to  Europe  on  a  well- 
earned  holiday  Mr.  Pedley  will  take  with  him  our  best  wishes 
for  an  enjoyable  and  invigorating  trip,  and  a  safe  return  in  due 
course. 

Since  the  last  Annual  Meeting  w^e  have  had  to  deplore  the 
deaths  of  Dr.  Sylvan  us  P.  Langley,  an  Honorary  Member,  Mr. 
William  Mitten,  a  Corresponding  Member,  the  Hon.  William  R. 
Campbell,  M.L.C.,and  Mr.  Alexander  Grant,  Ordinary  Members, 
and  Mr.  Frank  E.  Grant,  F.L.8.,  and  the  Hon.  Dr.  James  Norton, 
Members  of  the  Council. 

As  philosophers  we  with  fortitude  recognise  the  inevitable 
vicissitudes — accessions  and  departures — which  enable  the  guild 
or  corporation  not  only  to  develop,  but  to  remain  intact  and 
immortal.  Still,  as  "  units  of  humanity,"  we  cannot  but  feel  a 
deep  sense  of  personal  regret  at  the  loss  of  our  comrades  and  the 
severance  of  old  associations. 

Dr.  Samuel  Pierpont  Langley,  the  distinguished  Secretary  of 
the  Smithsonian  Institution,  and  ex  officio  keeper  of  the  United 
States  National  Museum,  Washington,  died  on  February  27th, 
1906.  His  conspicuous  success  as  an  administrator  and  his 
zealous  efibrts  to  develop  the  usefulness  of  these  great  Institutions 
with  their  various  ramifications,  and  to  uphold  their  prestige, 
have  amply  justified  his  selection  to  carry  on  the  work  inaugurated 
by  Professor  Joseph  Henry,  and  worthily  continued  by  Dr. 
Spencer  Fullerton  Baird.  Dr.  Langley  had  established  his 
reputation  also  as  an  accomplished  astronomer  and  physicist 
especially  interested  in  the  problems  of  aeronautics.  His  decease 
has  lemoved  an  influential  and  worthy  disciple  of  science  and 
source  of  inspiration  not  only  to  his  own  countrymen  but  to  the 
wider  brotherhood  of  science.  Professor  Langley  was  elected  an 
Honorary  Member  of  this  Society  in  August,  1891,  in  succession 
to    his    predecessor  Professor    Spencer   Eaird,    in  token  of   the 


3 

Society's  appreciation  of  the  inestimable  services  rendered  by  the 
Bureau  of  International  Exchanges  of  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, which  so  liberally  interprets  the  term  "diffusion  of  know- 
ledge" as  to  recognise  therein  the  necessary  but  prosaic  labour 
of  distributing  the  publications  of  Scientific  Institutions,  which 
is  done  entirely  free  of  charge. 

Mr.  William  Mitten,  the  accomplished  English  bryologist,  and 
fatlier-in-law  of  Dr.  Alfred  Russell  Wallace,  who  passed  away  in 
his  eighty-seventh  year,  at  Hurstpierpoint,  Sussex,  on  July  20th, 
1906,  was  elected  a  Corresponding  Member  of  the  Society  in 
March,  1882.  His  professional  work,  that  of  a  pharmaceutical 
chemist,  gave  him  little  opportunity  for  travel,  even  as  far  as 
London;  but  this  led  him  all  the  more  assiduously  in  his  leisure 
time  to  cultivate  at  home  an  early  acquired  taste  for  botany, 
until,  botanicall}'-  speaking,  he  must  have  come  to  know  by  heart 
the  neiglibourhood  in  which  he  was  born,  lived  out  his  simple  but 
fruitful  life,  and  in  which  he  ended  his  peaceful  days.  Through  the 
influence  of  his  friend  and  neighbour,  William  Borrer,  and  also 
of  Sir  William  Hooker,  he  was  led  eventually  to  specialise  in  the 
study  of  mosses,  hepatics  and  lichens;  until,  in  this  branch  of 
botan}^  he  became  one  of  the  leading  British  authorities.  His 
published  papers  are  very  numerous;  and  one  of  them,  entitled 
"  Musci  Austro-Americani,"  by  itself  takes  up  the  entire  twelfth 
volume  of  the  botanical  portion  of  the  Journal  of  the  Linnean 
Society  of  London  (1869).  His  more  important  papers  on  Aus- 
tralian non-vascular  cryptogams  are  "A  List  of  the  Musci  and 
Hepaticae  collected  in  Victoria,  Australia,  by  Dr.  F.  Mueller  (in 
Hooker's  Journ.  Bot.  viii.  1856,  pp.257-266);  "Descriptions  of 
some  new  species  of  Musci  from  New  Zealand  .  .  .  together 
with  an  enumeration  of  the  Species  collected  in  Tasmania  by 
William  Archer,  Esq.,"  &c.  (Journ.  Linn.  Soc.  Bot.  iv.  1860, 
pp. 64-100);  also  the  "  Hepaticae,"  and  in  conjunction  with  the 
Rev.  C.  Babbington,  the  "  Lichenes  "  of  Hooker's  "  Flora  Tas- 
manise"  (I860).  In  addition  to  these,  his  contributions  to  know- 
ledge include  studies  on  some  or  other  of  these  groups  from  New 
Zealand,    Fiji,   and   Samoa ;    as   well   as    from  Japan,   and    Mt. 


4  PRESIDENTS  ADDRESS. 

Kinibalu  in  Borneo.  To  Mr.  Botting  Hemsley's  "  Report  on 
the  Botany  of  the  Challenger  Expedition,"  Mr.  Mitten  also 
contributed  the  portion  dt'aling  with  the  hepatics  and  mosses. 

Mr.  Mitten  has  thus  furnished  us  with  a  brilliant  and  inspiring 
example  of  the  useful  and  necessary  amateur  at  his  best,  and  of 
the  extraordinary  amount  of  good  work  that  can  be  successfully 
accomplished  during  the  frequently  interrupted  leisure  of  a  long 
lifetime  by  the  patience  and  concentration  of  an  enthusiast.  I 
may  conclude  my  remarks  upon  this  estimable  man  by  a  brief 
quotation  from  a  biographical  sketch,  contributed  to  the  "Journal 
of  Botany"  (for  October,  1906)  by  Mr.  Botting  Hemsley,  who 
says  of  Mr.  Mitten — "He  had  correspondents  in  all  parts  of  the 
world,  from  whom  he  received  many  things  besides  mosses, 
including  seeds  for  his  garden,  of  which  he  was  very  fond.  I 
remember  how  keenly  he  examined  his  mosses  and  liverworts  for 
chance  seeds  of  other  plants,  and  how  much  pleasure  he  derived 
from  observing  their  germination  and  growth.  In  this  way  he 
raised  several  things  from  remote  islands  visited  by  the  '  Chal- 
lenger' Expedition." 

The  Hon.  William  Robert  Campbell,  M.L.C.,  a  member  of  an 
old  Sydney  family,  who  died  on  July  30,  1906,  aged  68,  joined 
the  Society  in  October,  1878.  At  this  time  he  was  the  owner  of 
Trigamon  Station,  near  Warialda;  and  becoming  interested  in 
the  occurrence  of  fishes  in  a  dam  unconnected  with  any  water- 
course, and  which  had  been  dry  a  few  months  previously,  he 
forwarded  specimens  to  Sir  William  Macleay,  who  determined 
them  to  be  referable  to  a  species  of  Therapon  (T.  uuicolor  Gthr.), 
and  published  a  short  account  of  them  in  the  Society  s  Proceedings 
(Vol.  iii.  p.  15).  Upon  rrlinquishing  the  life  of  a  squatter,  and 
taking  up  his  residence  in  Sydney,  Mr.  Campbell  developed  a 
lasting  interest  in  matters  relating  to  fish  and  fisheries.  For 
some  years,  and  until  its  abolition,  he  was  a  member  of  the  old 
Board  of  Fisheries  ;  and  a  few  months  before  his  death  he  was 
elected  to  the  existing  Board,  in  succession  to  the  late  Hon.  John 
Want,  M.L.C.  Mr.  Campbell  was  elected  to  the  Legislative 
Assembly,  as  Member  for  West  Sydney,  in  1868.     From  Novem- 


PRESIDENTS  ADDRESS.  5 

ber,  1880,  until  liis  resignation  in  May,  1886,  he  was  the  repre- 
sentative of  the  electorate  of  Owydir.  In  Apiil,  1890,  he  was 
appointed  to  a  seat  in  the  Upper  House.  Asa  public  man,  and 
as  a  public-spirited  citizen,  Mr.  Campbell  enjoyed  the  respect  and 
esteem  of  those  who  knew  him  or  were  associated  with  him  in 
public  life.  Sir  William  Macleaj^  and  Mr.  Campbell  married 
sisters,  two  of  the  daughters  of  the  late  >ir  Edward  Deas  Thomson, 
C.  B.,  K.C.M.G.  Mr.  Campbell's  death  has  thus  deprived  the 
Society  of  a  member  more  nearly  related  to  Sir  William  Macleay, 
than  by  the  tie  of  personal  friendship. 

Mr.  Alexander  Grant  was  born  at  Cullen,  Banffshire,  Scotland, 
in  1844.  He  served  his  apprenticeship  as  a  horticulturist  in  the 
celebrated  gardens  of  the  Earl  of  Seatield,  Cullen  House,  being 
afterwards  engaged  as  gardener  in  the  Koyal  Botanic  Gardens, 
Edinburgh,  during  the  curatorship  of  Mr.  McNab.  His  skill  as 
a  microscopist  at  this  time  led  to  his  employment  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  botanical  microscopical  material  for  the  University 
students  who  attended  the  gardens  for  special  stud}'.  After  his 
arrival  in  Sydney,  in  1878,  he  was  employed  for  several  years  as 
a  private  gardener,  and  in  1882  joined  the  staff  of  the  Sydney 
Botanic  Gardens.  Mr.  Grant  made  a  special  study  of  fungi  and 
was  honorary  custodian  of  the  plants  of  this  group  in  the  National 
Herbarium.  He  was  a  Vice-President  of  the  Horticultural  Asso- 
ciation of  New  South  Wales  since  its  foundation.  Mr.  Grant 
died  on  Christmas  Day,  1906. 

The  comparative  absence  in  Australia  of  a  wealthy  leisured 
class  gives  fewer  unpaid  workers  to  science  in  proportion  to  pro- 
fessionals than  is  the  ratio  in  Europe.  Those  we  have  are  busy 
men  who,  after  their  day's  work  is  done,  devote  spare  hours  or 
lu)lida3^s  to  study.  One  such,  a  brilliant  amateur,  was  lost  to  our 
little  band  of  workers  when  Frederick  Ernest  Grant  succumbed, 
after  a  brief  illness,  on  31st  January  last.  Mr.  Grant  was  born 
23rd  March,  1866,  at  Farlesthorpe,  Lincolnshire.  In  1883  he 
accompanied  an  elder  brother,  engaged  in  pastoral  pursuits,  to  New 
Zealand,  and  five  years  later  entered  the  service  of  the  Union  Bank. 
His  love  for  natural  science  was  strong  from  boyhood.      During 


his  residence  in  Auckland  he  collected  actively,  and  possessed  a 
good  knowledge  of  the  local  fauna.  Transference  to  the  Melbourne 
office  opened  for  him  a  wider  intellectual  horizon,  which  he  much 
appreciated.  He  attended  the  science  courses  at  the  Technical 
College  and  became  an  active  member  of  the  various  scientific 
societies.  At  the  excursions  of  the  Field  Naturalists  his  was 
a,  prominent  and  popular  figure.  In  the  Royal  Society  he  rose  to 
be  a  member  of  council.  His  artistic  abilities  were  at  the  dis- 
posal of  his  friends,  and  he  illustrated  various  papers  by  Messrs. 
Prif chard  and  Gatliff.  Conchology  and  geology  were  at  first  his 
favourite  subjects,  but  wdien  Mr.  T.  S.  Hall  pointed  out  to  him 
that  these  sciences  had  their  devotees,  while  the  Crustacea  lacked 
a  local  student,  he  turned  his  energies  to  carcinology  and  worked 
steadily  at  it  for  the  rest  of  his  life.  In  1902  he  enjoyed  extended 
official  leave  and  re-visited  England.  The  British  carcinologists, 
who  recognised  the  merit  of  his  work  and  its  future  promise, 
gave  him  cordial  greeting.  He  studied  the  Australasian  Crus- 
tacea at  the  British  Museum  and  made  voluminous  notes  thereon. 
In  1902  he  was  elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Linnean  Societ}'"  of  London. 
Shortly  after  his  return  to  Australia  the  Bank  transferred  him 
to  Sydney.  At  once  he  took  an  active  share  in  our  scientific 
life,  was  elected  member  September  30th,  1  903,  and  on  the  death 
of  Mr.  Trebeck  succeeded  to  the  vacant  seat  on  the  Council.  In 
1904  he  helped  to  organise  an  expedition  to  examine  t'  e  fanna  of 
the  Great  Barrier  Reef,  and  with  the  assistance  of  Mr.  A.  R. 
McCulloch  presented  to  the  Society  a  report  on  the  Crustacea  of 
Mast  Head  Island.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  busy  with 
a  second  collection  from  the  Barrier.  He  accompanied  two  deep- 
sea  dredging  expeditions.  His  report  on  the  first  is  incorporated 
in  our  Proceedings ;  that  on  the  second  he  did  not  live  to  finish. 
An  article  on  the  Crustacea  of  Norfolk  Island  had  just  been  com- 
pleted before  his  decease  and  will  be  presented  to  the  Society  at 
an  early  date.      He  leaves  a  widow  and  three  children. 

The  Hon.  James  Norton,  LL.D.,  M.L.C.,  was  born  in  Sydney, 
on  December  5th,  1824.  His  father  was  an  English  solicitor, 
who  came  to  Sydne}^  in  1818  to  practise  his  profession.      At  this 


PRESIDENT  S  ADDRESS.  7 

time  the  legal  fraternity  in  Australia  comprised  two  English 
solicitors  who  received  a  retaining  fee  from  the  English  Govern- 
ment as  an  inducement  to  take  up  the  practice  of  law  at  the  Anti- 
podes. James  Norton,  jun.,  was  articled  to  his  father  in  1843, 
was  admitted  as  a  solicitor  in  1848  nnd  subsequently  taken  into 
partnership.  On  his  father's  death  in  1862,  he  succeeded  to  the 
business;  and,  with  his  partners,  he  ever  afterwards  worthily 
upheld  the  good  name  of  the  important  practice  so  successfully 
initiated  by  his  father.  In  1879  he  was  called  to  the  Upper 
House,  and  in  1884  he  became  Postmaster-General  in  the  Stuart 
Government.  Outside  the  field  of  politics,  Dr.  Norton  patrioti- 
cally served  the  State  in  several  capacities — as  a  trustee  of  the 
Australian  Museum  from  1874:  as  a  member  of  the  Board  of 
Trustees  of  the  Free  Public  Library  from  1878,  and  of  which  he 
was  chairman  at  the  time  of  his  decease;  and  as  a  trustee  of 
Hyde,  Phillip  and  Cook  Parks  for  many  years,  as  well  as  in 
other  ways.  In  his  early  days  he  seems  to  have  developed  a 
taste  for  natural  history,  which  provided  him  with  a  never-failing 
hobby  for  the  rest  of  his  life.  Some  thirty  years  ago,  when  the 
publication  of  the  "Flora  Australiensis "  made  it  possible  for 
Australian  students  to  take  up  the  study  of  indigenous  plants 
with  satisfaction  and  profit,  Dr.  Norton  was  one  of  a  small  band 
which  included  Professor  Stephens,  Mr.  R.  D.  Fitzgerald,  Mr. 
Edwin  Daintree  and  a  few  others  whose  names  are  not  now 
ascertainable,  who  met  together  informally  from  time  to  time,  to 
study  and  compare  their  collections,  and  to  exchange  experiences, 
with  a  view  to  mutual  help  and  encouragement.  He  was  an 
ardent  horticulturist,  and  took  great  pride  in  the  beautiful  trees 
and  shrubs,  especially  those  of  indigenous  species,  which  he 
cultivated  in  his  fine  old  garden,  and  many  of  which  he  had 
himself  planted.  The  spring  flowering  of  his  magniticent  collection 
of  Cape  bulbs  furnished  an  annual  occasion  for  assembling  and 
extending  a  hearty  welcome  to  his  many  friends.  The  natural 
history  of  his  country  home  at  Springwood  was  a  perennial 
source  of  delight  and  refreshment.  He  spared  and  safeguarded 
the  welfare  of  all  the  most  attractive  native  plants  on  his  estate, 


8  PltKSIDENT  S  ADDRESS. 

and  completed  the  task  of  cornpiliii<(  a  census  of  its  flora.  His 
observations  on  the  birds  were  partially  embodied  in  a  paper 
entitled  "Australian  Birds:  Useful  and  Noxious,"  read  at  the 
"  Conference  of  Fruit-growers  and  Vine-growers  "  held  in  Sydney 
in  June,  1890,  and  published  in  the  Report  thereof  (p.  245). 
This  interesting  article  concludes  with  some  emphatic  remarks 
upon  the  unrestricted  and  inconsiderate  acclimatisation  of 
undesirable  alien  species  of  plants  and  animals — a  subject  upon 
which,  as  a  community,  even  to  this  day,  we  are  so  slow  to  learn 
wisdom.  At  the  monthly  meeting  in  July,  in  formally  announc- 
ing his  decease,  I  referred  to  Dr.  Norton's  long  arid  honourable 
connection  with  the  Society,  of  which  he  was  the  oldest  surviving 
original  member;  to  the  Society's  indebtedness  to  him  for  valuable 
services  rendered  in  various  official  capacities;  and  to  his 
unwavering  support  to  and  interest  in  the  Society  nnd  its  welfare. 
Dr.  Norton  was  an  observer  rather  than  a  writer;  but  the  needs 
of  a  Society  like  this  are  so  varied  that  the  co-operation  of 
members  with  similar  qualifications,  and  with  such  ripe  experience 
and  general  knowledge,  is  a  most  important  source  of  strength. 

The  three  extraordinary  vacancies  in  the  Council,  due  to  the 
removal  of  Mr.  Waite  and  Dr.  Hill  from  the  State,  and  the 
decease  of  Dr.  Norton,  were  filled  by  the  Council's  election  of 
Messrs.  A.  G.  Hamilton,  R.  H.  Cambage  and  Professor  J.  T. 
Wilson,  in  the  manner  prescribed  by  the  Act  of  Incorporation, 
as  announced  in  due  course  to  the  Members.  In  accordance  with 
the  provisions  of  Rule  xvi.,  these  gentlemen  are  included  among 
the  six  retiring  Members  of  Council  for  the  year.  More  recently 
the  retirement  of  Mr.  Pedley,  and  the  decease  of  Mr,  Grant  ha^  e 
caused  two  additional  vacancies  which  remain  to  be  filled  on  the 
present  occasion,  as  Members  have  already  been  notified  by 
circular. 

Six  (nominally  seven)  Ordinary  Members,  and  one  Associate 
Member  were  elected  during  the  year,  so  that  our  numbers 
remain  practically  stationary.  The  thirty-seven  papers  read 
before  the  Society  have  been  published,  Part  4  of  the  Proceedings 
for  1903,  containing  the  last  instalment  of  them,  being  now  ready 


PRESIDENTS  ADDRESS.  9 

for  distribution.  They  presented  a  wide  range  of  subjects  for 
consideration,  and  in  some  cases  called  for  ampler  opportunities 
for  discussion  than  the  time  available  at  the  Meetings  allowed, 
or  until  those  interested  had  had  the  opportunity  of  seeing  the 
papers  in  print.  As  soon  as  provision  can  be  made  for  it,  a 
special  opportunity  for  discussing  the  topics  treated  of  in  the 
papers  by  Messrs.  AnJrews,  Halligan,  Taylor,  and  Dr.  Woolnough 
will  be  afforded;  and  an  announcement  upon  the  subject  may  be 
looked  for  at  the  next  Meeting. 

The  additions  to  the  library  for  the  year  amounted  to  a  total 
of  1,471  (inclu'ling  127  Vols),  received  l)y  gift  or  exchange  from 
203  Societies,  &c.,  and  16  individuals. 

Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  time  for  repainting  and 
renovating  the  exterior  of  the  Society's  premises  arrived  during 
the  year  and  was  duly  provided  for,  I  am  glad  to  be  able  to  say 
that  the  Hon.  Tieasurer  will  be  able  to  announce  presently  that 
we  began  the  current  year  with  a  credit  balance  from  last  Session. 

During  the  year  that  has  passed,  the  Macleay  Bacteriologist 
has  been  engaged  upon  researches  connected  with  that  important 
bacterium,  the  nodule-former  of  the  Leynmhiosce.  Although  the 
presence  of  slime  in  the  cells  of  the  nodules  and  the  occurrence  of 
the  same  in  artificial  culture  under  certain  conditions,  have  been 
known  for  some  time,  the  real  significance  of  the  slime  has  not 
hitherto  been  demonstrated.  His  first  research  showed  that  the 
slime  formed  by  the  microbe  contained  as  its  essential  constituent, 
a  gum  which  appeared  to  approximate  in  some  respect  to  the 
carbohydrate  of  certain  nucleoproteids,  and  on  this  account  the 
slime  in  the  nodule  probably  serves  to  build  up  the  nucleoproteids 
of  the  leguminous  plant.  Using  the  formation  of  slime  as  an 
index  of  the  activit}--  of  the  bacterium,  it  was  shown  that  the 
bacteria  from  the  nodules  of  various  leguminous  plants  differed 
from  one  another  physiologically.  But  from  the  fact  that  three 
European  races  of  the  micro  organism,  which  had  been  induced 
to  reassurae  their  slime-forming  property  in  the  laboratory,  were 
physiologically  identical,  it  is  evident  that  the  physiological 
function  is  mutable,  and  that  the  bacterium  may  adapt  itself 
2 


10  president's  address. 

sooner  or  later  to  the  conditions  that  occur  within  the  root-hair 
and  the  nodule.  There  are  great  differences  in  the  facility 
with  which  various  races  can  produce  slime  under  laboratory 
conditions.  As  some  races  do  not  form  it  at  all,  there  is  reason 
to  believe  thut  the  failure  of  trade  cultures  of  "  Nitragin  "  has 
in  the  past  been  in  part  at  least  due  to  the  fact  that  the  import- 
ance of  the  slime-forming  function  has  not  been  recognised. 
As  they  come  from  the  nodules  of  various  plants  of  the  same 
species,  the  bacteria  may  be  similar,  just  as  they  may  be  similar 
when  taken  from  nodules  of  the  same  plant.  But  that  such  is 
not  always  the  case,  was  shown  by  three  distinct  races  having 
been  obtained  from  a  single  nodule.  The  hypothesis  has  been 
advanced  that  the  plant  utilises  the  intracellular  albuminoids  of 
the  bacterium  for  its  nutrition.  Dr.  Greig-Smith  has  shown  that 
this  is  not  probable,  for  although  the  great  majority  of  the 
bacteria  and  bacteroids  are  dead  during  the  active  growth  of  the 
plant,  they  still  stain  deeply,  and  therefore  cannot  be  in  process 
of  solution.  As  the  slime  is  nitrogenous,  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  the  hypothesis  advanced  by  Maze  is  correct,  and  that  the 
slime  is  the  means  by  which  the  nitrogen  is  conveyed  from  the 
bacterium  to  the  plant.  The  inner  structure  of  the  betcterium 
has  given  rise  to  much  speculation,  and  latterly  its  sporangium 
natuie  has  been  advanced.  Maze  was  the  first  to  illustrate  it  as 
consisting  of  coccobacteria  within  a  branching  capsule.  The 
Macleay  Bacteriologist  has  shown  that  it  consists  of  cocci  within 
a  branching  capsule,  and  is  therefore  allied  to  Leuconostoc  and 
Streptococcus.  It  has  been  shown  that  the  most  suitable 
medium  for  growing  the  slime  is  one  which  approximates  in  its 
nitrogen  and^salt  content  to  soil-water,  so  that,  while  the  bacterium 
is  vegetating  in  the  soil,  the  alkalinity  and  nutrients  will  sustain 
the  slime-forming  function.  The  carbohydrates  of  the  root-hair 
are  the  chemotactic  substances  which  induce  the  bacterium  to 
enter  the  plant.  A  second  research  showed  that  the  bacterium 
was  capable  of  fixing  atmospheric  nitrogen  upon  synthetic  media 
under  certain  conditions.  These  also  induced  the  formation  of 
slime.     Races  of   the  microbe   which,   while   multiplying  freely, 


PRESIDENTS  ADDRESS.  11 

<;ou\d  not  form  slime  from  particular  nutrients,  were  incapable  of 
fixing  nitrogen,  but  when  the}'  did  form  slime  from  other 
nutrients  a  fixation  also  occurred.  The  presence  of  another 
bacterium,  itself  incapable  of  forming  slime  or  of  fixing  nitrogen, 
increased  the  slime  formation  and  the  fixation  of  nitrogen. 
Finally,  the  fixation  of  nitrogen  was  proportional  to  the  forma- 
tion of  slime.  A  number  of  lower  forms  of  plant  life  are  known 
to  be  capable  of  enriching  the  soil  by  fixing  atmospheric  nitrogen, 
and  among  them,  AzofA)bacter  chroococcuni  is  possibly  the  most 
vigorous.  The  Macleay  Bacteriologist  has  confirmed  the  researches 
of  Beijeriiick  upon  this  microorganism,  and  has  also  drawn 
attention  to  the  fact  that  the  nodule-former  of  Leguminosfe  is 
quite  as  capable  as  Azotobactei-  of  tixing  nitrogen  while  it  is 
vegetating  in  the  soil. 

Three  pupils  availed  themselves  of  the  facilities  afforded  by  the 
Society's  laboratory,  and  received  instruction  in  certain  branches 
of  bacteriology.  Dr.  Greig-Smith  is  at  present  in  Europe,  on 
leave,  familiarising  himself  with  the  recent  advances  in  bacterio- 
logical science. 

During  the  past  twelve  months  Mr.  H.  I.  Jensen,  Macleay 
Fellow  in  Geology,  has  been  continuing  his  work  on  the  alkaline 
rocks  of  Eastern  Australia.  Early  last  year  he  completed  the 
petrological  investigation  of  the  specimens  collected  in  the  War- 
rumbungle  Mountains  during  the  preceding  year.  He  also  visited 
Queensland  to  make  some  final  observations  in  the  field  prior  to 
the  publication  of  his  paper  on  the  Geology  of  the  Volcanic  Area 
of  the  Eist  Moreton  and  Wide  Ba}'^  Districts,  Queensland.  On 
this  expedition  he  discovered  another  area  of  glaucophane  schists 
to  the  north  of  the  Conandale  Range  and  west  of  the  Blackall 
Range  in  the  Mary  River  valley.  In  May  last  year  he  was 
granted  leave  of  absence  to  visit  Samoa  to  study  the  geological 
featur-'S  of  the  eruption  in  progress  on  the  island  of  Savaii. 
After  writing  up  his  paper  on  Samoa  and  investigating  the  rocks 
collected  in  the  islands,  he  resumed  his  work  on  the  Australian 
alkaline  rocks.  Mr.  Jensen  commenced  field  woik  in  the  Nande- 
war  Mountains,  starting  out  from  Narrabri;  having  examined 
the  geology  of  this  district  and  made  a  large  collection  of  speci- 


12  president's  address. 

mens,  he  drove  across  to  Coonabarabran  and  finished  his  field 
work  and  collecting  in  the  Warrumbungles,  commenced  in  the 
previous  year.  From  the  Warrumbungle  Mountains  he  proceeded 
to  Dubbo  to  examine  the  alkaline  rocks  lately  discovered  there 
by  Mr.  Myrton,  Geological  Surveyor  of  New  South  Wales.  He 
returned  in  the  end  of  November  after  an  absence  of  nearly  three 
months.  Since  his  return  Mr.  Jensen  has  been  occupied  with 
the  petrological  examination  of  the  rocks  collected,  and  is  at 
present  making  chemical  analyses  of  some  of  the  most  interesting 
types.  Amongst  the  rocks  collected  were  alkaline  sj^enites,  alka- 
line (arfvedsonite)  trachytes,  tegirine-nepheline  phonolites  and 
other  alkaline  rocks  from  the  Nandewais;  and  nosean,  pseudo- 
leucite,  nepheline  phonolites,  alkaline  trachytes  and  pantellarites, 
socialite  and  melilite  basalts,  &c.,  from  the  Warrumbungles. 
There  is  also  a  remarkable  porphyritic  sill  rock  from  the  Nande- 
wars  which  may  perhaj^s  form  a  new  rock-iype.  Mr.  Jensen 
expects  to  have  a  paper  ready  by  June  or  July,  embracing  all 
his  work  in  the  field  and  laboratory  on  the  Geology  of  the  Nan- 
dew^ars  and  Warrumbungle  Mountains.  I  may  add  that  the 
Council  has  reappointed  Mr.  Jensen  to  a  Fellowship. 

In  response  to  the  Council's  offer  of  two  vacant  Linnean 
Macleaj'^  Fellowships  tw^o  applications  were  received,  one  of  which 
met  with  the  approval  of  the  Council.  I  have  now  much  pleasure 
in  availing  myself  of  the  first  opportunity  of  formally  announcing 
to  the  Society  the  name  of  the  second  Linnean  Maclea}^  Fellow, 
Mr.  James  M.  Petrie,  D.Sc.  The  particular  branch  of  work  which 
Dr.  Petrie  will  follow  is  Biochemistry.  Dr.  Petrie's  training 
has  been  such  as  to  especially  fit  him  for  this  line  of  research. 
Commencing  at  the  Heriot-Watt  Science  College,  Edinburgh,  Dr. 
Petrie  continued  his  studies  at  the  University  of  Sydney  where 
he  completed  a  distinguished  science  course  at  the  end  of  1905, 
Among  distinctions  gained  were  first  class  honours  and  medal 
in  chemistry  at  the  B.Sc.  examination  of  1904;  Caird  Research 
Scholar  in  Chemistry  (1904);  and  first  class  honours  and 
medal  in  Organic  Chemistry  at  the  D.Sc.  examination  of  1905. 
Dr.  Petrie  is  highly  recommended  by  his  instructors,  and  has  had 


PRESIDENTS  ADDRESS.  13 

valuable  experience  both  as  a  teacher  and  as  an  investigator. 
His  published  papers  comprise  a  thesis  for  the  D.8c.  degree, 
"The  Mineral  Oil  from  the  Torbanite  of  New  South  Wales," 
published  separately  (Sydney,  1906)  and  also  in  a  somewhat 
abridged  form  in  the  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry, 
(Vol.  xxiv.,  1905),  and  "The  Stinging  Property  of  the  Giant 
Nettle-Tree"  {Laportea  gigas  Wedd.)  in  the  Society's  Proceedings 
for  1906.  Dr.  Petrie  is  now  engaged  upon  important  investiga- 
tions upon  the  composition  of  Piturie,  and  upon  the  occurrence 
of  strychnine  in  the  native  Strychnos  tree  of  New  South  Wales; 
and  at  our  last  monthly  meeting  he  was  able  to  show  a  sample 
and  to  make  a  preliminar}'-  announcement  concerning  his  isolation 
of  a  new  midriatic  alkaloid  from  the  leaves  of  Solawlra  Icevis 
Hook.,  a  tropical  American  solanaceous  plant  cultivated  in 
gardens.  There  is  a  very  large  and  important  field  of  work  open 
for  investigation  in  Australia,  in  the  branch  chosen  by  Dr.  Petrie; 
and  we  look  forward  with  the  greatest  interest  to  the  results  of 
his  investigations.  It  is  not  expected  that  the  volume  of  work 
should  be  great,  for  if  it  is  to  be  useful  it  must  be  thorough, 
and  thorough  work  in  biochemistry  can  only  be  carried  on  at 
the  expenditure  of  much  time  and  labour. 

The  23rd  May  ensuing  will  be  the  two-hundredth  anniversary 
of  the  birth  of  Linnseus,  the  great  Swedish  naturalist.  The 
University  of  Upsala  has  taken  steps  to  commemorate  this 
interesting  event  in  a  manner  worthy  of  the  occasion;  and  has 
honoured  the  Society  by  inviting  it  to  send  an  official  representa- 
tive to  participate  in  the  rejoicings.  Our  geographical  remoteness 
and  the  shortness  of  the  interval  may  possibly  prevent  the 
acceptance  of  the  letter  of  the  invitation.  But  the  Council  has 
accepted  its  spirit  by  deciding  to  hold  a  Special  Meeting,  in 
honour  of  the  occasion,  on  2.3rd  May,  so  that,  as  Members  of  a 
Society  bearing  the  name  of  the  illustrious  Swede,  we  may  have 
an  opportunity  of  refreshing  our  memories  upon  such  points  as 
the  salient  features  of  his  life,  his  teaching,  and  his  influence;  as 
well  as  upon  the  significance  of  our  name,  and  the  nature  of  the 
bond  which  unites  us  in  a  Society  bearing  that  name.  Fuller 
particulars  will  be  announced  at  the  next  Meeting. 


14  president's  address. 

During  the  past  year  there  has  been  more  than  usual  literary 
activity  in  scientific  circles  in  Sydne}'.  ^ieveral  members  of  the 
Society,  as  is  well  known,  have  been  engaged  in  the  task  of 
bringing  out  books  on  special  scientific  subjects.  The  first  work 
to  make  its  appearance  is  that  of  Mr.  T>.  G.  Stead  on  "  The 
Fishes  of  Australia,"  and  after  a  careful  examination  of  the  book 
I  can  speak  in  the  highest  terms  of  its  usefulness  and  value,  and 
I  congratulate  him  on  the  success  which  has  attended  its  publi- 
cation. I  understand  that  Mr.  Stead  has  been  commis.sioned  to 
l)ring  our  a  report  on  the  edible  oysters  of  New  South  Wales, 
whicli  will  deal  witli  the  economic  as  well  as  the  scientific  aspect 
of  the  subject.  Other  members  who  have  works  in  the  press  ai-e 
Messrs.  Lucas,  Froggatt,  Rainbow  and  Waterhouse,  and  as  each 
is  dealing  with  a  subject  in  which  he  has  special  experience,  we 
may  look  forward  to  some  very  valuable  additions  to  Australian 
scientific  literature.  Among  oflicial  publications  issued  duiing 
the  year,  were  the  continuation  of  Mr.  Maiden's  "  Forest  Flora," 
and  Mr,  North's  "Catalogue  of  Eggs  and  Nests  of  Birds  breeding 
in  Australia  and  Tasmania." 

The  recognition  of  the  value  to  the  community  of  scientific 
guidance  has,  in  many  instances,  in  the  past  been  so  scanty  that 
it  is  a  pleasure  to  note  a  step  in  tlie  right  direction  lately  taken 
by  the  Government,  in  the  appointment  of  committees  of  advice 
to  assist  the  Public  Service  Board  in  res[)ect  to  scientific  and 
professional  appointments  in  the  Public  Service,  and  in  connection 
with  the  State  Museums  to  discuss  all  matters  affecting  the  scope 
and  control  of  these  institutions.  Considering  the  objects  in 
view,  a  wise  selection  has  been  made  of  the  members  constituting 
the  committees,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  their  influence 
will  be  most  beneficial. 

It  is  with  pleasure  and  satisfaction  that,  in  the  name  of  the 
Society,  I  take  the  first  opportunit}'  of  ofiicially  welcoming  back 
Professor  David  on  his  return  from  attending  the  great  Geological 
Congress  at  Mexico  and  the  meeting  of  the  British  Association 
in  England,  at  both  of  which  functions  he  very  worthily  upheld 
the  scientific  reputation  of  Australia. 


PRESIDENTS  ADDRESS.  15 

Last  year  I  alluded  to  the  biological  exploration  of  the  Blue 
Lake,  Mount  Koscuisko,  by  Professor  David  and  colleagues;  and 
as  it  has  since  happened  the  examination  then  made  was  most 
opportune.  A  few  months  after  Prof.  David's  visit,  the  Council 
of  this  Society  learned  that  the  Fisheries  Department  contem- 
plated taking  steps  to  stock  the  Blue  Lake,  amongst  other  inland 
waters,  with  introduced  trout.  The  importance  of  a  minute 
biological  survey  of  undisturbed  inland  lakes  is  now  thoroughly 
recognised,  as  witness  the  elaborate  work  being  carried  out  on  such 
in  Britain,  America  and  elsewhere,  and  the  Council  accordingly^ 
approached  the  Fisheries  Board  with  a  view  to  having  the  Blue 
Lake  left  undisturbed.  The  Board  courteously  replied  that  for 
the  present  the  proposed  introduction  of  trout  would  not  be 
carried  out.  The  Fisheries  Board  will,  I  am  sure,  support  the 
efforts  of  this  Society  to  retain  intact  some  at  least  of  the  smaller 
patches  of  undisturbed  watei-,  for  the  benefit  of  science. 

Jn  last  year's  Address  mention  was  made  of  a  grant  from  the 
Royal  Society  of  London  to  Professor  Haswell  for  deep-sea 
dredging.  The  first  expedition,  which  was  made  in  June  last, 
met  with  somewhat  disappointing  results  owing  to  stormy  weather. 
A  second  and  very  successful  excursion  was  carried  out  in  Octo- 
ber, the  spot  dredged  being  about  35  miles  east  of  Sydney,  on 
the  152nd  meridian,  in  800  fathoms  depth.  B}^  the  use  of  the 
bucket  dredge  and  a  small  trawl  modelled  on  that  recommended 
by  the  Prince  of  Monaco,  a  varied  assortment  of  most  interesting 
forms  was  obtained.  The  organisms  secured  by  tow-netting  at 
the  first  excursion  have  in  part  been  already  described  in  the 
Records  of  the  Australian  Museum.  Descriptions  of  the  animals 
procured  on  thespcond  trip,  by  various  authors,  are  well  advanced 
and  will  be  published  shortly.  1  am  pleased  to  say  that  the 
Royal  Society  of  London  and  the  Australian  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science  have  provided  funds  for  further  carrying- 
on  of  dredging  operations,  and  Admiral  Field  hns  placed  a  well- 
equipped  sounding  machine  at  the  disposal  of  Professor  Haswell. 


16  president's  address. 

Some  Questions  in  Tehrestrial  Physics. 

Ill  the  course  of  my  address  last  year  I  dealt  with  some  features 
of  oceanic  physics  and  incidentally  with  a  number  of  phenomena 
having  an  important  bearing  on  the  study  of  certain  great  geolo- 
gical problems.  The  facts  and  speculations  which  I  then  placed 
before  you  were  received  with  so  much  favour  by  members  and 
friends  that  I  have  decided  on  this  occasion  to  discuss  a  few 
interesting  questions  in  terrestrial  physics  which  have  lately  been 
occupying  a  prominent  position  in  scientific  thought. 

Radium  and  the  Earth's  Internal  Heat. — The  very  unex- 
pected properties  possessed  by  radium  have  elevated  it  to  a 
position  of  prominence  quite  out  of  proportion  to  the  relative 
extent  of  its  occurrence  in  the  earth's  crust.  Radium  is  probably 
the  rarest — as  regards  quantity  obtainable — of  any  substance  so 
far  isolated,  and  yet,  so  unique  are  its  characteristics  and  so  far- 
reaching  are  the  possibilities  attaching  to  its  presence,  that, 
though  its  very  existence  has  onl}^  been  known  for  a  few  years, 
it  is  now  the  subject  of  more  experimental  stud}'  than  any  other 
body.  Briefly,  the  reason  why  so  much  interest  centres  round 
this  substance  is  that  it  is  considered  to  be  in  a  state  of  disin- 
tegration, a  condition  accompanied  by  a  hitherto  quite  unsuspected 
display  of  energy,  manifesting  itself  in  most  i-emarkable  ways. 
The  study  of  the  properties  of  radium  has  disclosed  the  existence 
of  an  enormous  store  of  energy  locked  up  in  the  constitution  of 
matter,  and  it  is  the  phenomena  accompanying  the  liberation  of 
this  energy  during  the  breaking  up  or  disintegration  of  radium 
that  render  the  subject  one  of  such  great  interest  and  importance. 
The  conclusion  arrived  at  from  careful  observations  on  the  rate 
of  decay  of  radium  is  that  a  given  unit  of  this  substance  has  a 
life  which  may  be  stated  as  roughly  about  2000  years.  In  other 
words,  an  ounce  or  a  pound  or  a  ton  of  radium  Avould,  in  the 
course  of  some  such  period,  no  longer  possess  the  peculiar  properties 
of  the  original  substance,  and  would  have  lost  materially  in 
weight. 

Radium  is  generally  supposed  to  be  itself  a  product  of  the  slow 
breaking  up  of  uranium  and  certain  other  elements.      Uranium 


PRESIDENTS    ADDRESS.  17 

conipounds  spontaneously,  and  at  a  definite  rate,  yield  radium, 
which  in  turn  breaks  up,  giving  rise  ultimately  as  its  chief  pro- 
duct to  the  gas  helium.  'J  his  latter  substance  was  first  detected 
speotroscopically  in  the  sun,  but  is  now  known  to  exist  in  small 
amount  in  our  atmosphere,  in  the  water  and  gas  emitted  l)y 
springs,  and  in  a  number  of  minerals. 

Opinions  as  to  the  precise  nature  of  the  phenomenon  involved 
in  the  disintegration  of  radium  are  at  the  present  time  somewhat 
divided.  The  most  generally  held  view  is  that  we  have  here  to 
do  with  a  true  case  of  atomic  disintegration,  the  actual  breaking 
up  of  a  cliemical  element  through  the  disintegration  of  its  atoms, 
the  integrity  of  which  has  hitherto  been  an  axiom  of  chemistry. 
This  is  the  opinion  expressed  by  such  capable  observers  as  the 
Hon  K.J.  Strutt,  Mr.  Soddy  and  others,  and,  with  some  reserve, 
by  Prof.  Rutherford.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  considered  by  the 
veteran  Lord  Kelvin  and  by  Prof.  Armstrong  that  it  may  quite 
well  be  that  the  emanations  from  uranium,  and  in  turn  from 
radium,  pre-exist  as  such,  and  are  simpl}'^  continually  escaping 
from  combination,  that,  in  fact,  radium  ma}^  be  merely  a  com- 
pound body  liberated  from  uranium  and  in  turn  breaking  u\> 
explosively.  The  contention  of  the  latter  authorities  is  that  the 
atomic  disintegration  theory  is  not  proved  and  that  speculation 
has  gone  ahead  of  observation.  This  question,  however,  does  not 
particularly  concern  the  aspect  of  the  subject  with  which  I  desire 
to  deal  on  this  occasion,  so  that  its  further  discussion  will  not  be 
necessary  here. 

I  have  already  mentioned  that  the  phenomenon  wliich  we  have 
been  considering  is  accompanied  by  the  liberation  of  a  relatively 
enormous  amount  of  energy,  the  bulk  of  which  makes  itself 
manifest  as  heat.  Assuming  that  uranium  (or  other  radium- 
producing  substance)  is  distributed  in  sufficient  quantit3^through 
the  earth's  crust  and  that  the  disintegration  phenomena  with 
accompanying  liberation  of  heat  go  on  beneath,  as  thf'y  do  at  the 
surface,  the  production  of  this  heat  will  have  a  most  important 
bearing  on  internal  terrestrial  temperature,  on  \olcanic  activity, 
and,  incidentally^,  on  the  great  question  of  geological  time. 


18  president's  address. 

Without  going  much  into  detail,  it  will  suffice  to  state  that 
difterent  observers  have  determined  with  some  degree  of  accuracy 
the  proportion  of  ra(iium  contained  in  various  representative 
rocks  and  minerals.  The  Hon.  R.  J.  Strutt  in  particular  has 
devoted  much  attention  to  this  investigation  and  has  found  that 
the  proportion  varies  greatly  in  different  rocks.  Acidic  rocks 
such  as  granite  are  on  the  whole  richest  in  radium,  while  basic 
ones  such  as  basalt  contain  least.  Mineials  rich  in  uranium  and 
certain  other  rare  elements  contain  relatively  large  amounts  of 
radium,  the  latter  bearing  in  all  cases  a  definite  relationship  to 
the  uranium  present;  but  these  minerals  are  sparsely  distributed 
and  exist  in  insufficient  quantities  to  materiall}^  attect  the  average 
composition  of  the  earth's  crust  as  regards  radium  content.  Full 
details  of  Mr.  Strutt's  work  on  this  subject  were  brought  before 
the  Hoj^al  Societ}'  of  London  in  April,  190G.*  The  following 
figures  express  the  proportion  of  radium  existing  in  a  few  of  the 
representative  rucks  examined  by  Mr.  Strutt: — 


Rock. 

Density. 

Eadium  per  gram 

Radium  per  c 

in  grams. 

m  grams. 

Granite            

2-63 

9-56  X  10-^2 

25-2x10-'^' 

5  J                                   •  •  •                    •  •  • 

2-62 

9  35 

24-5 

2-65 

6-63 

17-6 

2-64 

2-45 

6-47      „ 

Dolerite           

2-95 

1-24 

3-65      „ 

Basalt 

2-75 

1-26 

3-46      „ 

.,       

2-80 

103 

2-89      ,, 

"       

3  01 

0-613      ,, 

1-84      „ 

It  is  not  easy  to  realise  from  figures  such  as  the  above  how 
minute  are  the  quantities  of  radium  involved;  perhaps  this  may 
be  better  done  if  we  consider  the  largest  of  these  amounts  in 
another  way.  9  56  x  10"^'  gram  radium  per  gram  rock  is  equi- 
valent to  9-56  parts  in  one  billion,  or  about  1  grain  in  6000  tons. 
It  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  features  of  modern  physical 
methods  that  it  should   be  possible  to  estimate  such  excessively 

*  See  Chemical  News  xciii.,  235  &  247,  25  May  and  1  June,  1906. 


president's  ADDRKSS.  19 

minute  amounts  with  precision  and  certaint}',  amounts  not  only 
infinitely  heyond  the  range  of  chemical  detection,  but  also  quite 
outside  the  powers  of  the  spectroscope  unless  the  material  is  first 
specially  concentrated.  In  a  paper  on  "  The  Evolution  of  the 
Elements,  '  read  before  the  British  Association  at  its  last  meeting, 
Mr.  F.  8oddy  remarked  :  — '''J'he  smallest  quantity  of  any  element 
that  can  be  detected  Ijy  the  spectroscope  contains  10'"  indi\idual 
atoms,  whereas  the  disintegi'ation  of  a  single  atom  accompanied 
with  the  expulsion  of  one  a  particle  is  not  greatly,  if  at  all,  below 
the  limit  of  detection  by  present  methods."* 

The  radio-activity  method  is  thus  in  this  case  something  of  the 
order  of  10,000,000,000  times  more  sensitive  than  the  spectro- 
scopic. The  former  method  depends  on  the  intense  ionising  power 
of  tlie  emanation,  whereby  air  submitted  to  its  action  is  brought 
into  a  state  of  partial  disintegration  known  as  ionisation,  in  which 
condition  it  becomes  an  active  conductor  cf  electricity.  The  em- 
anation from  a  known  quantit}^  of  radium  is  collected  in  air  during 
a  fixed  period,  and  the  conducting  power  of  the  air  is  then  deter- 
mined by  suitable  means.  The  same  method  applied  to  any 
specimen  under  examination  gives  the  relative  value  from  which 
its  radium  content  can  be  readil}'  calculated. 

Mr.  Strutt  considers  that  5  x  10"^-  gram  radium  per  c.c.  rock 
may  be  taken  as  a  reasonable  average  for  the  rocks  constituting 
the  earth's  crust.  Taking  the  mean  density  of  the  rock  at  2-7, 
this  would  be  equal  to  1*85  x  10'^-  gram  radium  per  gram  rock. 

Assuming  the  internal  heat  of  the  earth  to  be  entirely  derived 
from  the  disintegration  of  radium  uniformly  distributed  through- 
out its  mass,  and  taking  Lord  Kelvin's  data  for  the  thermal 
conductivity  of  the  rocks  in  sit  a,  Mr.  Strutt  calculates  that  the 
amount  of  radium  necessary  to  account  for  the  observed  lieat 
gradient  near  the  surface  is  about  0175  x  10"^^  gram  per  c.c,  an 
amount  greatly  less  than  the  smallest  proportion  found  in  any 
igneous  rock  examined.  From  this  and  other  data  he  concludes 
that  radium  does  not  exist  in  the  earth's  centre,  but  is  confined 


*  Chemical  News  xciv.,  86,  24  Aug.  1906. 


20 


PRESIDENT  S  ADDRESS. 


to  a  crust  not  exceeding  45  miles  in  thickness  and  that  the 
temperature  from  that  point  to  the  earth's  centre  is  not  greater 
than  about  1500°C.(273^:°F.). 

Mr.  0.  Fisher  has  examined  the  subject  more  in  detail.* 
Taking  the  two  most  commonly  accepted  values  for  the  temper- 
ature gradient  of  the  earth's  crust  at  the  surface,  that  of  Prestwich, 
which  is  1°F.  for  each  42-2  feet  of  descent,  and  the  more  modern 
one  of  60  feet  for  a  similar  rise  of  temperature,!  he  shows  that 
the  amount  of  radium  required  is  a  diminishing  quantity  down- 
wards, which  is  expressed  in  the  following  table : — 


Gradient  VF 

in  42-2  ft. 

Gradient  V  F.  in  60  ft. 

Thickness  of 

crust. 

Kadium  content 

Temp. 

do. 

Radium  content 

Temp. 

do. 

Miles. 

gram  per  c.c. 

°C. 

^F. 

gram  per  c.c. 

°C. 

op 

15 

15-39  X  10-^2 

519 

966 

10-27x10-^^ 

363 

685 

20 

11-55 

692 

1278 

8-08 

484 

903 

25 

913         ,, 

865 

15S9 

6-39 

606 

1123 

.30 

7-70 

1038 

1900 

5-09 

7-27 

1341 

35 

6-60 

1211 

2212 

4-62 

848 

1558 

40 

5-77 

13^^ 

2523 

3-84 

969 

1776 

45 

513 

1557 

2834 

3-59 

1090 

1994 

The  figures  for  °F.  given  by  Mr.  Fisher  are  in  some  cases  not 
in  agreement  with  the  °C.;  these  1  have  corrected  in  above  table. 

Mr.  Fisiier  points  out  that  Professor  Bartoli  ascertained  the 
temperature  of  lava  flowing  from  Mount  Etna  to  be  lOBCC. 
(1940°F.),  corresponding  to  a  depth  of  from  30  to  40  miles, 
according  to  which  of  the  above  temperature  gradients  is  adopted. 
The  45  miles  thickness  of  crust  adopted  by  Mr.  Strutt  agrees 
very  well  with  that  arrived  at  by  Professor  Milne  from  a  study 
of  the  propagation  of  earthquake  waves. 

The  values  for  radium  content  in  Mr.  Fisher's  table  come  well 
within  the  scope  of  the  actual  amounts  ascertained  by  Mr.  Strutt 
to  exist  in  accessible  rocks. 


*  Nature.  Ixxiv.,  11  Oct.  1906,  p. 585. 
t  In  my  address,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1905,  p.618,T  took  the 
mean  of  these,  viz.,  51  ft.     Prof.  Gregory,  Chem.  News  xciv.,  Sept.  21,  1906, 
p.  143,  adopts  55  feet. 


president's  address.  21 

Lord  Kelvin  does  not  acquiesce  in  the  above  theory  of  earth- 
heat;  he  considers  it  highly  probable  that  the  conditions  of 
pressure  and  environment  at  a  short  distance  from  the  earth's 
surface  are  sufficient  to  effectually  prevent  the  disintegration  of 
radium  and  hence  the  evolution  of  heat.^ 

The  heat  evolution  from  1  gram  of  radium  amounts  to  06785 
British  thermal  units  per  hour,  or  5944  in  a  year,  which  is 
equivalent  to  the  evaporation  of  175  lbs.  of  water  per  annum  by 
1  oz.  of  radium.  The  mechanical  equivalent  of  the  latter  maybe 
expressed  as  being  equal  to  the  raising  of  577  tons  100  feet  above 
the  earth's  surface.  It  is  startling  to  think  that  this  enormous 
thermal  energy  is  evolved  in  the  time  stated  with  the  loss  of  but 
a  minute  fraction  of  the  weight  of  the  radium  involved.  Pro- 
fessor Rutherford  estimates  the  energy  equivalent  of  radium  as 
at  least  a  million  times  that  of  any  other  known  molecular 
combination.! 

As  the  most  moderate  estimate  of  the  quantity  of  radium  in 
the  rocks  constituting  the  earth's  crust  is  amply  sufficient  to 
account  for  the  observed  heat  gradient  near  the  surface,  if  what 
I  might  call  the  extreme  radium  theor}?-  be  accepted  as  accounting 
for  the  present  thermal  condition  of  the  earth,  it  becomes  neces- 
sary to  abandon  the  idea  of  there  being  any  serious  quantity  of 
the  original  gravitational  heat  remaining.  It  is  the  essence  of  the 
extreme  radium  hypothesis  that  a  condition  of  thermal  equilibrium 
has  been  attained,  that  the  earth  is  neither  getting  hotter  nor 
cooler  and  will  remain  in  its  present  condition  so  long  as  the 
production  of  radium  continues  at  an  adequate  rate.  That  there 
must  be  a  time  limit  is  obvious,  for  the  supply  of  uranium  or 
other  radium-yielding  material  cannot  be  inexhaustible,  but  con- 
sidering the  enormous  energy  equivalent  of  radium,  we  see  that 
exceedingly  small  proportions  are  adequate  to  yield  the  required 
heat  for  a  very  long  period.  The  possible  extension  of  time  is 
enormously  increased  if  a  recent  suggestion  of  Prof.  J.  Joly  be 


*  Chem.  News,  xciv.,  21  Sept.  1906,  p.  145. 
t  Rutherford,  "Eadio-Activity,"  2nd  ed.,  p. 482. 


22  president's  address. 

accepted  that  the  eartli  may  be  continuously  deriving  its  supplies 
of  radium  from  solar  emanations.*  It  is  known  that  the 
tangential  speed  of  projection  of  the  matter  constituting  the  solar 
emanations  is  sufficiently  great  to  carry  it  out  of  control  of  the 
sun's  gravity  and  into  the  sphere  of  influence  of  the  earth.  Prof. 
Joly  thinks  that  this  might  account  for  tlie  apparent  limitation 
of  radium  to  the  crustal  skin  of  the  earth.  That  other  bodies 
yield  analogous  disintegration  products,  accompanied  by  the 
evohition  of  energy,  is  well  ascertained,  but  in  no  known  case  is 
this  activity  at  all  comparable  with  that  of  the  uranium-radium 
product.  Still,  however,  it  is  quite  in  keeping  with  modern  views 
that  all  matter  is  in  a  more  or  less  rapid  condition  of  disintegra- 
tion, and  we  cannot  say  how  much  of  the  heat  of  the  earth's 
interior  may  be  due  to  the  aggregate  effect  of  disintegration  and 
transformation  in  the  mass  of  matter  of  which  it  is  composed.  I 
mentioned  Sir  William  Crookes' views  on  this  phase  of  the  subject 
in  my  address  last  year.f  Possibly  the  earth's  supply  of  radium- 
producing  elements  ma}'  be  fairly  evenly  distributed  throughout 
its  mass,  and  disintegration,  while  not  altogether  prevented,  ma}' 
be  greatly  curtailed  by  environment  and  pressure.  Were  this  so 
we  might  expect  a  considerably  augmented  radium  production 
when  materials  from  beneath  reach  the  surface  through  the  agency 
of  volcanic  action.  This  would  account  for  the  surface  material 
displaying  so  much  greater  radium  activity  than  can  possibly  be 
the  case  throughout  the  interior  of  the  earth.  At  the  same  time 
such  a  conception  of  the  place  of  radium  in  the  scheme  of  world 
physics  permits  of  the  possible,  and,  for  my  part  I  think,  highly 
probable,  retention  by  the  earth  of  a  portion  of  its  original 
gravitational  heat.  We  should  then  have  a  cooling  globe  masked 
by  a  heat-generating  crust,  the  effect  of  which  would  be  to 
indefinitely  delay  the  secular  cooling  of  the  heated  centre. 

Assuming  the  heat  of  the  earth's  central  mass  to  be  due  to  the 
original  store  of  gravitational  heat.  Lord  Kelvin  has  shown  that 

*  Nature,  Ixxv.,  1907,  p.294. 
t  Pi-oc.  Linn.  Soc.  New  South  Wales,  1905,  p. 61 7. 


PRESIDENTS    ADDRESS.  23 

in  order  to  account  for  the  existing  heat  gradient  near  the  surface 
an  internal  temperature  of  about  7000°  F.  is  required.*  This  is 
much  higher  tlian  the  tetuperatures  calculated  by  Messrs.  Stiutt 
and  Fisher  as  being  adequate  if  the  central  heat  is  derived  from 
radium  contained  in  the  crust.  In  the  one  case  we  have  a  hot 
centre  cooling  outwards,  in  the  other  a  warm  crust  also  radiatin<y 
heat  outwards,  but  maintaining  its  thermal  equilibrium  by  the 
pi'oduction  of  heat  from  radium.  The  temperature  diiference 
between  the  two  conditions,  for  the  central  mass,  is  a  physical 
necessity,  and  the  estimation  of  its  approximate  amount  is  simply 
a  matter  of  calculation. 

For  our  present  purpose  it  does  not  matter  whether  we  adhere 
to  the  nebular  hypothesis,  which,  since  its  enunciation  by  Laplace 
and  subsequent  elucidation  by  later  mathematicians,  and  notably 
by  Lord  Kelvin,  has  been  practically  universall}^  accepted,  or 
adopt  the  accretion  theory  brought  forward  by  Professor  G.  H. 
Darwin  in  his  Presidential  Address  to  the  British  Association 
in  1905.  According  to  the  latter  theory,  the  earth  was  built  up 
by  the  gathe>  ing  of  pre-existing  planetoids  from  its  orbital  region 
in  space,  Either  theory  is  competent  to  provide  ample  heat, 
which  is  all  that  is  required  in  our  present  discussion.  In  the 
remainder  of  this  address  I  will  speak  of  the  original  heat  of  the 
€arth  merely  as  gravitational.  The  planetoids  are  commonly 
held  to  have  to  a  large  extent  originated  from  the  gravitational 
disruption  of  former  celestial  bodies  through  these  approaching 
within  critical  range  of  one  another.  This  supposition  has  the 
merit,  against  the  collision  theory,  of  better  explaining  the 
structure  of  stony  and  other  meteorites,  which  could  not  have 
resisted  the  inevitable  fusion,  or  even  vaporisation,  following 
actual  collision. 

Professor  T.  C.  Chamberlin,  of  Chicago,  has  worked  out  a  very 
ingenious  development  of  the  accretion  theory  which  is  full  of 
extremely  suggestive  ideas,  but  seems  to  me  to  be  less  convincing 

*  Kelvin,  Popular  Lectures  and  Addresses,  Vol.ii.  1894,  p. 318.     See  also 
these  Proceedings,  1905,  p.  6 19. 


24  president's  address. 

than  the  simpler  hypothesis  of  Professor  Darwin.*  According 
to  Professor  Chamberlin,  the  accretion  of  planetoids  was  in  all 
probability  a  slow  process,  so  much  so  that  the  heat  of  impact 
was  dissipated  about  as  rapidly  as  acquired.  Hence,  he  concludes, 
conditions  suitable  for  the  establishment  of  life  may  have  existed 
when  the  earth  was  but  a  fraction  of  its  present  size.  The 
existence  of  central  high  temperature  he  attributes  in  part  to  a 
remnant  of  gravitational  heat  acquired  through  the  primary 
nucleus  having  been  gathered  rapidly  when  planetoids  were 
relatively  abundant,  but  in  the  main  to  the  gradual  increase  in 
pressure  as  the  globe  increased  in  size.  Mere  pressure  does  not 
produce  heat  unless  it  causes  change  of  volume,  and  it  seems 
doubtful  to  me  that  the  denser  packing  and  molecular  rearrange- 
ment through  increase  in  pressure,  which  Professor  Chamberlin 
assumes,  could  be  sufficient  to  generate  the  heat  required.  He, 
however,  expressly  states  his  conviction  of  the  sufficiency  of  the 
cause  given,  and  conclvides  that  the  present  internal  temperature 
of  the  earth  increases  steadily  to  the  centre,  which  he  estimates 
to  be  about  20,000'C.(about  36,000°  F.).  It  will  be  seen  that 
this  tempeiature  is  greatly  in  excess  of  the  7,000°  F  w^iich  Lord 
Kelvin  considers  jiossible  for  the  present  surface  thermal  gradient 
if  due  to  a  cooling  hot  centre,  and  still  more  in  excess  of  the 
modest  2,700°  F.  required  by  Mr.  Strutt  for  a  radium-warmed 
globe. 

It  is  further  not  at  all  clear  to  me  how  under  the  conditions 
postulated  by  Professor  Chamberlin  the  lunar  satellite  could 
come  into  existence.  Professor  Darwin  concludes  that  the  heat 
of  impact  of  the  planetoids  was  great  enough  to  cause  incandes- 
cence of  the  entire  mass  of  the  growing  earth,  and,  as  the  result 
of  a  careful  mathematical  examination  of  the  problem  of  a 
revolving  molten  mass  such  as  is  assumed  for  the  early  condition 
of  the  earth,  finds  that  the  shape  acquired  will  vary  with  the  rate 
of  revolution.  At  one  particular  speed  it  will  be  of  the  earth's 
present  shape;  at  a  higher  speed  the  equatorial  outline  will  be  an 

Chamberlin  &  Salisbury,  Geology,  Vol.ii.  91,  1906. 


president's  address.  25 

oval  like  an  egg  spinning  on  its  side;  at  a  still  higher  speed  one 
end  will  form  a  projection  which  will  take  the  form  of  a  neck 
with  a  drop  at  its  outer  extremity,  and,  ultimately,  this  will  be 
thrown  off  to  form  a  satellite  revolving  around  the  parent  body. 
The  beauty  and  suggestiveness  of  this  scheme  become  all  the 
greater  when  we  reflect  that  under  such  circumstances  the 
original  mass  must,  through  the  tidal  action  induced  by  its  own 
offspring,  continually  decline  in  its  rate  of  revolution,  and  assume 
a  shape  corresponding  to  its  changed  speed,  while  the  satellite 
will,  through  reflex  action,  steadily  increase  its  distance  from  the 
parent  body. 

Although  we  are  accustomed  to  speak  of  the  earth  as  being 
practically  a  rigid  body,  we  must  not  lose  sight  of  the  fact  that 
it  is  so  merely  in  a  comparative  sense,  and  that  the  hardest  rocks 
of  its  crust  are  sufiiciently  plastic  to  permit  of  the  shape  of  the 
whole  accommodating  itself  to  any  change  in  speed  of  rotation  or 
indeed  to  any  adequate  force  continuously  applied.  The  existing 
equatorial  bulge  is  the  result  of  a  definite  force  due  to  the  period 
of  revolution,  and  will  certainly  alter  in  unison  with  the  gradual 
decline  in  the  rate  of  that  motion.  Gould  the  revolution  of  the 
earth  be  stopped  without  disruption  through  inertia,  the  equa- 
torial bulge  would  disappear  in  obedience  to  gravity,  and.  the 
earth  would  become  practically  globular  in  shape. 

As  will  be  obvious  to  all,  the  extreme  interest  and  importance 
of  the  development  of  the  radium  hypothesis  lies  in  the  great 
extension  of  time  which  it  permits  for  biological  evolution  and 
geological  development.  When  we  limit  the  habitable  age  of  the 
earth  by  the  possible  time  allowable  for  cooling  from  its  original 
heated  state,  very  grave  ditficulties  arise  as  to  the  possibility  of 
fitting  in  the  requirements  of  geological  time;  but  in  the  light  of 
the  possibilities  of  radium  it  is  easy  to  push  back  the  period  of 
gravitational  incandescence  until  the  time  occupied  in  cooling 
from  that  condition  to  one  in  which  the  existence  of  life  is 
possible,  becomes  but  a  small  fraction  of  the  eartli's  history. 
There  are,  of  course,  astronomical  reasons  for  placing  a  limit  on 
the  earth's  age,  but  the  requirements  of  astronomy  permit  of  a 


26  president's  address. 

liberal  allotment  of  time,  and  there  is  no  reason  for  limiting  the 
original  supply  of  radium-producing  material,  and,  hence,  of  the 
time  during  which  its  heat  has  been  available. 

It  is  quite  obvious  that  in  the  earlier  stages  of  the  earth's 
history,  when  rapid  cooling  was  taking  place,  crust  movements 
on  a  colossal  scale  must  have  occurred,  and  that  as  cooling  pro- 
ceeded, these  would  gradually  moderate.  If  we  imagine  a  time 
when  all  this  heat  had  disappeared  and  the  earth  had  arrived  at 
a  stage  of  thermal  equilibrium  such  as  is  assumed  under  the 
extreme  radium  theory  to  be  its  existing  condition,  it  is  evident 
that  no  more  shrinkage  could  take  place  and  that  any  display  of 
crust  movement  or  volcanic  energy  must  be  due  to  some  other 
cause.  The  material  of  the  earth's  interior  up  to  a  point  com- 
paratively near  the  surface,  is,  as  we  know,  at  a  temperature  con- 
siderably above  its  surface  melting  point,  but  there  is  evidence 
that  it  is  retained  in  a  solid  state  by  the  pressure  of  the  super- 
natant strata.  Whenever  this  pressure  is  relieved  liquefaction 
occurs,  and  we  then  have  the  fused  matter  squeezed  out  in  the 
form  of  lava,  through  any  available  opening;  or,  it  may  be,  form- 
ing sheets  or  dykes  at  or  beneath  the  surface.  We  may  consider 
any  given  land  area  as  floating  on  a  substratum  of  lava,  which, 
though  solid,  or  perhaps  more  or  less  plastic,  is  ready  to  respond 
to  relaxation  of  pressure.  It  is  thoroughly  well  understood  that 
the  surface  of  the  land,  and,  in  particular,  the  great  mountain 
masses,  lose  in  the  aggregate  very  large  quantities  of  material 
every  year  through  denudation.  The  removal  of  such  quantities 
of  matter  from  one  place  to  another  on  the  earth's  surface  must 
have  a  very  considerable  effect  on  regional  stability,  and  w411  be 
quite  competent  to  account  for  extensive  earthquake  and  other 
movements.  When  a  land  surface  is  stripped  by  denudation  and 
the  material  so  removed  deposited  around  it,  w4iile  the  pressure 
of  the  surface  in  question  is  lessened,  that  of  the  area  receiving 
the  spoil  is  increased,  and  the  effective  force  operating  in  the 
direction  of  raising  the  one  area  and  depressing  the  other  will, 
in  an  ideal  case,  be  double  the  weight  of  the  transferred  material. 


PRESIDENT  S  ADDRESS.  27 

There  appears  to  me  to  be  much  difficulty  in  accounting  for  the 
various  observed  land  movements  if  these  are  to  be  attributed  to 
denudation  alone,  but  if  to  this  source  of  disturbance  be  added  a 
moderate  amount  of  shrinkage  through  secular  cooling,  all  classes 
of  earth  movement,  folding,  cfec,  can  be  much  better  explained. 
From  shrink  ge  alone,  one  would  expect  erratic  tilting  nnd  sink- 
ing, but  not  orderly  regional  uplifting  or  subsidence,  and  it  seems 
probable  that  such  movements  are  in  the  main  due  to  denudation. 
Land  may  readily  enough  sink  through  denudation  in  spite  of  the 
attend  -nt  removal  of  pressure,  because  that  very  relief  may  bring 
about  the  liquefaction  of  lava  previously  held  solid  by  pressure, 
while  the  accompanying  disturbance  opens  up  channels  for  its 
escape. 

It  has  during  recent  years  be^^n  increasingly  manifest  that  much 
volcanic  activity  is  caused  by  the  penetration  of  ocean  water 
through  earthquake  fissures  to  the  interior  hot  part  of  the  earth, 
with  the  consequent  production  of  steam  at  very  high  tension. 
Large  quantities  of  h^'^drogen  chloride  are  at  times  emitted  by 
volcanoes,  nnd,  it  bein^  now  pretty  well  known  that  existing 
plutonic  waters  are  practically  free  from  chlorine,  the  obvious 
source  of  supply  of  this  substance  is  the  salt  of  the  ocean  water.* 
It  has  been  suggested  that  if  the  crust  of  the  earth  contains 
sufficient  radium  to  provide  the  heat  known  to  exist  in  the 
interior,  the  moon,  from  its  supposed  mode  of  origin,  must  also 
be  equally  rich  in  radium,  and  should  indeed  have  an  even  greater 
internal  heat  than  the  earth.  This  question  has  been  very  satis- 
factorily dealt  with  from  the  extreme  radium  standpoint  by  the 
Hon.  Mr.  Strutt.t  who  points  out  that  though  the  period  of  lunar 
volcanic  activity  has  been  generally  believed  to  be  past,  much 
doubt  has  been  thrown  on  this  assumption  by  the  observat  ons  of 
modern  astronomers,  and  notabl}^  by  Prof-r^ssor  W.  H.  Pickering, 
who  is  decidedly  of  the  opinion  tliat  changes  sufficiently  great  to 
be  noted  occur  from  time  to  time  on  the  moon's  surface.     That 


See  references,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  8.  Wales,  1905,  p. 621, 
t  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  London,  A  Ixxvii.  472. 


28  president's  address. 

these  changes  are  not  more  commensurate  with  the  probable 
internal  heat,  may  well  be  because  of  the  absence  of  water.  Jf 
it.be  the  case  that  terrestrial  volcanic  action  is  largely  induced 
through  atmospheric  d  nudation  and  oceanic  penetration,  then 
the  absence  of  water  and  of  atmosphere  from  the  moon  would 
sufficiently  account  for  her  comparative  surface  stability,  and  if 
to  the  original  gravitational  heat  be  added  radium  blanketing, 
then,  as  in  the  case  of  the  earth,  we  can  readily  admit  a  prolonged 
condition  of  internal  high  temperature,  and  the  absence  of  any 
serious  amount  of  disturbance  from  shrinkage  due  to  secular 
cooling. 

If  the  presence  of  radium  is  admitted  as  a  factor  in  the  thermal 
evolution  of  earth  and  moon,  it  is  but  a  natural  step  to  apply  the 
same  reasoning  to  the  sun  and  thereby  to  open  up  a  vista  of  time 
for  the  entire  solar  system  greatly  in  excess  of  anything  hitherto 
considered  by  physicists  to  be  admissible. 

Cakbon  Dioxide  and  Geological  Climate.  —  For  some  years 
past  a  good  deal  of  attention  has  been  devoted  to  the  question 
of  the  influence  on  climate  of  possible  variations  in  the  com- 
position of  the  atmosphere  as  regards  its  carbon  dioxide  and 
moisture  contents,  and  more  especially  on  tlie  competency  of 
such  variations  to  induce  the  great  climatic  changes  which  are 
involved  in  the  transition  from  conditions  even  warmer  than 
those  which  are  now  experienced  in  temperate  regions,  to  a 
state  of  glaciation  sufficiently  severe  to  partially  invade  the 
tropics.  ■  I  propose  to  outline  the  principles  underlying  this 
problem  and  to  show  in  what  manner  the  effect  described  might 
be  brought  about  by  the  specified  changes  in  atmospheric  consti- 
tution. In  all  that  follows  regarding  the  carbon  dioxide  theory 
of  glaciation,  I  do  not  wish  to  be  understood  as  entirely  indorsing 
all  tf>e  details  given.  The  hypothesis  seems  to  me  a  very 
beautiful  and  suggestive  one,  and  my  desire  is  to  give,  as  far  as  I 
am  able,  a  concise  account  of  its  salient  features,  leaving  my 
hearers  to  form  their  own  opinions  as  to  its  adequacy  as  a  cause 
of  the  observed  phenomena.  Professor  Chamberlin  has  elaborated 
this  hypothesis  in  a  series  of  extremely  valuable  papers  full  of 


president's  address.  29 

luminous  suggestion,  wliich  should  receive  the  most  careful  study 
from  all  interested  in  the  great  questions  of  earth  history,  and  to 
which  I  am  much  indebted.* 

The  idea  that  glaciation  over  a  wide  range  of  the  earth's 
surface  could  be  caused  by  removal  of  carbon  dioxide  and  con- 
currently of  water  vapour  fnm  the  atmosphere,  is  by  no  means 
novel.  It  appears  to  have  been  first  suggested  by  Professor 
Tyndall,  who  was  led  thereto  by  the  result  of  his  observations  on 
the  thermal  properties  of  gases  and  vapours.  Tyndall  found  that 
while  simple  gases  such  as  nitrogen  and  oxygen,  which  constitute 
the  bulk  of  the  existing  atmosphere,  are  extremely  transparent 
to  the  entire  solar  emanation  of  light  and  heat,  compound  gases 
like  carbon  dioxide,  marsh  gas,  ammonia,  &c.,  and  the  vapours  of 
water,  alcohol,  essential  oils,  &c.,  differentiate  between  the 
various  wave  lengths,  and,  while  allowing  some  to  pass  as  freely 
as  do  the  simple  gases,  offer  greater  resistance  to  the  passage  of 
others.  The  waves  which  are  unable  to  pass  through  the  com- 
pound gases  and  vapours  are  the  long  obscure  ones  in  the  ultra- 
led,  while  the  shorter  waves  above  this  pass  freely.  Even  in 
very  moderate  thickness  such  gases  are  able  to  effectually  bar 
the  progress  of  considerable  quantities  of  obscure  heat. 

As  a  matter  of  fact  no  sharp  distinction  can  be  drawn  between 
heat  and  light,  the  waves  of  the  former  passing  insensibly  into  the 
latter  as  we  progress  along  the  spectrum.  Light  waves  differ 
from  one  another  and  from  those  of  heat  merely  in  their  length, 
and,  as  all  progress  through  space  at  equal  rates,  it  follows  that 
the  shorter  waves  give  a  greater  number  of  impacts  to  a  receiving- 
surface  in  unit  time,  than  do  the  longer.  The  longest  waves, 
giving  the  fewest  impacts  in  unit  time,  are  the  obscure  heat  rays 
of  the  ultra-red,  and  as  we  pass  on  towards  the  visible  spectrum 
the  waves  become  shorter  and  shorter,  and  constitute  what  is 
commonly  called  radiant  heat. 

Professor  Tyndall  was  the  first  to  put  the  matter  of  the  selective 
action  of  gases  upon  radiant  energy  on  a  proper  foundation,  and 

*  Jour.  Geol.  Vols. v.  and  vii.,  1897  and  1899. 


30  president's  address. 

the  results  of  his  classic  researches,  as  detailed  in  his  published 
lectures,  may  still  be  considered  as  the  clearest  and  most  illumi- 
nating account  of  the  phenomenon  in  question."^  The  cause  of 
this  difference  in  behaviour  of  the  two  kinds  of  gases  lies  in  the 
fact  that  the  simple  gases  do  not  respond  to  the  vibrations  of  the 
portion  of  the  spectrum  carrying  the  heat  waves;  they  behave  to 
these  much  as  they  do  to  the  still  shorter  waves  of  visible  light: 
while  on  the  other  hand,  the  larger  molecules  constituting  the 
compound  gases,  while  quite  as  transparent  to  the  light  waves  as 
those  of  the  simple  gases,  are  capable  of  vibrating  in  unison  with 
the  obscure  heat  waves,  and  so,  by  transferring  the  energy  of 
these  to  themselves,  offer  an  efiectual  barrier  to  their  progress. 
The  action  of  the  compound  gases  towards  obscure  heat  rays  is 
much  the  same  in  character  as  that  of  a  sheet  of  metal  w  hen 
placed  so  as  to  intercept  the  heat  from  a  fire;  the  metal  is 
capable  of  responding  to  the  vibrations  of  the  heat  waves,  and  so 
absorbs  their  energy  to  produce  heat  vibration  in  its  own 
substance. 

We  may  now  very  briefly  consider  a  very  interesting 
phenomenon,  the  acceleration  or  retardation  of  the  waves  of 
radiant  energy  when  the  body  emitting  them  is  moving  in  a 
direction  to  or  from  the  observer.  A  very  commonly  noticed 
analogous  case  is  the  sharpening  or  flattening  of  the  pitch  of  a 
railway  whistle  when  approaching  or  receding.  If  the  source 
from  which  the  radiant  energy  is  being  emitted  be  approaching 
the  observer,  the  waves  right  along  the  sptctrum  are  accelerated 
by  the  precise  amount  of  the  forward  motion,  while  the  radiation 
from  a  receding  body  will  be  drawn  out  or  retarded.  A  ray 
from  a  stationary  body,  which  reaches  the  eye  as  yellow,  will, 
from  a  body  approaching  at  a  sufficiently  rapid  rate,  be  accelerated, 
and  appear  as  some  colour  nearer  the  blue,  while  from  a  receding 
source  it  will  be  retarded  in  the  direction  of  the  red.  Obviously, 
any  absorption  lines  in  the  light  from  a  body  moving  in  the  line 
of  sight,  will  be  displaced  in  one  direction  or  another,  according 

*  Tyndall,  "  Heat  a  Mode  of  Motion,"  6th  ed.,  1880,  p.B21  et  seq. 


PRP:SIDENTS  ADDRESS.  31 

to  the  rate  of  travel  of  the  body,  and  thus  furnish  a  means  of 
telling  the  direction  and  speed  of  motion.  It  is  further  evident 
that  waves  beyond  the  visible  spectrum  at  one  end  or  the  other 
may  be  brought  into  the  visible  range  by  acceleration  or  retarda- 
tion. So  also,  rays  belonging  to  the  visible  red  end  may  V)e 
changed  into  invisible  heat,  or  others  at  the  blue  end  may  be 
pushed  forward  and  accelerated  into  invisible  chemical  rays. 

The  temperature  of  a  heat-emitting  body  has  a  direct  influence 
on  the  nature  of  the  heat  evolved.  The  hotter  the  body  the  more 
nearly  the  heat  waves  approach  the  properties  of  red  light, 
while  the  cooler  the  body  the  more  they  tend  to  become 
obscure.  All  heat  given  off  from  a  body  of  the  nature  of  the 
earth  is  of  the  obscure  type.  Radiant  heat  is  not  reflected  as 
.such  but  is  degraded  and  sent  away  in  the  lower  form. 

We  may  now  picture  the  earth's  atmosphere,  containing  carbon 
dioxide  and  water  vapour,  with  the  sun's  radiant  energy  pouring 
into  it.  The  long  waves  of  obscure  heat  will  be  absorbed  in  the 
upper  layers  of  the  atmosphere,  leaving  the  shorter  waves  of 
radiant  heat  to  pass  on  and  reach  the  surface  of  the  earth,  where 
they  are  at  once  absorbed,  partly  by  the  solid  and  partly  by  the 
aqueous  surface.  The  warmed  solid  surface  proceeds  to  part  with 
its  heat  by  radiation  and  contact  with  the  air,  the  heat  emitted 
being  now  of  the  obscure  type,  and  so  unable  to  pass  the  carbon 
dioxide  and  water  barrier.  The  result  is  that  the  lower  layers 
of  the  atmosphere  become  warmed  by  the  transformed  heat 
which  before  passed  freely  through.  The  fate  of  the  heat  taken 
up  by  water  is  mainly  to  cause  evaporation,  whereby  it  is 
carried  in  the  latent  state  in  the  water  vapour  and  liberated  where 
the  vapour  condenses  to  form  clouds,  the  ultimate  result  being, 
that  like  that  absorbed  by  the  land,  it  goes  to  warm  the 
atmosphere.  Finally  the  heat  acquired  by  the  atmosphere  is  scat- 
tered in  all  directions,  some  back  to  the  earth,  some  laterally  to  the 
surrounding  portions  of  the  atmosphere,  and  some  into  space. 
A  condition  of  equilibrium  is  then  established,  the  earth  losing 
heat  at  the  same  rate  as  it  is  receiv^ed,  but  with  the  vastly 
important  provision  that  its  own  surface  remains  at  a  tempera- 
ture high  enough  to  give  what  I  might  term   heat  pressure  sufii- 


32  president's  address. 

cient  to  penetrate  the  obstructing  atmospheric  blanket.  The  less 
of  the  efficient  heat-trapping  carbon  dioxide  and  water  vapour 
are  contained  in  the  atmosphere,  the  lower  will  be  the  surface 
temperature  necessary  to  produce  a  state  of  equilibrium,  and 
hence,  the  colder  will  be  the  climate  at  the  earth's  surface,  and, 
conversely,  the  more  carbon  dioxide  and  water  present  in  the  air, 
the  higher  will  be  the  temperature.  The  carbon  dioxide  may  be 
considered  as  the  controlling  factor  in  determining  the  absorp- 
tive power  of  the  atmosphere  for  heat,  for,  although  water 
vapour  has  probably  a  greater  actual  effect,  it  depends  entirely 
on  temperature  for  its  presence,  while  carbon  dioxide  is  not 
directly  affected  by  the  temperature  changes  which  it  itself 
induces.  When  carbon  dioxide  is  removed  the  temperature  falls, 
and  with  fall  in  temperature  the  proportion  of  water  vapour 
decreases;  such  decrease  is  followed  by  a  further  fail  in  tempera- 
ture which  again  robs  the  atmosphere  of  more  water  vapour,  and 
this  process  goes  on  until  the  lowest  temperature  which  the  carbon 
dioxide  will  permit  is  reached,  and  a  condition  of  thermal  equili- 
brium is  set  up.  When  carbon  dioxide  is  increased  the  tempera- 
ture rises,  and  with  rise  of  temperature  the  capacity  of  the 
atmosphere  for  holding  water  is  augmented,  and  thereby  a  further 
rise  in  temperacure  is  brought  about  until  by  alternate  action 
and  reaction  thermal  equilibrium  is  again  established.  We  thus 
see  that  the  carbon  dioxide  is  the  dominant  element,  and  in  what 
follows  I  will  for  the  sake  of  simplicity  speak  of  the  temperature 
changes  as  if  entirely  due  to  carbon  dioxide  variation. 

The  greatest  step  in  advance  within  recent  years,  in  the 
development  of  the  carbon  dioxide  hypothesis,  is  due  to  Professor 
Arrhenius,  who,  as  the  result  of  an  extremely  able  and  laborious 
mathematical  examination  of  the  problem,  has  shown  that  a 
certain  reduction  in  the  proportion  of  carbon  dioxide  now  present 
in  the  atmosphere  would,  in  so  far  as  can  be  seen,  be  competent 
to  bring  about  a  sufficient  fall  in  the  average  temperature  at  the 
earth's  surface  to  produce  glaciation  to  latitudes  as  low  as  to  be 
well  within  the  tropics.*     Arrhenius  bases  his   calculations   on 

*  Arrhenius,  Phil.  Mag.  (Ser.  5),  Vol.xli.  1896,  •p.2;37. 


president's  address.  33 

the  work  of  Professor  Langley  on  the  determination  of  tlie 
variations  in  the  amount  of  heat  received  from  the  full  moon 
when  at  different  altitudes  above  the  horizon  and  thus  shining 
through  varying  thicknesses  of  atmosphere. 

Professor  Chamberlin  assumes  that  even  in  earl}'  Palaeozoic 
times  the  atmosphere  did  not  materially  differ  from  its  present 
composition,  there  having  always  been  a  conflict  between  sources 
of  supply  and  causes  of  depletion  of  carbon  dioxide.  The  amount 
of  this  constituent  in  the  existing  atmosphere  varies  somewhat  in 
different  regions,  but  may  be  stated  as  averaging  about  0*03  per 
cent,  by  volume.  Arrlienius  has  calculated  that  a  reduction 
sufficient  to  bring  this  down  to  0*016  to  0*018  per  cent.,  or  the 
removal  of  rather  more  than  one  half,  would  suffice  to  reduce  the 
mean  tempeiature  by  an  amount  equivalent  to  7  to  9°  F.,  which 
would  mean  the  extension  of  glacial  conditions  to  within  about 
20°  on  either  side  of  the  equator;  while  an  increase  of  from  2J 
to  3  times  the  present  proportion,  bringing  the  carbon  dioxide 
content  to  0*075  to  0*090  per  cent.,  would  result  in  an  increase 
of  the  mean  temperature  by  14  to  16°  F.,  and  give  semitropical 
conditions  well  within  the  arctic  and  antarctic  zones.  In  support 
of  the  possibility  of  such  variation  in  atmospheric  carbon  dioxide, 
Arrhenius  quotes  the  opinions  of  Professor  Hogben  who  has 
published  in  a  Swedish  journal*  the  result  of  his  studies  on  the 
probable  sources  of  supply  and  causes  of  depletion  of  this  gas  to 
and  from  the  atmosphere.  Hogben  considers  that  the  atmosphere 
is  and  has  always  been  continuously  supplied  with  carbon  dioxide, 
amongst  other  gases,  from  the  earth's  interior.  Such  supplies 
would  be  quite  independent  of  surface  conditions,  and  would 
continue  even  during  periods  of  extreme  glaciation.  This  is  the 
important  point  on  which  the  whole  theory  depends. 

That  there  are  large  supplies  of  carbon  dioxide  available  is 
well  known.  Examination  of  numerous  volcanic  and  meta- 
morphic  rocks  has  shown  that  they  contain,  on  an  average, 
several  times  their   own    volume — at   atmospheric    pressure — of 

*  Svensk  Kemisk  Tedskrift,  1894,  p.  169. 


34  president's  address. 

permanent  gas.  There  is  no  difficulty  at  all  about  proving  the 
presence  of  this  gas  in  ordinary  rock.  All  that  is  required  is  to 
heat  the  rock  in  small  fragments  in  an  exhausted  flask,  when 
the  gas  is  given  off  and  can  be  measured  and  its  composition 
ascertained.  The  gas  is  usually  contained  in  minute  cavities 
throughout  the  body  of  the  rock,  and  but  little  of  it  escapes  even 
on  grinding.  That  it  must  be  under  very  great  pressure  is 
evident  from  the  volume  to  which  it  expands  when  liberated. 
Sir  William  Crookes,  in  his  lecture  on  Diamonds,  delivered  before 
the  British  Association  meeting  at  Kimberley,  mentioned  that 
diamonds  frequently  explode  soon  after  reaching  the  surface,  or 
on  being  gently  warmed,  owing  to  the  pressure  exerted  by 
globules  of  inclosed  gas.*  Professor  Tilden  has  thrown  much 
light  on  the  quantity  and  composition  of  the  gases  occluded  in 
rocks,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  Royal  Society  some  years  ago.f 
His  examination  covered  a  large  number  of  examples  of  granite, 
schist,  gneiss,  basalt,  &c.,  in  which  he  found  gas  varying  from 
13  to  17*8,  and  averaging  about  5  times,  the  volume  of  the  con- 
taining rock.  In  a  general  way  hydrogen  was  found  to  be  the 
most  abundant  constituent,  but  carbon  dioxide  was  also  invariably 
present  in  large  proportion.  One  series  of  rocks  gave  the  follow- 
ing average  figures  for  the  composition  of  the  contained  gas  : — 

Hydrogen               ...  52*2  In  another  and  larger  series  the 

Carbon  dioxide      ...  34*1  mean  composition  was  : — 

,,      monoxide  ...  8-4 

Marsh  Gas             ...  3-2  Hydrogen,  &c.        ...     73-8 

Nitrogen                ...  2-1  Carbon  dioxide       ...     26*2 


100  0  100-0 


At  this  rate  it  is  a  simple  matter  to  show  by  calculation  that 
the  rocks  within  a  very  moderate  distance  of  the  earth's  surface 
contain  more  gas  than  would  supply  several  times  the  volume  of 
the  existing  atmosphere,  and  if  the  entire  mass  of  the  earth  be 

*  Chem.  News,  xcii.  1905,  p.  159. 
tChem.  News,  Ixxv.  1897,  p.  169. 


president's  address.  35 

assumed  to  contain  gaseous  matter  in  the  same  ratio,  sufficient 
is  in  existence  to  form  man}'-  hundred  atmospheres.  Carbon 
dioxide  is  known  to  be  evolved  in  immense  quantities  from 
volcanoes  and  to  be  also  extruded  from  the  rock  walls  in  mines, 
from  springs,  from  the  surface  soil  and  from  innumerable  caves, 
one  of  the  best  known  of  which,  perhaps,  is  the  Grotta  del  Cane, 
near  Naples,  where  dogs  are  rendered  insensible  and  lights 
extinguished  by  the  layer  of  gas  on  the  floor  of  the  cave.  It 
seems  reasonable  to  admit  that  in  these  we  have  a  sufficient 
source  of  supply  for  what,  though  aggregating  many  millions  of 
tons  of  carbon  dioxide  annually,  is  relatively  but  a  small  quantity 
in  comparison  with  the  amount  existing  in  the  atmosphere  at 
any  one  time. 

The  causes  of  loss  of  carbon  dioxide  may  be  divided  into 
temporary  and  permanent.  Of  the  former,  absorption  by  the 
waters  of  the  ocean  and  fixation  by  living  organisms  may  be 
considered  the  most  important.  The  great  cause  of  permanent 
loss  will  be  the  withdrawal  of  carbon  dioxide  through  its  action 
in  weathering  the  surface  of  the  land,  which  is  acting  continuously 
wherever  moisture  and  air  have  access  to  rocks  and  soil.  In  the 
case  of  the  carbon  dioxide  taken  up  by  the  ocean,  we  have  seen 
that  this  source  of  loss  varies  in  activity  with  the  temperature 
of  the  water,  and  that  with  rise  in  temperature  the  borrowed  gas 
is  returned  to  the  atmosphere  By  far  the  greater  proportion  of 
the  carbon  taken  up  and  tixed  in  the  tissues  of  living  organisms 
is  returned  to  the  air  again,  for  the  balance  of  life  and  death 
remains  unchanged.  It  is  true  that  in  coal  deposits  great  quan- 
tities of  carbon  have  been  permanently  fixed,  but  even  the  total 
of  this,  on  a  liberal  estimate,  amounts  to  but  a  tiny  fraction  of 
the  world's  stock,  and  in  any  case  such  fixation  could  but  take 
its  place  along  with  the  other  sources  of  permanent  removal  and 
merely  have  efiect  in  delaying  the  change  from  one  climatic  state 
to  another.  Tiie  carbon  fixed  in  coral,  limestone  and  similar 
formations  aggregates  a  much  greater  proportion  of  the  whole 
than  that  locked  up  in  coal,  but  as  all  of  this  is  derived  from  the 
fixed  portion  of  that  captured  by  the  ocean,  or  in  some  cases  by 


36  president's  address. 

freshwater  lakes,  and  hence  not  available  for  return  to  the  air, 
the  form  in  which  it  is  stored  is  of  no  consequence  so  far  as 
glacial  changes  are  concerned.  It  is  in  the  consumption  of 
carbon  dioxide  in  the  weathering  of  rocks  that  the  great  primary 
source  of  permanent  loss  lies.  The  rocks  constituting  the  exposed 
surface  are  largely  composed  of  silicates  and  by  the  action  of 
carbon  dioxide  and  moisture  these  are  decomposed,  the  bases 
combining  with  the  carbon  dioxide  and  ultimately  finding  their 
way  into  the  ocean.  Practically  all  the  carbon  dioxide  so  fixed 
may  be  considered  as  permanently  lost. 

We  have  seen  that  depletion  of  atmospheric  carbon  dioxide 
induces  a  cold  surface  condition  while  enrichment  results  in  the 
opposite  effect.  When  the  land  surface  is  at  work  removing 
carbon  dioxide  and  thereby  bringing  about  cooling,  and  the  ocean, 
responding  to  the  change,  aids  in  the  withdrawal,  all  the  con- 
ditions necessary  for  the  inauguration  of  a  glacial  epoch  are 
present,  and,  accordingly,  when  the  rate  of  removal  of  carbon 
dioxide  exceeds  that  of  supply,  it  is  only  a  matter  of  time  for  the 
change  to  occur.  With  the  advent  of  an  icy  covering  the  land 
would  be  effectually  shielded  from  the  action  of  atmospheric 
carbon  dioxide,  and  the  loss  through  weathering  being  stopped, 
or  at  any  rate  greatly  reduced,  a  time  of  steady  accumulation 
would  set  in,  resulting  in  the  dawn  of  a  genial  period;  the 
encroachment  of  ice  would  be  stopped,  the  line  of  glaciation 
driven  back  towards  the  poles,  and  the  rocky  surface  again 
exposed.  On  the  completion  of  one  cycle  there  would  be  a 
gradual  swing  in  the  opposite  direction,  and  so  the  continued 
succession  of  glacial  and  warm  periods,  of  which  we  have  evidence, 
would  be  accounted  for. 

There  are  so  many  modifying  influences,  such  as  variation  in 
the  relationship  of  water  and  land,  which  would  tend  in  one  way 
or  another  to  affect  the  rate  and  intensity  of  climatic  change  as 
well  as  the  time  of  duration  of  both  conditions,  that  nothing  in 
the  way  of  regular  periodicity  is  to  be  expected  in  glacial  epochs, 
and  that  there  was  no  such  periodicity  seems  to  be  the  trend  of 
the  evidence.     Partial  retreats  and  advances  of  ice,  and  greatly 


president's  address.  37 

varying  rates  of  change  have  undoubtedly  been  the  rule.  At  the 
present  time  all  the  indications  appear  to  point  to  the  world's 
beinof  in  the  waning  stage  of  a  glacial  period,  so  that  warmer 
conditions  are  now  steadily  invading  the  circumpolar  regions. 

The  question  naturally  arises  at  this  stage,  what  would  be  the 
effect  of  the  escape  of  internal  heat  from  the  earth  in  aiding  the 
carbon  dioxide  of  the  atmosphere  to  maintain  a  genial  climate. 
This  problem  was  long  ago  dealt  with  by  Sir  William  Thomson 
(Lord  Kelvin),  who  arrived  at  the  result  that,  starting  with  an 
incandescent  globe,  •'  the  general  climate  cannot  be  sensibly 
affected  by  conducted  heat  at  any  time  more  than  10  000  years 
after  the  commencement  of  superficial  solidification."*  The 
same  authority  elsewhere  says  :  "  Ten,  twenty,  thirty  times  the 
present  rate  of  augmentation  of  temperature  downwards  could 
not  raise  the  surface  temperature  of  the  earth  and  air  in  contact 
with  it  more  than  a  small  fraction  of  a  degree  Fahrenheit.  The 
earth  might  be  a  globe  of  white-hot  iron  covered  with  a  crust 
of  rock  2,000  feet,  or  there  might  be  an  ice-cold  temperature 
everywhere  within  50  feet  of  the  surface,  yet  the  climate  could 
not  on  that  account  be  sensibly  different  from  what  it  is,  or  the 
soil  be  sensibly  more  or  less  genial  than  it  is  for  the  roots  of 
trees  or  smaller  plants"! 

The  view  has  been  held  by  some  observers  that  the  internal 
heat  of  the  earth  was  a  sufficient  source  of  warmth  to  maintain 
a  uniform  genial  climate  over  the  entire  surface  of  the  globe 
during  long  periods  of  geological  time,  and  that  the  sun's  heat- 
ing influence  during  these  periods  was  effectually  neutralized  by 
impenetrable  banks  of  cloud.  The  ocean  was  supposed  to  be  kept 
warm  by  contact  with  the  heated  earth. J  Lord  Kelvin,  as  is  seen 
from  the  above  quotations,  gives  absolutely  no  support  to  this 
theory.     Likewise  regarding  the  belief  that  the  rate  of  cooling  of 

*  Mathematical  and  Physical  Papers,  Vol.  iii.,  1890,  p. 305. 

t  Trans.  Geol.  Soc.  Glasgow,  Vol.  v..  Part  ii.,  1877,  p.250.  Kelvin, 
Popular  Lectures  and  Addresses,  Vol.  ii.,  1894,  p.297 

t  See,  for  example,  Manson,  '  The  Evolution  of  Climates,' The  American 
Geologist,  1898. 


38  president's  address. 

the  earth's  interior  is  sensibly  affected  by  variations  in  the 
amonnt  of  heat  received  from  the  sun,  with  consequent  mani- 
festation of  earthquake  action  due  to  increased  shrinkage, 
when,  through  any  cause,  there  is  a  falling  off  in  the  amount  of 
sun  heat  received.  This  position  seems  to  me  equally  untenable. 
It  is  well  known  that  the  heat  of  the  sun  does  not  affect  the 
temperature  of  the  soil  more  than  a  few  feet  from  the  surface, 
and  in  the  light  of  Lord  Kelvin's  work,  it  appears  certain  that  no 
variation  in  surface  temperature  within  even  far  wider  range  than 
is  now  experienced,  can  have  any  sensible  effect  on  the  rate  of 
transmission  of  heat  outwards  from  the  interior.  Were  it  the 
case  that  mere  change  in  surface  temperature  had  any  such 
effect,  we  should  surely  have  distinct  manifestations  of  differential 
shrinkage  every  winter,  through  the  unequal  loss  of  heat  follow- 
ing the  change  of  season.  To  me  it  seems  that  unequal  loss  of 
heat  through  winter  ruling  in  one  hemisphere  while  summer 
was  warming  the  other,  would  be  far  more  likely  to  induce  earth- 
quake tremors  than  even  a  very  considerable  increase  in  the  rate 
of  heat  loss,  uniformly  distributed. 

In  coming  to  a  conclusion  on  this  matter,  it  will,  perhaps,  be 
helpful  to  consider  what  is  the  actual  amount  of  heat  escaping 
from  the  interior  of  the  earth.  Taking  the  recognised  values  for 
heat  conductivity  of  the  crustal  rocks  and  for  heat  gradient  near 
the  surface,  Lord  Kelvin  has  shown  that  the  loss  of  heat  amounts 
to  about  92  horse-power  per  square  kilometre.*  This  may  be 
stated  in  another  way,  which  will,  perhaps,  convey  a  more 
distinct  impression  to  the  mind.  A  horse-power  is  equal  to 
the  raising  of  33,000  lbs.  one  foot  high  per  minute,  and  92 
horse-power  per  square  kilometre  is  the  equivalent  of  the 
evaporation  of  10 J  lbs.  of  water  per  square  mile  of  surface  per 
minute.  Even  allowing  a  considerable  margin  of  error  for 
assumed  mean  conductivity  and  heat  gradient,  the  result  would 
be  of  the  same  order,  and  as   it  stands  may  thus   be  taken  as 


*  Trans.   Geol.  Soc.  Glasgow,  Vol.  ill.  Part  ii.,  1869,  p. 234.     Popular 
Lectures  and  Addresses,  Vol.  ii.,  1894,  p.l  16. 


president's  address.  39 

fairly  representing  the  actual  state  of  matters.  A  fluctuation  in 
the  outflow  of  heat  of  10  per  cent,  would  be  equivalent  to  1  lb. 
more  or  less  water  evaporated  per  square  mile  per  minute.  It 
may  be  safely  said  that  one  active  volcano  will  dispose  of  more 
heat  in  a  day  than  many  hundred  square  miles  of  earth  surface 
in  a  year. 

That  the  glaciation  of  the  earth's  surface  at  any  period  since 
palaeozoic  times  cannot  have  been  more  than  partial,  is  evident, 
for  were  this  condition  to  extend  over  the  entire  tropical  regions 
there  would  remain  no  sanctuary  for  the  higher  forms  of  life, 
with  the  result  that  all  plants  and  animals  unable  to  withstand 
the  rigours  of  an  arctic  climate  would  perish.  That  this  has 
not  been  the  case  is  amply  proved  by  the  known  continuity  of 
highly  developed  organisms  succeeding  one  another  through  long 
geological  epochs  covering  numerous  periods  of  glaciation.  Dar- 
win was  much  impressed  with  the  importance  of  glacial  mutation 
as  explaining  the  present  distribution  of  Alpine  organisms.* 

The  plants,  for  example,  found  in  Alpine  regions  everywhere 
over  the  earth's  surface,  bear  a  striking  resemblance  to  one 
another,  indeed,  identical  species  may  be  found  in  places  widely 
separated  by  tracts  of  country  having  a  climate  utterly  prohibi- 
tive of  migration  for  these,  Alpine  plants  being  peculiarly  intol- 
erant of  other  than  Alpine  conditions.  The  flora  of  high  latitudes 
is  truly  Alpine  in  character,  and  similar  plants  are  found  flourish- 
ing on  the  European  Alps  and  in  the  regions  fringing  the  Polar 
Seas.  Any  change  of  climate  one  way  or  another  must  have 
been  gradual.  If  we  imagine  an  era  of  glaciation  spreading 
towards  the  tropics,  we  can  see  that  for  long  periods  the  low 
level  areas  would  have  a  climate  quite  suitable  for  the  growth  of 
Alpine  types.  In  fact  the  lower  levels  would  constitute  a  haven 
for  the  Alpine  flora  driven  from  the  mountains  by  perpetual 
snow  and  ice,  and  thus  a  region  for  mingling  and  for  migration 
would  be  provided.  With  the  gradual  return  of  genial  condi- 
tions the  plants  would  migrate  back  to  the  mountain   fastnesses 


•  Origin  of  Species,  6th  ed.,  p.  330. 


40 

while  the  plains  which  had  been  clothed  with  Alpine  forms 
would  once  again  be  peopled  with  appropriate  denizens  which 
had  taken  refuge  in  the  equatorial  zone  from  the  cold  conditions 
ruling  everywhere  else.  By  a  process  such  as  this  we  can 
understand  how  isolated  mountains  in  various  tropical  areas 
could  come  to  possess  a  common  flora.  Under  suitable  conditions 
of  land  configuration  the  zones  around  the  polar  regions  would 
form  a  recruiting  ground  from  whence  the  plants  could  spread 
tropic  wards  as  the  climate  became  suitable  for  their  welfare, 
and  to  the  same  hospitable  regions  the  cold-loving  forms  would 
be  driven  back  by  the  return  of  warm  conditions  to  the  lower 
latitudes.  There  are  suflicient  mountain  chains  crossing  the 
equatorial  region  to  act  as  bridges  by  which  transmigration  could 
take  place.  For  the  sake  of  simplicity  I  have  spoken  only  of 
plants  in  the  above  scheme,  but  obviously  animals  would  equally 
share  the  facilities  for  migration,  though  the  conditions  on 
isolated  mountain  fastnesses  would  inhibit  the  survival  there  of 
animals  to  a  much  greater  degree  than  plants;  hence  the  large 
arctic  mammals,  land  and  amphibious,  to  most  of  whicli  the 
proximity  of  the  sea  or  the  range  of  great  land  areas  is  abso- 
lutely necessary,  would  naturally  gravitate  to  the  regions  where 
they  are  now  found.  Glacial  mutations  and  attendant  land  and 
ocean  configuration  alterations,  must  at  all  times  have  been 
exceedingly  powerful  aids  towards  many  of  the  radical  changes 
in  type  of  the  flora  and  fauna  characteristic  of  tlie  transition 
from  one  geological  epoch  to  another. 

In  taking  leave  of  the  honourable  position  in  which  you  were 
good  enough  to  place  me  two  years  ago,  let  me  tender  my  hearti- 
est thanks  for  the  generous  support  and  encouragement  accorded 
me  at  all  times  at  our  meetings  and  in  the  conduct  of  the 
Society's  affairs,  and  once  again  to  ask  you  to  join  me  in  the 
sentiment 

Floreat  Societas  Linneana  ! 

Mr.  J.  R.  Garland,  M.A.,  Hon.  Treasurer,  presented  the 
balance  sheet  for  the  year  1906,  duly  signed  by  the  Auditors; 
and  he  moved  that  it  be  received  and  adopted,  which  was  carried 


treasurer's  statement  and  elections,  41 

unanimously.  The  Society's  income  for  the  year  ended  December 
31st,  1906,  was  £1,013  15s.  7d.;  the  expenditure  £1,017  16s.  lid.; 
with  a  credit  balance  of  £78  4s.  7d.  from  the  previous  year, 
leaving  a  credit  balance  of  £74  3s.  3d.  The  income  of  the 
Bacteriological  Department  was  £544  Os.  2d.;  and  the  expendi- 
ture £479  6s.  3d.;  with  a  credit  balance  of  £238  7s.  6d.  from  the 
previous  year,  leaving  a  credit  balance  of  £303  Is.  5d.  In  regard 
to  the  Macleay  Fellowships' Account,  the  income  was  £1 389  2s.  9d.; 
and  the  expenditure  £400,  leaving  a  credit  balance  of  £989  2s.  9d. 
to  be  carried  to  Capital  Account. 

On  the  motion  of  the  Secretary,  seconded  by  Professor  David, 
a  cordial  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  Mr.  J.  R.  Garland,  M.  A., 
Hon.  Treasurer,  in  recognition  of  his  valuable  services  in  con- 
nection with  the  finances  of  the  Society;  and  also  to  the  Hon. 
Auditors,  Messrs.  Duncan  Carson  and  E.  G.  W.  Palmer,  for  their 
helpful  co-operation  in  carrying  out  the  annual  audit. 

No  nominations  of  other  Candidates  having  been  received,  the 
President  declared  the  following  elections  for  the  current  Session 
to  have  been  duly  made  : — 

President:  A.  H.  S.  Lucas,  M.A.,  B.Sc. 

Members  of  Council  (to  fill  six  vacancies)  :  R.  H.  Cambage, 
F.L.S.,  J.  H.  Campbell,  H.  G.  Chapman,  M.D.,  B.S.,  T.  Storie 
Dixson,  M.B.,  Ch.M.,  Alex.  G.  Hamilton,  Prof.  J.  T.  Wilson, 
M.B.,  Ch.M. 

Auditors  :  Messrs.  Duncan  Carson  and  Edward  G.  W.  Palmer, 
J.  P. 

On  the  conclusion  of  the  formal  business  of  the  Meeting,  a 
very  hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  the  retiring  President  for  his 
interesting  address  and  for  his  untiring  efforts  to  promote  the 
Society's  well-being  was  carried  by  acclamation,  on  the  motion  of 
Dr.  Woolnough. 


42 


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46 


WEDNESDAY,  MARCH  27th,  1907. 


ORDINARY  MONTHLY  MEETING. 

Mr.  A.  H.  S.  Lucas,  ^LA.,  B.Sc,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Mr.  Thomas  McDonough,  15  Waverley  Street,  Sydney,  was 
elected  an  Ordinary  Member  of  the  Society. 

The  Donations  and  Exchanges  received  since  the  previous 
Monthly  Meeting  (November  28th,  1906),  amounting  to  35  Vols, 
231  Parts  or  Nos.,  53  Bulletins,  19  Reports,  and  72  Pamphlets, 
received  from  121  Societies,  &c.,  and  7  Individuals,  were  laid 
upon  the  table. 


47 


DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO- 
LEPIDOPTERA. 

By  E.  Meyrick,  B.A.,  F.R.S.,  Corresponding  Member. 

XIX.     PLUTELLID^. 

I  have  recently  examined  much  material  of  this  group  from 
the  Oriental  region,  where  it  seems  to  be  rather  more  prominently 
developed  than  elsewhere,  and  at  present  I  give  the  family  Plu- 
tellidce  a  more  extended  application  than  I  did  in  my  Handbook 
of  British  Lepidoptera.  There  it  consisted  of  the  groups  of  Ypono- 
meuta,  Glyphipteryx,  and  Plutella;  to  these  I  now  add  the  groups 
of  Gracilaria  and  Zelleria,  which  I  formerly  included  in  the 
Tineidce.  To  explain  this  change  I  may  say  that  I  now  assign 
more  importance  to  the  smooth  posterior  tibiae  which  are  a 
normal  attribute  of  those  two  groups,  than  to  the  rough  head 
which  is  a  frequent  characteristic.  Moreover,  whilst  folded 
maxillary  palpi  are  peculiarly  characteristic  of  the  Tineidce,  the 
simple  porrected  maxillary  palpi  of  the  Gracilaria  group  are  so 
similar  to  those  of  the  Plutella  group,  and  so  di£ferent  from  those 
of  any  other  Tineina,  that  they  would  seem  to  indicate  real 
affinity.  I  regard  then  the  Gracilaria  group  as  being  a  narrow- 
wiuged  modification  of  the  Plutella  group  (with  the  peculiar 
larval  character  of  an  absence  of  prolegs  on  segment  10);  and 
the  Zelleria  group  as  a  narrow-winged  modification  of  the  Ypono- 
meuta  group.  The  habit  of  Zelleria  and  its  allies  of  resting  on 
their  heads  with  the  hindpart  raised  is  probably  imitative  of 
birds'  droppings.  The  reversed  habit  of  Gracilaria  and  its  allies 
of  sitting  on  their  tails,  so  to  speak,  with  the  fore-parts  raised, 
was  doubtless  acquired  to  display  the  peculiar  thickened  and 
decorated  anterior  and  middle  legs  (for  which  I  can  conjecture 
no  other   object  than  sexual  display),  and  seems  to  have  been 


48  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

rather  difficult  to  lose  when  once  acquired,  as  some  species  which 
have  found  it  necessary  to  rest  appressed  to  the  tree-trunks  for 
purposes  of  concealment  are  constrained  to  spread  these  legs  out 
awkwardly  at  the  sides. 

The  family  as  thus  constituted  includes  forms  of  such  diverse 
superficial  appearance  that  it  is  not  surprising  to  find  some 
reluctance  to  accept  it  as  a  homogeneous  group;  but  I  am  never- 
theless satisfied  that  it  is  natural,  and  am  unable  to  find  any 
characters  for  breaking  it  up.  It  is  a  primitive  group  as  com- 
pared with  the  other  families  of  the  I'inehia,  which  are  more 
specialised  and  have  acquired  more  constancy  in  certain  particu- 
lars. Thus  in  the  Gelechiadce,  Oecophoridce,  and  Xyloryctidm 
veins  7  and  8  of  the  forewings  are  invariably  stalked  (or  coinci- 
dent), never  separate;  whilst  in  the  riuteJlidce  this  character 
fluctuates  so  much  in  closely  allied  forms  that  I  am  satisfied  it  is 
insufficient  by  itself  even  to  delimit  genera.  The  smooth  poste- 
rior tibife  are  not  constant  in  the  Flutellidce,  though  very  charac- 
teristic, and  seldom  found  in  any  of  the  other  families;  there  are 
undoubted  Plutellid  genera  which  have  the  tibiae  more  or  less 
rough-scaled  or  set  with  thin  bristly  hairs,  or  even  exceptionally 
clothed  with  long  fine  hairs  (as  Piestoceros,  which  can  hardly  be 
referred  elsewhere,  though  it  might  possibly  belong  to  the 
Tineidce).  The  head  is  normally  smooth,  but  sometimes  rough 
or  even  tufted.  The  veins  ma}'-  be  regarded  as  normally  all 
separate  in  both  wings,  though  many  exceptions  occur.  Some 
genera  are  remarkable  for  the  relatively  extremely  short  cilia  of 
the  hind  wings,  reduced  to  ^  of  the  breadth  of  the  wing  or  even 
less,  whilst  in  other  Tineina  they  are  very  rarely  less  than  J.  In 
view  of  the  inconstancy  of  single  characters  in  this  family  the 
combination  of  leading  characters  should  always  be  considered 
to  determine  the  true  affinity  of  a  genus. 

As  many  of  the  genera  have  been  treated  already,  I  have  not 
thought  it  necessary  to  repeat  descriptions  where  a  genus  or 
species  has  already  been  sufficiently  described.  Zelleria  and  its 
allies  were  included  in  m}'^  paper  on  IHneidce,  and  the  Gracilaria 
and  Glyphipteryx  groups  in  separate  early  papers;  Imma  is  fully 


RY   K.   MEYRICK.  49 

discussed  in  a  recent  paper  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Entomo- 
logical Society  of  London.  I  have  included  with  the  Australian 
species  all  the  material  known  to  me  from  the  Australasian  region, 
i.e.,  New  Guinea  and  the  adjoining  islands,  and  the  islands  of 
the  South  Pacific  (excluding  New  Zealand);  and  have  therefore 
altered  the  title  of  this  series  of  papers  from  Australian  to 
Australasian. 

1.  Posterior  tibia?  in  J*  elongate,  enlarged,  longer 

than  tarsi 10.  Macarangela. 

Posterior  tibiae  in  $  normal 2. 

2.  Forewings  with  vein  7  to  costa 3. 

Forewings  with  vein  7  to  apex  or  termen 18. 

3.  Forewings  with  vein  8  absent 4. 

Forewings  with  vein  8  present 6. 

4.  Forewings  with  vein  3  absent 5. 

Forewings  with  vein  3  present 40.  Metaphrastis. 

5.  Crown  roughly  tufted 1 .  Lithocolletis. 

Crown  with  appressed  scales 9.  Opsiclines. 

6.  Forewings  with  8  and  9  stalked 17.  Thyridectis. 

Forewings  with  8  and  9  separate 7. 

7.  Forewings  with  7  and  8  separate 8. 

Forewings  with  7  and  8  stalked 16. 

8.  Hindwings  lanceolate  or  linear-lanceolate 9. 

Hindwings  elongate-ovate 15. 

9.  Head  rough  on  crown, 10. 

Head  smooth 12. 

10.  Forewings  with  vein  3  absent 11. 

Forewings  with  vein  3  present   8.  Timodora. 

11.  Face  shortly  rough-haired,  palpi  tufted 2.  Aristaea. 

Face  smooth,  palpi  not  tufted 3.  Epicephala. 

1 2.  Posterior  tibiae  with  bristly  hairs  above 13. 

Posterior  tibijB  smooth-scaled 14. 

13.  Middle  tibiae  elongated  and  thickened  with  scales  5.  Cyphosticha. 
Middle  tibiae  normal 4.  Coxopomorpha. 

14.  Middle    tibiae    thickened    with     rough    scales 

beneath 7.  Gracilaria. 

Middle  tibiae  not  thickened  with  rough  scales...     6.  Macarostola. 

15.  Basal  joint  of  antennge  with  dense  Hap  of  scales  42.  Phalangitis. 
Basal  joint  of  antennae  without  scale-flap 19.  Coryptilum. 

46.  Hindwings  with  6  and  7  stalked  ^ 17. 

Hindwings  with  6  and  7  separate 43.  Amphithera. 

6 


50 


DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 


17.  Hindwings  with  4  absent 45.  Paraphyllis. 

Hindwings  with  4  present ; 46.  Copidoris. 

18.  Antennse  longer  than  forewings 19. 

Antennae  not  longer  than  forewings 21. 

19.  Forewings  with  9  and  10  absent 20.  Tonza. 

Forewings  with  9  and  10  present 20. 

20.  Palpi  rather  long,  tufted 12.  Xyrosaris. 

Palpi  short,  filiform 22.  Epicroesa. 

21.  Hindwings  with  4  absent 22. 

Hindwings  with  4  present 24. 

22.  Hindwings  lanceolate 11.  Zelleria. 

Hindwings  elongate-ovate 23. 

23.  Hindwings  with  transparent  subbasal  patch.  ..  16.  Ypoxomeuta. 
Hindwings  without  such  patch 15.  Prays. 

24.  Antennae  strongly  compressed,  flat 28.  Piestoceros. 

Antennse  not  flattened 25. 

25.  Labial  palpi  minute     26. 

Labial  palpi  moderate  or  long 27. 

26.  Forewings  with  8  absent 27.  Cebysa. 

Forewings  with  8  present 13.  Cyclotorna. 

27.  Antennae  thickened  with  scales  towards  base...  28. 
Antennae  not  thickened  with  scales 31. 

28.  Forewings  with  7  and  8  stalked 29. 

Forewings  with  7  and  8  separate 30. 

29.  Hindwings  with  6  and  7  connate  or  stalked 39.  Pseudaegeria. 

Hindwings  with  6  and  7  parallel 38.  Snellenia. 

30.  Forewings  with  2  from  towards  angle  of  cell.  . ,  25.  Anaphantis. 
Forewings  with  2  from  §  of  cell 30.  Tortyra. 

31.  Hindwings  with  6  and  7  stalked  or  coincident..  32. 
Hind  wings  with  6  and  7  separate , 35. 

32.  Hindwings  with  3  and  4  connate  or  stalked 33. 

Hindwings  with  3  and  4  separate 32.  Imma. 

33.  Forewings  with  7-10  stalked 33.  Loxotrochis. 

Forewings  with  9  and  10  separate 34. 

34.  Forewings  with  2  and  3  stalked 24.  Eremothyris. 

Forewings  with  2  and  3  widely  remote 26.  Hilarographa. 

35.  Antennae  in  ^  unipectinated 31.  Miscera. 

Antennae  in  ^  not  unipectinated 36. 

36.  Antennae  in  ^  ciliated  with  long  fascicles 37. 

Antennae  in  <^  at  most  shortly  ciliated 39.. 

37.  Second  joint  of  palpi  tufted  with  short  project- 

ing hairs .35.  Choreutis. 

Second  joint  of  palpi  not  tufted .38. 


BY  E.  MEYRICK.  51 

38.  Terminal  joint  of  palpi  obtuse  or  truncate 36.  Simaethis. 

Terminal  joint  of  palpi  pointed ...  34.  Brenthia. 

31).  Forewings  with  tufts  of  scales 47.  Trachycentra. 

Forewings  without  tufts ...  40. 

40.  Second  joint  of  labial  palpi  tufted 41 . 

Second  joint  of  labial  palpi  not  tufted 42. 

41.  Basal  joint  of  antennaj  with  dense  flap  of  scales  48.  Plutella. 

Basal  joint  of  antennse  without  flap  of  scales...  37.  Glyphipteryx  (part) 

42.  Hindwings  with  3  and  4  remote  43. 

Hind  wings  with  3  and  4  connate  or  stalked 46. 

43.  Hindwings  with  4  and  5  stalked 22.  Lactura. 

Hindwings  with  4  and  5  remote 44. 

44.  Maxillary  palpi  developed 41.  Orthenches. 

Maxillary  palpi  obsolete 45. 

45.  Forewings  with  7  to  apex 18.  Atteva. 

Forewings  with  7  to  termen 23.  Mieza. 

46.  Maxillary  palpi  distinct,  porrected 44.  Diathryptica. 

Maxillary  palpi  rudimentary 47. 

47.  Terminal  joint  of  palpi  short,  thick,  obtuse 14.  Hojiadaula. 

Terminal  joint  of  palpi  moderate,  pointed 48. 

48.  Second  joint  of  palpi  with  whorls  of  projecting 

scales 37.  Glyphipteryx. 

Second  joint  of  palpi  with  appressed  scales 21.  Anticrates. 

1.   LiTHOCOLLETIS    HI). 

1.  Z.  stephanota,  u.sp. 

9.  6  mm.  Head  and  thorax  whitish-golden.  Palpi  and 
antennae  whitish.  Abdomen  ochreous-whitish,  suffused  with  gvey 
above.  Forewings  lanceolate;  pale  shining  golden-ocbreous;  a 
short  white  median  streak  from  base;  three  narrow  somewhat 
curved  slightly  oblique  white  fasciae,  second  and  third  edged 
anteriorl}^  with  scattered  black  scales;  a  white  costal  dot  before 
apex,  followed  by  some  scattered  black  scales  at  apex  and  on 
upper  part  of  termen  :  cilia  pale  shining  golden,  with  white  spot 
on  costal  dot,      Hindwings  rather  dark  grey;  cilia  grey. 

Sydney,  Nev/  South  Wales,  in  August;  one  specimen. 


52  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

2  L.  agIaozo7ia  Meyr. 

{LithoGoll etis  aglaozona  Mejr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales, 
1882,  199.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  November  and  March.  Larva 
mining  leaves  of  Desmodium  and  Kennedya  rubicunda. 

3.  Z.  desmochrysa  Low. 

(Lithocolletis  desmochrysa  Low.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 
1897,  23;  Nepticida  nigricansella  Tepper,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S. 
Austr.  1899,  280.) 

Broken  Hill,  New  South  Wales;  Adelaide,  South  Australia; 
in  March.      Larva  mining  leaves  of  Hardenhergia  ovata. 

2.  Aristaea,  n.g. 

Head  loosely  rough-haired;  tongue  developed;  ocelli  present. 
Antennse  I,  in  (^  filiform,  simple,  basal  joint  moderately  elongate, 
without  pecten.  Labial  palpi  long,  ascending,  second  joint 
anteriorly  with  long  rough  projecting  scales,  terminal  joint  as 
long  as  second,  pointed,  anteriorly  with  rough  projecting  scales 
diminishing  to  apex.  Maxillary  palpi  moderate,  filiform,  por- 
rected.  Posterior  tibiae  smooth  scaled.  Fore  wings  with  16  .simple, 
2  from  angle,  3  absent,  7  to  costa,  11  from  middle.  Hindwings 
|,  lanceolate,  cilia  2;  3  absent,  transverse  vein  absent  between  -i 
and  5,  5  and  6  stalked. 

Differs  from  Oriiix  and  Epicephala  in  having  the  face  shortly 
rough-haired,  as  well  as  the  crown,  and  also  in  the  long  rough 
projecting  scales  of  palpi;  in  facies  it  is  also  quite  distinct,  and 
may  perhaps  be  on  the  ancestral  line  of  Lithocolletis. 

L  A.  periphanes,  n.sp. 

(^.14  mm.  Head  white,  lower  part  of  face  brownish.  Palpi 
white,  second  joint  with  brown  subapical  band.  Antenme  grey, 
faintly  ringed  with  whitish.  Thorax  brownish,  with  two  white 
stripes.  Abdomen  fuscous,  towards  base  and  apex  pate  ochreous. 
Legs  brownish-ochreous,  anterior  tibiae  and  tarsi  dark  fuscous, 
middle  and  posterior  tibiae  suffused  with  dark  fuscous  towards 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  53 

apex,  tarsi  mostly  suffused  with  whitish.  Forewings  elongate- 
lanceolate;  white;  markings  ochreous-brown,  with  a  few  dark 
fuscous  scales  on  margins;  a  suffused  streak  along  basal  fourth  of 
costa;  a  small  subdorsal  spot  towards  base;  a  slightl}^  oblique 
transverse  spot  from  dorsum  before  middle,  reaching  half  across 
wing;  an  angulated  median  fascia;  two  wedge-shaped  marks  from 
costa  beyond  this,  and  a  suffused  spot  on  tornus;  an  apical  spot, 
including  a  white  dot  anteriorly  and  a  black  apical  dot  :  cilia 
brownish  suJBFusedly  barred  with  white,  round  apex  with  a  dark 
fuscous  median  line.  Hindwings  rather  dark  grey;  cilia  light 
ochreous-grey. 

Mount  Wellington,  Tasmania,  at  3000  feet,  in  December;  one 
specimen. 

3.  Epicephala  Meyr. 

Vein  8  of  forewings  is  present  (in  original  description  errone- 
ousl}^  stated  to  be  absent);  posterior  tibite  bristly  above.  The 
latter  character  distinguishes  the  genus  from  Ornix,  which  also 
generally  has  6  and  7  of  forewings  stalked. 

5.  E.  colymhetella  Meyr. 

{Epicephala  colyiiihef'illa  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales, 
1880,  169.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sj^dney,  New  South  Wales;  from  Sep- 
tember to  January.     Larva  in  seed-capsules  of  (?). 

6.  E.  trigonophora  Turn. 

{Ornix  tj'igonophor a  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1900,  21). 
Mount  Tambourine,  Queensland,  in  November. 

7.  E.  aci'obaphes  Turn. 

(Ornix  acrobaphes  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1900,  22.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  January.     Not  known  to  me. 

8.  E.  austr  alls,  Turn. 

{Ornix  australis  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1896,  2.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  from  SeptemV)er  to  November. 


54  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

4.  CONOPOMORPHA  Me}^!". 

Characters  of  Gracilaria^  but  middle  tibi£e  not  thickened, 
posterior  tibiae  with  series  of  projecting  bristly  hairs  above. 

Type  C.  cyanospi^a  Meyr  ,  from  New  Zealand.  As  explained 
under  Gracilaria,  I  have  recast  the  classification  of  that  genus 
and  its  near  allies.      Dialectif.a  Wals.,  is  a  synonym  of  this  genus. 

9.  C.  ordinatella  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  ordinatella  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 

1880,  145.) 

Burpengary,  Queensland;  Sydne}',  New  South  Wales;  in  May 

and  June. 

10.  C.  irrorata  Turn. 

{Gracilaria  irrorata  Turn,,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894, 
124.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney  and  Broken  Hill,  New  South 
Wales;  Adelaide,  South  Australia;  from  March  to  June,  and  in 
October. 

11.  C.  tricuneatella  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  tricuneatella  Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales,  1880, 
146) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  in  April. 
Larva  mining  leaves  of  Typha  latifolia. 

12.  C.  zajAaca,  n.sp. 

9.  10-11  mm.  Head  and  thorax  snow-white.  Palpi  white, 
apex  of  second  joint  and  supramedian  ring  of  terminal  joint  dark 
fuscous.  Antennae  grey.  Abdomen  whitish-ochreous.  Legs 
grey,  tibiae  spotted  or  banded  with  white,  anterior  tibia?  dark 
fuscous  towards  apex,  all  tarsi  white  spotted  with  grey.  Fore- 
wings  elongate,  very  narrow,  long  pointed,  acute;  brownish- 
ochreous;  five  direct  snow-white  fasciae,  edged  with  scattered 
black  scales;  first  narrow,  basal,  confluent  dorsally  with  second; 
second,  third,  and  fourth  very  broad,  only  leaving  narrow  inter- 
spaces, irregular-edged,  somewhat  narrower  on  costa;  fifth  sub- 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  55 

apical,  very  narrow,  sinuate  :  cilia  white,  towards  tornus  pale 
greyish-ochreous,  beneath  apex  with  a  grey  bar,  round  apex  with 
a  fine  black  apical  line.      Hind  wings  grey;  cilia  pale  greyish. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  November  and  January;  two 
specimens.  Recognisable  by  the  great  relative  breadth  of  the 
fasciae. 

13.  C.  autadelpha  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  autadelpha  Meyr.,  Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, 1880, 
147.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney  and  Mittagong,  New  South 
Wales;  in  September,  February,  and  March. 

14.  C.  caenotheta  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  caenotheta  Meyr.,  Pi'oc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales,  1880, 
148.) 

Blackheath,  New  South  Wales,  in  January  and  March.  Larva 
mining  leaves  of  Telopea  speciosissima. 

15.  C.  chionoplecta  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  chionoplecta  Meyr.,Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales,  1882, 
195.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  October.  Larva  mining  leaves 
of  Fhebalium  dentatum. 

16.  C.  argyrodesma  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  argyrodenma  Meyr  ,Proc.Linn.Soc. N.S.Wales,  1882, 
194.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  September.  Larva  mining 
leaves  of  Grevillea  linearis. 

17.  C.  trapezoides  Turn. 

{Gracilaria  trapezoides  Turn.,  Trans. R.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894,123.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland.     Not  known  to  me. 

18.  C  hoplocala  Meyr. 
{Gracilaria  hoplocala  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S  Wales,  1880, 
149.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  October. 


56  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN   MICRO-LKPIDOPTEKA,  XIX., 

19.  C.  calicella  8tt. 

(Gracilaria  calicella  Stt.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.,  3rd  Ser.,  i., 
297;  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.  Wales,  1880,  150;  Turn.,  Trans. 
Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894,  124.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney  and  Bulli,  New  South  Wales; 
from  July  to  October.     Larva  mining  leases  of  Eucalyptus. 

20.  C.  albimacidefla  Turn. 
{Gracilaria   alhimaculella   Turn.,    Trans.  Roy.  Soc.   S.   Austr. 
1894,125.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  August.     Not  known  to  me. 

21.  C.  archepolis,  n.sp. 
9.  10  mm.  Head  and  palpi  white.  Antennst;  grey.  Tliorax 
white,  patagia  brown.  Abdomen  grey.  Legs  dark  fuscous, 
banded  with  white,  posterior  pair  white,  ringed  with  dark  fuscous. 
Fore  wings  elongate,  very  narrow,  long- pointed,  acute;  brownish- 
ochreous;  markings  white,  edged  with  dark  fuscous;  an  outwardly 
oblique  fascia  of  white  suffusion  from  base  of  dorsum,  not  reach- 
ing costa;  an  irregular  fascia  before  middle,  narrow  on  costa, 
moderately  broad  on  dorsum,  posteriorly  sending  a  broad  median 
projection  to  beyond  middle  of  disc;  a  fascia  from  |  of  costa  to 
tornus,  upper  half  linear,  lower  half  forming  a  triangular  blotch; 
a  dot  on  costa  beyond  this;  an  oblit|ue  streak  before  apex  :  cilia 
light  ochreous-grey,  white  on  extremities  of  subapical  streak,  at 
apex  with  a  basal  white  dot  followed  by  a  black  dot.  Hind  wings 
grey;  cilia  light  grey. 

Wirrabara,  South  Australia,  in  October;  two  specimens. 

22.  C.  eiichlamyda  Turn. 
{Gracilaria  euchlamyda  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894, 
126.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  August  and  September. 

23.  C.  ohscurella  Turn. 
{Gracilaria  ohscurella  Tuj-n.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894, 
125.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  September.     Not  known  to  me. 


BV   E.    MKVHICK.  0< 

24.  C.  halfvodes,  ii.sp. 

^■9.  9-10  mm.  Head,  palpi,  antennae,  thorax,  al>dornen,  and 
legs  white;  anterior  femora  and  tibite  sufiPusedly  banded  with  dark 
fuscous,  all  tarsi  spotted  with  fuscous.  Forewings  ver}^  elongate, 
very  narrow,  rather  long-pointed,  tolerably  acute;  very  pale 
brassy-yellowish;  markings  white,  partially  edged  anteriorly  with 
scattered  black  scales,  very  undefined;  eight  or  nine  subtriangular 
costal  spots,  and  four  or  five  larger  dorsal  spots,  two  median 
sometimes  united  to  form  an  irregular  transverse  fascia  :  cilia 
very  pale  yellowish,  round  apex  suffusedly  barred  with  white,  at 
apex  with  a  short  blackish  basal  mark.  Hindwings  light  grey; 
cilia  grey-whitish,  tinged  with  brassy-yellowish. 

Geraldton,  West  Australia,  in  November;  five  specimens. 

2.").  C.  eupetala  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  PAi\w.tala  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  80c. N.  S.  Wales,  1880, 
160.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  S3'dne3%  New  South  Wales;  in  October 
and  February.  In  this  and  the  two  following  species  the 
maxillary  palpi  are  minute  and  easily  overlooked,  but  when 
observable  are  formed  as  usual  in  the  genus. 

26.  C  eumetalla  Meyr. 

(Gracilaria  euniefa/la  ^ieyv.y'Pvoc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880, 
160.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  Gisborne, 
Victoria;  in  September,  October,  and  March.      Larva  in  galls  on 

Acacia. 

27.  C.  heJiopla,  n.sp. 

^9.  9-10  mm.  Head  and  thorax  shining  coppery-bronze.  Palpi 
ochreous-whitish,  apex  grey.  Antennae  grey.  Abdomen  dark 
fuscous.  Legs  dark  bronzy-fuscous.  Forewings  elongate,  very 
narrow,  long-pointed,  acute  ;  bright  shining  coppery-bronze  ; 
markings  prismatic  violet-white,  edged  with  blackish;  two  shoit 
slender  oblique  streaks  from  costa  before  and  beyond  middle,  and 
two  others  inwardly  oblique  towards  apex,  between  tbese 


58  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTRRA,  XIX., 

pairs  a  subcostal  dash;  a  round  dot  in  middle  of  disc,  connected 
with  dorsum  by  a  direct  slender  whitish  streak;  a  short  slender 
longitudinal  streak  in  disc  beyond  this,  followed  by  a  curved 
transverse  mark  touching  a  dorsal  dot  preceding  it;  a  wedge- 
shaped  mark  from  termen  before  apex  forming  a  straight  line 
with  last  costal  mark;  a  rather  undefined  black  apical  dot:  cilia 
dark  grey,  round  a|)ex  grey-whitish  with  dark  purplish-grey  sub- 
basal  shade  and  blackisli  subapical  line.  Hindwings  dark  fuscous; 
cilia  dark  grey. 

Hobart,  Tasmania,  in  December;  two  specimens. 

28.  C.  alysidota  Meyr. 

(Gracilaria  alysidota  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales,  1880, 
161.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  Sale  and 
Healesville,  Victoria;  Port  Lincoln,  South  Australia;  Perth  and 
Albany,  West  Australia;  from  September  to  December,  and  in 
March  and  July.  Larva  mining  phyllodia  (false  leaves)  of  Acacia 
Jongifolia. 

29.  C.  antimacha,  n.sp. 

^.  9  mm.  Head  white.  Palpi  white,  second  joint  with  rough 
scales  towards  apex  beneath,  with  dark  fuscous  subapical  band, 
terminal  joint  rough-scaled  anteriorly  towards  base,  with  dark 
fuscous  median  ring.  Antennae  white  ringed  with  fuscous.  Thorax 
white,  patagia  light  brownish.  (Abdomen  broken.)  Legs  white, 
banded  with  brownish,  anterior  tibiae  mostly  dark  fuscous.  Fore- 
wings  elongate,  very  narrow,  moderately  pointed,  apex  acute, 
somewhat  produced;  light  brownish,  sprinkled  with  daik  fuscous; 
markings  white,  edged  with  dark  fuscous  suttusion;  four  oblique 
streaks  from  dorsum,  reaching  about  half  across  wing,  and  four 
wedge-shaped  somewhat  shorter  streaks  from  costa  somewhat 
beyond  these  respectively,  first  dorsal  extended  on  dorsum  to 
base,  first  costal  extended  along  costa  to  near  base,  second  dorsal 
hooked  at  apex  so  as  almost  to  meet  first  costal;  a  white  suffusion 
in  disc  posteriorly  between  costal  and  dorsal  streaks  :  cilia  white, 


BY  E.    iMEYlUCK.  59 

obscurely  barred  with  greyish,  with  a  blackish  median  line  round 
apex,  and  grey  apical  line.      Hindwings  and  cilia  pale  grey. 
Geraldton,  West  Australia,  in  November;  one  specimen. 

30,  C.  chiouochtha,  n.sp. 

9.  9-10  mm.  Head  white,  Falpi  white,  apical  band  of  second 
joint  and  median  ring  of  terminal  joint  blackish.  Antennae  grey. 
Thorax  white,  patagia  dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  grey.  Legs 
white,  femora  and  tibia?  longitudinally  striped  with  blackish,  tarsi 
ringed  with  black.  Forewings  elongate,  very  narrow,  long- 
pointed,  apex  acute;  dark  fuscous:  a  moderate  white  dorsal  streak 
from  base  to  near  apex,  edged  above  with  some  black  scales,  with 
three  rounded  projections  before  middle  of  wing,  at  tornus,  and 
at  posterior  extremity  respectively,  dorsal  edge  yellowish-tinged : 
cilia  grey,  round  apex  suffusedly  barred  with  white,  at  apex  with 
three  black  hooks.      Hindwings  and  cilia  grey. 

Quorn,  South  Australia,  in  October;  two  specimens. 

31.  C.  tristanice  Turn. 

(Gracilaria  tristanue  Turn  ,  Trans,  Roy.  8oc,  S.  Austr.  1 894,  1 30,) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  from  September  to  December,     Larva 
mining  leaves  of  Tristania  conftrta  and  Eugenia  Ventenatii. 

32.  C.  parallela  Turn. 

[G racilaria  fMrallela  Turn.,  Trnns.  Koy.  Soc.  S,  Austr.  1894:, 
130.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  from  July  to  November. 

33.  C .  hettro}'>sis  Low. 

{Gracilai-ia  heteropsis  Low.,  Trans.  Boy.  Soc.  S  Austr.  1894, 
112.) 

Duaringa,  Queensland.      Not  known  to  me. 

34.  0.  nereis  Meyr. 

(^Gracllaria  nereis  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N,  8.  Wales,  1880, 
163;  G .  Jiiwrescens  Turn,,  Trans,  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.,  1894,  127.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydne}',  New  South  ^^'ales;  from  August 
to  November. 


60  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

35.  C.  laciniella  Me}a\ 

{Gracilaria  laciniella  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880, 
164). 

Brisbane,  Queensland  ;  Sj^dney,  Blackheath,  Bathurst,  and 
Mount  Kosciusko  (4,300  feet),  New  South  Wales;  Warragul  and 
Gisborne,  Victoria;  Hobart,  Launceston,  Deloraine,  and  Camp- 
belltown,  Tasmania;  Adelaide,  South  Australia;  occurs  more  or 
less  all  the  year  round.      Larva  mining  leaves  of  Eucalyptus. 

36.  C.  ylebeia  Turn. 
{Gracilaria plebeia  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894,  131.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland.     Not  known  to  me. 

37.  C.  unilineata  Turn. 

[Gracilaria  unilineata  Turn.,  Trans.  Boy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894, 
131.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland.     Not  known  to  me. 

38.  C.  didymella  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  didymella  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880, 
164.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  Melbourne,  Victoria;  Petersburg 
and  Port  Lincoln,  South  Australia;  Albany,  West  Australia; 
from  August  to  December.  Larva  mining  blotches  in  phyllodia 
of  Acacia  longifolia  and  A.  cidtrif'ormis. 

39.  C.  ochrocephala  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  ochrocephala  Meyr. , Proc. Linn. Soc.N. S.Wales,! 880, 
162.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  October  and  November. 

40.  C.  o^jhiodes  Turn. 
{Gracilaria  ojjhiodes  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1896,  2.) 
Brisbane  and  Warwick,  Queensland,  in  September  and  October. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK  61 

41.  C.  albistriatella  Turn. 

{GracilariaalbislriatellaTxxvn.,  Trans.  Hoy.  tSoc.  S.  Austr.  1894, 
129.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland. 

42.  C.  albomarginata  Stt. 

{Gracilaria  albomarginata  Stt.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.,  3rd 
Ser.,  i.,  294,  pl.x.  3.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland.      Not  known  to  me. 

43.  C.  leptalea  Turn. 
{Gracilaria  leptalea  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1900,  21.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  August  and  September. 
44.  C  iryrigenes  Turn. 

{Gracilaria  py rig enes  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1896,  1; 
G.  nitidula  ibid.,  1894,  128  [prte-occup.].) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  November. 

45.  C  aeolella  Meyr. 

.     {Coriscium  aeolellu7n  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880, 
167.) 

Wollongong,  Ne\v  South  Wales,  in  October. 

46.  C.  ochridor sella  Meyr. 

{Coriscium  ochridursellum  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.N.  S.Wales, 
1880,  166.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  from  November'  to  February. 
Larva  mining  leaves  of  Phyllanthus  Ferdinandi. 

5.  Cyphosticha,  n.g. 

Characters   of  Conopomorpha,  but  middle  tibiae  elongated  and 
thickened  with  dense  scales. 
Type  C.  pyrochroma  Turn. 

47.  C.  microta  Turn. 
{Gracilaria  microta  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  8.  Austr.  1894,  128.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland.     Not  known  to  me,  but  the  structural 
characters  are  given  accurately  by  Dr.  Turner  in  his  description. 


62  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

48  C.  jyyrochroma  Turn. 

(Gracilaria  pyrochroma  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894 
129.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  August  and  September. 

6.  Macarostola,  n.g. 

Characters  of  Gracilaria,  but  middle  tibia?  not  thickened, 
smooth-scaled,  scales  sometimes  expanded  at  apex  onl3^ 

Type  M.  formosa  Stt.  To  this  genus  are  referable  the  New 
Zealand  species  lencocyma,  aellotnacha,  aethalota  and  miniella. 

-1:9.  M.  thalassias  Meyr. 

(^Gracilaria  thalatisias  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  jST.S.  Wales,  1880, 
158.) 

Newcastle  and  S3^dney,  New  South  Wales;  Melbourne,  Victoria; 
from  May  to  January.  Larva  mining  leaves  of  Leptospe7'mum 
loivigatum  and  Agonisflexuosa. 

50.  M.  toxomacha  Meyr. 

[Gracilaria  toxomacha  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn,  Soc.  N.S.Wales,- 
1882,  197.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  September.  Larva  mining  leaves 
of  FuUeiioia  daphnoides. 

51.  J/,  ophidias,  n.sp. 

(J.  8  mm.  Head  white,  crown  centrally  greyish-tinged.  Palpi 
loosely  rough-scaled  anteriorly,  white,  with  subapical  band  of 
second  joint  and  median  ring  of  terminal  joint  dark  fuscous. 
Antennae  grey.  Thorax  fuscous.  Abdomen  grey.  Legs  grey, 
suffusedly  ringed  with  white.  Forewings  elongate,  very  narrow, 
long-pointed,  apex  acute,  produced;  rather  light  fuscous;  markings 
white,  partially  edged  with  scattered  black  scales;  a  very  oblique 
wedge-shaped  mark  from  costa  before  middle,  extended  as  a 
narrow  streak  along  costa  to  base;  three  similar  marks  from  costa 
beyond  this,  each  more  or  less  distinctly  extended  on  costa  to 
touch  preceding  one,  and  two  short  direct  marks  before  apex;  a 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  63 

thrice  sinuate  narrow  subdorsal  streak  from  base  to  tornus:  cilia 
pale  fuscous,  round  apex  indistinctly  barred  with  white,  at  apex 
with  a  black  basal  dot.      Hind  wings  gre}^;  cilia  pale  grey. 
Quorn,  South  Australia,  in  October;  one  specimen. 

52.  M.  lyginella  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  lyginella  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880, 
157.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  October. 

53.  M.  amalopa,  n.sp. 

(JQ.  7-8  mm.  Head  and  thorax  ochreous-white.  Palpi  whitish, 
apex  of  second  joint  and  median  ring  of  terminal  joint  dark 
fuscous.  Antennae  whitish,  dotted  with  fuscous  above.  Abdo- 
men and  legs  ochreous-whitish,  anterior  legs  obscurely  banded 
with  fuscous.  Forewings  elongate,  very  narrow,  long-pointed, 
apex  produced,  acute;  white,  partially  tinged  with  pale  ochreous; 
markings  brownish,  more  or  less  sprinkled  with  dark  fuscous; 
nine  oblique  costal  streaks,  first  three  reduced  to  dots,  fourth 
median,  last  four  extended  to  termen;  three  oblique  streaks  from 
dorsum,  first  sometimes  partially  obsolete;  a  black  apical  dot : 
cilia  whitish,  round  apex  indistinctly  barred  with  fuscous,  extreme 
tips  at  apex  black.      Hind  wings  and  cilia  ochreous-grey-whitish. 

Albany,  West  Australia,  in  December;  six  specimens. 

54.  M.  mnesicala  Meyr. 

{Gracilaria  mnesicala  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1880, 
156.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  September. 

55.  M.formosa  Stt. 

{Gracilaria  formosa  Stt.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.,  3rd  Ser.,  i., 
291,  pl.x.,  1;  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880,  153.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  from  Sep- 
tember to  March.  Dr.  Turner  thinks  it  is  attached  to  Eugenia 
Ventenatii. 


-64  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICKO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

56.  M.  polypJaca  Low. 

{Gracilaria  polyplaca  Low.,  Trans.  Eoy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  189-1:, 
112;  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1900,  20.) 

Duaringa  and  Brisbane,  Queensland,  from  August  to  Decem- 
ber, and  in  April.  Attached  apparently  to  Tristania  conferta 
And  1\  snaveohns. 

57.  M.  ida  Meyr. 

[Gracilaria  ida  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  18S0,  155.) 
Brisbane,    Queensland;  Glen    Innes  and    Sydne}^   New  South 
Wales;  Melbourne,  Victoria;  Albany,  West  Australia;  from  July 
to  March.      Larva  mining  leaves  of  Eucalyptus  piperita  (?). 

7.  Gracilaria  Hw. 

Head  with  appressed  scales;  tongue  developed.  Antenna?  1  or 
over  1,  in  (J  filiform,  basal  joint  without  pec  ten.  Labial  palpi 
long,  curved,  ascending,  smooth  or  sometimes  partl}^  or  wlioll}' 
rough-scaled  anteriorly  or  with  tuft  uf  projecting  scales  on  second 
joint,  terminal  joint  about  as  long  as  second,  more  or  less  pointed. 
Maxillary  palpi  moderate,  tilifoim,  porrected.  Middle  tibiie 
thickened  and  expanded  with  rough  scales  beneath,  posterior 
tibi?e  with  appressed  scales.  Forewings  with  ]b  simple,  2  from 
about  |-,  3  sometimes  absent,  4  and  5  often  approximated,  7  to 
costa,  1 1  from  before  middle  or  near  base,  secondary  cell  some- 
times well  defined.  Hind  wings  about  i,  lanceolate  or  linear- 
lanceolate,  cilia  4-6;  3  sometimes  absent,  trans^■erse  vein  absent 
between  4  and  5,  5  and  6  stalked,  their  stalk  often  continued  to 
base  of  wing,  7  from  angle  of  cell  or  rarely  out  of  6. 

Type  G.  alchimiella  Sc,  from  Europe  Stud}^  of  increased 
material  from  various  regions  has  convinced  me  that  Coriscium  Z,, 
cannot  be  maintained  as  a  distinct  or  natural  genus,  the  .scaling 
of  the  palpi  being  subject  to  much  variation,  and  not  according 
with  true  affinity.  On  the  other  hand,  I  liave  found  it  practic- 
able to  use  the  .scaling  of  the  legs  to  break  up  the  whole  of  the 
species  thus  thrown  together  into  four  groups  which  are  both 
natural  and  strictly  definable,  and  since  the  number  of  species 


BY  E.  MEYRICK.  65 

known  is  already  very  large  and  destined  to  be  much  larger,  I 
have  thought  it  conducive  to  clearness  to  establish  them  as  genera. 
The  Indo-Malayan  region  is  probably  the  home  of  this  group. 

58.  G.  chalcoptera  Meyr. 

[Gracilaria  chalcoptera  Meyr.,  Proc.   Linn.  Soc.  N.   S.  Wales, 
1880,  151.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,   New  South  Wales;  in  March 
and  April. 

59.  G.  octojyunctata  Turn. 

(Gracilaria  octopunctata  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894, 
123.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  April.      Also  occurs  in  India. 

60.  G.  lepidella  Meyr. 

(Gracilaria  le/pidella   Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880, 
145.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  September  and  January. 

61.  G.  pla.gala  Stt. 

{Gracilaria  plagata  Stt.,  Trans.  Ent.   Soc.   Lend.,   3rd  Ser.,  i., 
292,  pl.x.,  2;  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales,  1880,  144.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  September. 

62.  G.  albisj^ersa  Turn. 

{Gracilaria  albispersa  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894, 
121). 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  September. 

63.  G.  chlorella  Turn. 

{Gracilaria  chlorellaT\xi'n.,Tvi!in^.  Roy.  Soc.  S.Austr.l894,  121.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  September.      Not  known  to  nie. 

64.  G.  oenopella  Meja'. 

{Gracilaria  oenopella  Mej'r.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880, 
141.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  May.      Larva  mining  leaves  of 
'Teiranthera  ferruginea. 
7 


66  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

65.  G.  aibicincta  Turn. 

{Gracilaria  aibicincta  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Ausfcr,  1900, 
•20.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  September.     Not  known  to  me. 

66.  6'.  ischiastris,  n.sp. 

^.  8  mm.  Head  and  thorax  greyish-ochreous  mixed  with 
dark  grey.  Palpi  white,  second  joint  mostly  blackish  externally 
except  a  subapical  ring,  terminal  joint  with  three  black  rings. 
Antennae  white  ringed  with  dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  dark  grey. 
Legs  dark  fuscous,  anterior  and  middle  tarsi  white,  ])Osterior 
coxse  and  base  of  femora  white,  tibiae  white  with  dark  grey  sub- 
apical  band,  tarsi  grey  with  two  white  rings.  Forewings  elongate, 
very  narrow,  very  short-pointed,  hardly  acute;  grey,  closely 
irrorated  with  blackish;  a  short  cloudy  whitish  mark  from  middle 
of  dorsum,  and  between  this  and  tornus  some  whitish  irroration 
towards  dorsum,  tending  to  form  an  irregular  strigulation;  an 
oblique  indistinct  whitish  mark  from  costa  at  |^,  and  another  more 
distinct  and  direct  before  apex,  both  preceded  by  darker  sufiFusion : 
cilia  grey,  with  thick  subbasal  and  two  posterior  blackish  lines, 
round  apex  white  between  subbasal  and  posterior  lines.  Hind- 
wings  rather  dark  grey;  cilia  grey. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  November;  one  specimen. 

67.  G.  anchetidella  Meyr. 

(^Gracilaria  auchetidella  Meyr.,  Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales,  1880, 
143) 
Bulli,  New  South  Wales,  in  October. 

68.  G.  cirrhopis,  n.sp. 

$.  9  mm.  Head  light  ochreous-yellow.  Palpi  white,  apex  of 
second  joint  blackish,  terminal  joint  suffused  with  blackish  except 
at  base  above  and  towards  apex.  Antennae  white,  suffusedly 
ringed  with  dark  fuscous.  Thorax  ochreous-yellowisb,  shoulders 
dark  purple-fuscous.  Abdomen  grey,  apex  ochreous-whitish. 
Legs  dark    purplish-fuscous,    anterior  coxae   yellowish,   all   tarsi 


15Y   K.   MEYRICK.  07 

white  witli  apex  of  joints  dark  fuscous.  Forewings  ver}'  elongate- 
lanceolate,  long-pointed,  apex  somewhat  produced;  shining  brassy- 
ochreous-yellow  ;  costa  dark  fuscous-purple  towards  base ;  a 
moderate  paler  yellow  dorsal  streak  from  base  to  tornus;  a  suffused 
dark  fuscous  dot  in  disc  above  middle,  whence  proceeds  a  broad 
streak  of  pale  purplish-fuscous  suffusion  to  apex,  strewn  with  a 
few  dark  fuscous  scales:  cilia  whitish-ochreous.  Hindwings  grey; 
cilia  pale  grey. 

George's  Bay,  Tasmania,  in  January;  one  specimen. 

69.  (t.  aurora  Turn. 
{Gracilaria  auroraTuru.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894,  127). 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  September.      Not  known  to  me. 

70.  G.  peHo]:>hanes,  n.sp. 

(J^.  8  mm.  Head  and  thorax  light  brownish-ochreous,  face 
ochreous-whitish.  Palpi  whitish,  terminal  joint  with  suffused 
dark  fuscous  band  towards  apex.  Antenna?  whitish,  ringed  with 
fuscous.  Abdomen  whitish-ochreous,  mixed  with  grey  above. 
Legs  brownish-ochreous  mixed  with  dark  fuscous,  anterior  and 
middle  tarsi  white,  apex  sometimes  dark  fuscous,  posterior  legs 
whitish-ochreous  with  dark  fuscous  dots  at  apex  of  joints.  Fore- 
wings  elongate,  very  narrow,  rather  shortly  pointed,  acute ; 
brownish-ochreous,  suffused  with  pale  fuscous  ;  a  triangular 
ochreous-whitish  blotch  extending  on  costa  from  J  to  beyond 
middle,  and  reaching  nearly  to  dorsum,  edged  with  scattered 
black  scales;  a  few  black  scales  projecting  from  dorsum  in  cilia 
towards  middle  :  cilia  pale  grey,  round  apex  with  several  series 
of  dark  grey  points.     Hindwings  rather  dark  grey;  cilia  grev. 

Toowoomba,  Queensland,  in  December;  two  specimens. 

71.  ^.  xanthopharella  ^lejr. 

(Gracilaria  xanthopharella  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 
1880,  Ul.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  from  No- 
vember to  February. 


GS  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

72.  G.  euglyjyta  Turn. 
{Gracilaria  eugly2?ta  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.S.  Austr.  1894,  122.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  September. 

73.  G.  xylophanes  Turn. 

(Gracilaria  xylophanes  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894, 
123.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  September. 

74c.  G.  eury enema  Turn. 

{Gracilaria  eurycnema  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894. 
122.)! 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  August  and  September.  If  I  have 
correctly  identified  this  species,  the  male  has  two  very  long  hair- 
pencils  rising  from  thorax  posteriorly  and  lying  along  sides  of 
abdomen. 

8.  TiMODORA  Meyr. 

75.  T.  chrysochoa  Meyr. 

(Timodora  chrysochoa  Meyr.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  1886,  296.) 
Tonga. 

9.  Opsiclines,  n.g. 

Head  with  appresvsed  scales;  ocelli  absent;  tongue  developed. 
Antennse  f,  filiform,  basal  joint  somewhat  dilated,  with  pecten. 
Labial  palpi  moderately  loug,  curved,  ascending,  second  joint 
thickened  with  scales,  somewhat  roughly  expanded  towards  apex 
beneath,  terminal  joint  about  half  second,  thickened  with  loose 
scales,  obtuse.  Maxillary  palpi  obsolete.  Forewings  with  2 
from  1^,  3  absent,  6  and  7  stalked,  7  to  costa,  8  absent,  11  from 
middle.  Hind  wings  J,  narrow-lanceolate,  cilia  4;  3  absent,  5-7 
parallel. 

A  genus  of  somewhat  dubious  affinity;  it  may  be  a  development 
of  Zelleria.  My  example,  kindly  communicated  by  Mr.  Lower, 
is  a  female,  and  the  posterior  legs  are  broken. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  09 

76.  0.  JpAicomorpha  Low. 
{Zelleria  leucomorpha  Low.,  Proc. Linn. Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1900 
422.) 

Adelaide,  South  Australia,  in  December. 

10.  Macarangela  Meyr. 

77.  M.  ptjrac7na  Meyr. 

(Macarangela  pyracnia  Meyr.,  Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales,  1892, 
589.) 

York,  West  Australia,  in  October. 

78.  M.  uranarcha  Meyr. 

(Macarangela  uranarcha  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 
1892,  588.) 

Mount  Lofty,  South  Australia. 

79.  M.  leucochrysa  Meyr. 

{Macara7igela  leucochrysa  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales, 
1892,  588.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  October. 

11.  Zelleria  Stt. 
80.  Z.  cynetica  Meyr. 
{Zelleria  cynetica  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales,  1892,  582.) 
Brisbane,  Queensland;  ]\lurrurundi,  Sydney,  and  Blackheath, 
New  South  Wales;  Gisborne,   Victoria;  Launceston,    Deloraine, 
Hobart,  and  George's  Bay,  Tasmania;  from  October  to  December, 
and  in  March  and  April. 

81.^.  araeodes  Meyr. 

{^Zelleria  araeodes  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  VVales,  1892, 
582). 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales  ;  Gerald  ton  and  Albany,  West 
Australia;  from  August  to  October. 

82.  Z.  hemixipha  Low. 

(Zelleria  hemiocipha  Low., Proc. Linn. Soc.N. S.Wales,  1900,  421.) 
Adelaide,  South  Australia,  in  November. 


70  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

83.  Z.  memorella  Meyr. 
(Zelleria  memorella  Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales,  1 892, 583.) 
Sydney    and    Mt.   Kosciusko,   New   South    Wales ;    Gisborne, 

Victoria;  Hobart  and  George's  Bay,  Tasmania   York  and  Albany, 

West  Australia;  from  November  to  January. 

8i.  Z.  cremnospila  Low. 

(Zelleria  cremnos2)ila  Low.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc  N.S.Wales,  1900, 
42L) 

Port  Victor,  South  Australia,  in  November. 

85.  Z.  aphrospora  Meyr. 

{Zelleria  aphrospora  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1892, 
584.) 

Port  Lincoln,  South  Australia,  in  November. 

86.  Z.  callidoxa  Meyr. 
(Zelleria  callidoxa  Meyr.,  Proc. Linn. Soc. N.  S.Wales,  1 892, 584.) 
Port  Lincoln  and  Mt.  Lofty,  South  Australia,  in  November. 

87.  Z.  proterespila  Meyr. 

{Zelleria  proterospil a  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1892, 
584.) 

Geraldton,  York,  and  AlVjany,  West  Australia,  from  October 
to  December. 

88.  Z.  pyroleuca  Meyr. 

{Zelleria  pyroleuca  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales,  1892, 
585.) 

Bathurst,  New  South  Wales,  in  November. 

89,  Z,  mystarcha  Meyr.  ' 

{Zelleria  mystarcha  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N,  S.Wales,  1892, 
586.) 

Campbelltown,  Tasmania,  in  December. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  71 

90.  Z.  citrina  Meyr. 
{Zelleria  citrina  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales,  1892,  586.) 
Sydney  and  Glen  Innes,  New  South  Wales,  in  September  and 
December. 

91.  ^.  sigillata  Meyr. 

{Zelleria  dgillata  Meyr.,  Proc.Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales,  1892,587.) 
Sydney  and  Shoalhaven,  New  South  Wales,  in  December  and 
January, 

92.  Z.  stylograpfa,  n.sp. 

9.  20  mm.  Head  and  thorax  grej^  finely  irrorated  with  white. 
Palpi  whitish,  sprinkled  with  grey.  Antennae  grey.  Forewings 
very  elongate-lanceolate,  round-pointed;  4  and  5  stalked;  pale 
whitish-fuscous  finely  irrorated  with  dark  fuscous,  appearing 
grey;  a  minute  blackish  dot  in  disc  at  i;  an  oblique  blackish 
streak  in  disc  before  middle,  not  reaching  margins;  someblnckish 
irroration  towards  apex:  cilia  grey,  round  apex  suffused  with 
dark  purple-fuscous.  Hind  wings  grey,  paler  and  thinly  scaled 
towards  base;  cilia  light  grey. 

Mt.  Macedon,  Victoria,  in  March;  one  specimen  (Lower). 

12.  Xyrosaris,  n.g. 

Head  with  short  dense  rough  hairs;  tongue  developed;  ocelli 
absent.  Antenna  over  1,  in  ^  filiform,  basal  joint  moderate, 
with  pectfn.  Labial  palpi  moderately  long,  curved,  ascending, 
second  joint  thickened  with  dense  scales,  expanded  and  project- 
ing towards  apex  beneath,  terminal  joint  longer  than  second, 
expanded  with  rough  projecting  scales  above  and  beneath  to  form 
a  dense  rough  brush-like  tuft  concealing  apex  of  joint,  IVl  axillary 
palpi  obsolete.  Posterior  tibiae  smooth-scaled.  Forewings  with 
small  tufts  of  scales  on  surface;  2  from  angle,  7  to  apex  or  termen, 
11  from  towards  base.  Hindwings  1,  elongate-lanceolate,  cilia 
nearly  2;  3  absent,  5  and  6  closely  approximated. 

Certainly  allied  to  Zelleria,  but  abundantly  distinct  by  the  long 
antennae,  peculiar  palpi,  and  scale-tufts  of  forewings.  I  have 
two  allied  species  from  Ceylon. 


7'2  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

93.  X.  dryopa,  n.sp. 

(^.18  mm.  Head  ochreous-whitish  irrorated  with  pale  fuscous. 
Palpi  rather  dark  fuscous  irrorated  with  whitish,  internally 
whitish.  Antennae  fuscous,  obscurely  paler-ringed.  Thorax  pale 
greyish-ochreous  tinged  with  brown.  Abdomen  grey,  anal  valves 
very  large.  Forewings  very  elongate,  very  narrow,  apex  short- 
pointed,  obtuse;  pale  greyish-ochreous,  partially  tinged  with 
brown;  two  undefined  patches  of  brown  suffusion  in  disc  ante- 
riorly, including  two  or  three  small  dark  fuscous  scaletufts;  a 
narrow  brown  streak  along  dorsum  from  middle  to  near  tornus, 
including  two  dark  fuscous  scaletufts;  some  small  black  dots  on 
posterior  half  of  costaand  forming  a  curved  subterminal  series  to 
tornus;  some  brown  suffusion  towards  apex,  including  a  transverse 
mark  of  raised  fu>cous  scales:  cilia  pale  greyish-ochreous,  towards 
tornus  suffused  with  dark  grey,  round  apex  and  on  costa  with 
two  broad  dark  grey  shades.  Hind  wings  grey,  becoming  thinly 
scaled  and  subhyaline  towards  base:  cilia  grey. 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  one  specimen. 

13.  Cyclotohna,  n.g. 

Head  with  appres.^ed  scales;  tongue  absent;  ocelli  present. 
Antennae  |,  in  ^  filiform,  simple,  basal  joint  short,  thick,  with 
scaletuft  anteriorly.  Labial  palpi  minute,  scaled,  obtuse. 
Maxillary  palpi  obs(»lete.  Abdomen  thick.  Posterior  tibiae 
with  dense  long  hairs  above.  Forewino;s  with  16  furcate,  2  from 
angle,  7  to  apex,  8-10  approximated,  11  from  middle,  secondary 
cell  defined.  Hindwings  1,  elongate-ovate,  cilia  |;  3  and  4 
connate  or  stalked,  5-7  parallel,  8  fiee. 

This  curious  form  is  probabl}"  a  modification  of  Homadaula. 

94.  C.  monocentra,  n.sp. 

(J9.  23-30  mm.  Head,  pnlpi,  and  thorax  dark  fuscous  finely 
irrorated  with  whitish.  Antennae  fuscous.  Abdomen  ochreous- 
fuscous.  Forewings  elongate,  moderate,  costa  rather  strongly 
arched,  apex  rounded,  termen  obliquely  rounded,  dorsum  strongly 
arched  before  middle;  dark  grey,  partially  tinged  with  ochreous- 


BY  E.   MEYKICK.  73 

brownish,  tineiy  irrorated  with  whitish,  and  strewn  with  l)hickisli 
or  dark  fuscous  s<ales;  some  undefined  darker  suffusion  towards 
costa  before  mi' Idle;  a  narrow  or  linear  transverse  dark  fuscous 
mark  in  disc  before  §  :  cilia  grey  irrorated  with  whitish.  Hind- 
wings  in  ^  dark  fusrous,  in  ^  fuscous,  somewhat  ochreous-tinged; 
hairs  on  16  tinged  with  ochreous;  cilia  light  ochreous-fuscous, 
basal  hnlf  in  ^  dark  fuscous. 

Townsville  and  Duaringa,  Queensland,  in  April  (Barnard, 
Dodd,  Lower);  five  specimens.  Mr.  Dodd  states  that  "the  larva 
has  two  stages,  one  bug-like,  the  other  rayed;  in  the  latter  stage 
it  lives  in  the  nests  of  ants;  the  change  of  shape  is  effected  in  a 
small  cocoon." 

14.  HOMADAULA,  n.g. 

Head  smooth,  sidetufts  somewhat  spreading;  tongue  developed; 
ocelli  absent.  Antennae  f,  in  ^  serrulate,  shortly  ciliated,  basal 
joint  moderate,  without  pecten.  Labial  palpi  moderate,  straight, 
porrected  or  subascending,  second  joint  thick,  shortly  rough- 
scaled,  terminal  joint  short,  stout,  cylindrical,  obtuse.  M-axillar}' 
palpi  rudimentar}'.  Posterior  tibiae  wath  appressed  scales.  Fore- 
wings  with  \b  furcate,  2  from  near  angle,  7  to  apex  or  termen, 
11  from  middle,  secondary  cell  defined.  Hindwings  1,  elongate- 
ovate,  cilia  4;  3  and  4  connate  or  stalked,  5-7  parallel. 

Type  H.  mi/rioi^pila.  Probably  related  to  Auticrates,  from 
which  it  differs  mainly  by  the  peculiar  palpi. 

95.  H.  coscinopa  Low. 

{IJomadaula  coscinopa  Low,,  Proc. Linn. Soc.N.S. Wales,  1  900, 
51.) 

Broken  Hill,  New  South  Wales,  in  March, 

96.  H.  myriospilay  n.sp. 

(J9.  13-17  mm.  Head  and  thorax  grey  sprinkled  with  whitish. 
Palpi  blackish,  apex  grey.  Antenna?  and  abdomen  gre3\  Fure- 
wings  elong-ite,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex  rounded,  termen 
rather  obliquely  rounded;  grey,  finely  irrorated  with  white,  strewn 
with  numerous  dark  fuscous  dots;  the  absence  of  white  irroration 


74  DESCRIPnONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTRRA,  XIX., 

generally  forms  a  subquadiate  blotch  on  costa  before  middle,  its 
anterior  edge  darker  and  tending  to  be  produced  to  dorsum,  but 
this  is  sometimes  obsolete  or  reduced  to  a  spot  in  disc;  a  more  or 
less  distinct  small  dark  spot  above  dorsum  before  tornus  :  cilia 
grey,  with  lines  of  white  points,  Hindwings  ochreous-grey, 
becoming  darker  towards  apex;  cilia  grey,  becoming  whitish 
towards  tips. 

Carnarvon  and  Gerald  ton,  West  Australia,  in  November  and 
December;  ten  specimens,  all  bred.  Larva  feeds  on  an  unidentified 
phyllodineous  species  of  Acacia,  living  gregariously  in  dense 
masses  of  web  amongst  the  phyllodia,  in  October. 

97.  //.  poliodes,  n.sp. 

(^9.  11-12  mm.  Head  white,  sprinkled  with  grey.  Palpi 
dark  grey,  apex  of  joints  whitish.  Antennae  grey.  Thorax 
white,  indistinctly  spotted  with  grey.  Abdomen  grey.  Forewings 
elongate,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  obliquely 
rounded;  grey,  densely  and  suffusedly  irrorated  with  white;  some 
scattered  rather  dark  fuscous  dots;  markings  rather  dark  fuscous;  a 
triangular  spot  on  dorsum  near  base;  a  moderately  broad  fascia  at  |, 
attenuated  or  obsolete  on  costa;  an  irregular  blotch  on  dorsum 
before  tornus;  an  irregular  spot  on  costa  at  |,  and  another  on 
termen  above  tornus,  sometimes  confluent  :  cilia  rather  dark  grey, 
with  rows  of  white  points.  Hindwings  rather  dark  grey,  lighter 
towards  base;  cilia  light  grey. 

York,  West  Australia,  in  November;  two  specimens. 

98.  H.  fasiochroa  Low. 

( Homadanlalasiochroajjow, ,Vvoc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1899, 
115.) 

Broken  Hill,  New  South  Wales,  in  October  and  January, 

15.  Prays  Hb. 

Head  with  appressed  scales;  tongue  developed.  Antennae  |, 
in  (J  minutely  ciliated  or  pubescent,  basal  joint  witihout  pecten. 
Labial  palpi  moderate,  curved,  subascending,  second  joint  some- 


BY   K.   MKYRICK.  75 

what  rough  beneath,  terminal  joint  as  long  as  second  or  longer, 
pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  rudimentary.  Posterior  tibiae  smooth- 
scaled.  Fore  wings  with  16  furcate,  2  from  *,  7  and  8  approxi- 
mated at  V)ase  or  stalked,  7  to  termen,  9  and  10  approximated, 
11  from  beyond  middle.  Hiiidwings  1,  elongate-ovate,  cilia  |-1; 
4  absent,  6  and  7  parallel. 

1.  Head  yellowish  or  whitish-ochreous 2. 

Head  grey 4. 

2.  Forewings  with  dark  transverse  markings 8. 

Forewings  with  marginal  spots  only 90.  tyrastis. 

3.  Forewings  with  dark  fascia  at  ^ , l^id.  inscripta. 

Forewings  without  dark  fascia  at;|.. 101.  calycias. 

4.  Forewings  with  median  dorsal  spot  fascia-like 102.  nephelomima. 

Forewings  with  median  dorsal  spot  not  crossing  fold.,  103.  autocasis. 

99.  P.  tyrastis,  n.sp. 

(J.  12-15  mm.  Head  and  palpi  light  ochreous-yellow.  Antennae 
fuscous.  Thorax  whitish-yellowish,  anterior  margin  dark  fuscous. 
Abdomen  pale  gre3''-yellowish.  Forewings  very  elongate,  costa 
posteriorly  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  oblique,  some- 
what rounded;  whitish-yellowish;  markings  dark  fuscous;  two 
small  spots  on  costa  near  base  and  at  ^,  connected  by  a  narrow 
costal  streak;  two  dots  on  costa  about  middle,  and  a  spot  or  dot 
at  |;  a  spot  on  dorsum  at  ^,  a  larger  one  beyond  middle,  and  a 
triangular  one  at  tornus;  an  irregular  streak  from  apex  along 
termen  to  below  middle  :  cilia  whiiishochreous,  with  fuscous  bars 
below  apex  and  above  tornus,  or  mostly  fuscous.  Hindwingsand 
cilia  grey. 

Geraldton,  West  Australia;  Melbourne,  Victoria;  in  November, 

three  specimens. 

100,  P.  inscripta^  n.sp. 

^9.  11-13  mm.  Head  ochreous-yellowish.  Palpi,  antennas, 
thorax,  and  abdomen  rather  dark  fuscous.  Forewings  very 
elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  obliquely 
rounded;  oclireous-white,  towards  dorsum  more  ochreous-tinged; 
markings  dark  ochreous-fuscous;  a  streak  along  anterior  half  of 
costa;  three  narrow  fasciae,   first  at   \,  sometimes   not  reaching 


76  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MinRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

dorsum,  second  from  |  of  costa  to  §  of  dorsum,  connected  in 
middle  by  a  bar  with  apex  of  costal  streak,  third  from  costa  near 
apex  to  tornus;  generally  a  more  or  less  partial  streak  along 
termen,  sometimes  partly  confluent  with  third  fascia:  cilia  fuscous. 
Hindwings  rather  dark  purplish-fuscous;  cilia  fuscous. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  August,  September,  March,  and 
April;  ten  specimens,  all  in  Waverley  Gully. 

101.  P.  calyciaii,  n.sp. 

(J^.  10-11  mm.  Head  whitish-ochreous,  yellowish-tinged. 
Palpi  and  antennae  grey.  Thorax  and  abdomen  rather  dark 
fuscous.  Fore  wings  very  elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex 
round-pointed,  tej-men  very  obliquely  rounded  ;  rather  dark 
fuscous;  markings  pale  whitish-ochreous;  a  large  rounded-tri- 
angular blotch  extending  on  dorsum  from  base  to  middle,  apex 
almost  reaching  costa  at  ^;  one  or  two  obscure  dots  towards 
middle  of  costa;  a  rather  narrow  irregular  fascia  from  4  of  costa 
to  dorsum  before  tornus  :  cilia  fuscous,  tips  whitish  on  a  spot 
beneath  apex.  Hindwings  rather  dark  fuscous,  with  prismatic 
reflections;  cilia  fuscous. 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydne}',  New  South  Wales;  from  Sep- 
tember to  November,  five  specimens. 

102.  P.  7iepheIo7ni7nfi^  n.sp. 

(J^.  10-12  mm.  Head  and  thorax  grey  mixed  with  white. 
Palpi  grey.  Antenme  whitish-grey.  Abdomen  grey.  Forewings 
very  elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  round-pointed,  termen 
very  obliquely  rounded;  grey,  suffused  with  whitish  and  mixed 
with  dark  fuscous,  tending  to  form  transverse  strigulte;  markings 
cloudy,  indistinct,  formed  by  dark  fuscous  suffusion;  a  spot  on 
costa  at  ^5  and  another  at  |;  an  oblique  fascia-like  spot  from 
dorsum  beyond  middle,  reaching  more  than  half  across  wing  and 
tendiog  to  unite  with  second  costal  spot;  a  triangular  spot  on 
tornus  :  cilia  grey,  mixed  with  whitish  on  costa.  Hindwings 
and  cilia  fuscous-grey. 

Murrurundi  and  Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  November  and 
December;  five  specimens. 


BY  E.  MEYRICK.  77 

103.  r.  autocasis,  ri.sp. 

^.  11-12  mm.  Head  pale  grey,  yellowish-tinged,  face  more 
whitish.  Pal[)i,  anteniiiie,  thorax,  and  abdomen  grey.  Forewings 
very  elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  round-pointed,  termen 
very  obliquely  rounded;  grey,  densely  irrorated  with  white,  and 
transversely  strigulated  with  darker  grey;  an  indistinct  cloudy 
darker  spot  on  dorsum  beyond  middle,  not  cro.'-sing  fold,  and 
another  on  tornus  :  cilia  grey,  on  costa  mixed  with  white.  Hind- 
wings  gre}^  with  brassy  and  purplish  reflections;  cilia  grey. 

Sydney,  ]New  South  Wales;  Albany,  West  Australia;  in  Octo- 
ber and  April,  two  specimens. 

16.  Yponomeuta  Latr. 
lO-t.  Y.  inte7-jiellusWa.\k. 

(Hyponomeiita  internellus  Walk.  533;  H.  ptistulellus  ib.  533, 
Turn.,  Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales,  1903,  77;  H.  grossipunctella 
Gn.,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  1879,  282.) 

Mackay,  Townsville,  Brisbane,  and  Warwick,  Queensland;  Glen 
Innes,  Newcastle,  and  Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  from  June  to 
January. 

105.  Y.  myriosemus  Turn. 

[Hyponomeuta  myrioseryia  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr., 
1898,  200.) 

Duaringa,  and  Brisbane,  Queensland;  Katoomba,  New  South 
Wales;  in  August  and  November. 

106.   Y.  interruptellus  Saub. 

{Teinoptila  hiterriqytella  Saub.,  Semp.  Schmett.  Phil,  ii.,  701, 
pi.  Ixvi.,  16.) 

Port  Moresby,  New  Guinea;  a  specimen  received  from  Dr. 
Turner;  occurs  also  in  the  Philippines.  A  curious  blackish  species, 
with  two  or  three  very  irregular  rather  large  white  spots  towards 
dorsum  of  forewings;  it  is  a  true  Yponomeuta,  and  the  genus 
Teinoptila  Saub.,  lapses. 


78  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

17.  Thyridectis  Meyr. 

107.  T.  psephonoma  Meyr. 

{Thyridectis    psephonoma   Meyr.,   Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S. Wales, 
1886,  1046.) 
.    Newcastle,  New  South  Wales. 

18.  Atteva  Walk. 

The  species  of  this  genus,  notwithstanding  their  conspicuous 
colouring,  are  often  very  similar  and  difficult,  and  require  close 
attention.  The  colour  and  markings  of  the  head  and  thorax,  and 
the  modificMtions  of  the  posterior  tibi?e  of  the  male,  frequently 
afford  reliable  distinctions.  A.  fulvlgnttala  Z.,  is  attributed 
conjecturally  to  Australia,  but  in  error;  it  is  really  West  Indian. 

108.  A.  anrata  Butl. 

{Corinea  aurata  Butl.,  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1882,  238.) 

25  mm.  Forewings  golden-orange.  Hindwings  orange,  apical 
half  greenish  black, 

Duke  of  York  Island  (Bismarck  Archipelago).    Only  type  seen. 

109.  A.  rex  Butl. 
{Corinea  rex  Butl.,  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1887,  414.) 

<J.  25-26  mm.  Head  dark  grey,  a  streak  along  anterior  margin 
of  eye,  a  patch  behind  eye,  and  a  spot  or  mark  on  back  of  crown 
white.  Thorax  and  abdomen  orange,  anal  valves  very  long. 
Posterior  tibiae  and  tarsi  whitish,  very  weak  and  deformed. 
Forewings  narrow,  posteriorly  dilated,  costa  posteriorly  strongly 
arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  faintly  sinuate,  rather  oblique;  bright 
orange,  posteriorly  coppery-tinged;  a  suffused  deep  purple  terminal 
fascia,  occupying  about  J  of  wing,  broadest  on  costa.  Hindwings 
thinly  scaled,  bright  orange;  apical  §  dark  grey. 

Bougainville,  Solomon  Is.;  two  specimens  (Meek);  types  also 
seen. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  7i) 

110.  A.  alhitarsis  Feld. 
{Amblothridia  albilarsis  Feld.,  Heis.  Nov.,  pl.cxxxix  (note).) 
Locality  not  given,  but  it  would  seem  to  be  pro})ably  from  the 

Australian    region.      Not    known    to   me;  described   as  golden- 
orange,  with  costa  and  termen  of  fore  wings  narrowly  black. 

111.  A.  porphyris  n.sp. 

5.  27-29  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  antenme  blackish,  face  and  a 
patch  behind  eyes  white.  Thorax  bright  orange.  Abdomen 
orange,  above  deep  purple  becoming  blackish  posteriorly,  beneath 
with  apical  segment  white  and  prjeapical  purple-blackish.  Legs 
purple-blackish,  spotted  with  white.  Forewings  elongate,  rather 
narrow,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  rounded,  termen  rather 
obliqueljM'ounded;  very  deep  indigo-blue-purple;  basal  area  almost 
to  midtUe  bright  orange:  cilia  dark  purple-fuscous,  tips  pale  fuscous. 
Hindwings  somewhat  thinly  scaled,  bright  orange;  apical  half 
dark  purplish-fuscous,  produced  along  dorsum  to  near  termen; 
cilia  dark  purplish-fuscous,  tips  paler,  becoming  orange  on 
dorsum. 

Bougainville,  Solomon  Is.;  two  specimens  (Meek). 

112.^.  iris  Feld. 
{Amblothridia  iris  Feld.,  Reis.  Nov.  pl.cxxxix.,  25.) 

Molucca  Is.;  not  known  tome.  Similar  to  preceding,  but  with 
orange  area  much  smaller,  occupying  only  about  a  fourth  of  wing. 

113.  A.  teratias,  n.sp. 

(J9.  30-33  mm.  Head  dark  ^rey,  a  streak  along  anterior 
margin  of  eye,  a  patch  behind  eye,  and  sometimes  a  dot  on  fore- 
head and  another  on  crown  white.  Palpi  and  antennae  dark 
grey.  Thorax  and  abdomen  bright  orange,  abdomen  in  ^  with 
white  ventral  stripe,  anal  valves  very  long.  Legs  dark  grey, 
apex  of  middle  tibiae  whitish,  posterior  legs  white  suffused  with 
orange  above,  posterior  tibiae  in  ^  short  and  weak,  loosely  rough- 
scaled  above.     Forewings  very  elongate,  narrow,  costa  posteriorly 


80  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

gently  arched,  apex  rounded,  termen  somewhat  obliquely  rounded; 
dark  fuscous-purple,  in  ^  suffused  with  deep  indigo  in  disc;  basal 
f  bright  orange,  division  suffused;  an  elongate  white  spot  in  disc 
somewhat  before  middle;  a  variable  roundish  or  irregular  white 
spot  in  disc  somewhat  before  J,  above  which  are  one  or  two 
minute  white  dots :  cilia  rather  dark  fuscous.  H  ind wings  blackish- 
fuscous;  basal  I  bright  orange;  cilia  grey,  on  basal  area  orange. 
Woodlark  I.    Sariba  I.;  two  specimens  (Meek). 

114.  A.  cupinna  Feld. 
{Amhlothridia  cuprina  Feld.,  Reis.  Nov.  pi.  cxxxix.,  21.) 
Molucca  Is.;  not  known  to  me.      Fore  wings  purple,  with  an 
orange  basal  patch  extended  along  dorsum  to  tornus,  and  four 
white   spots  in    the  purple   area;  hind  wings   orange,    with  grey 
apical  patch. 

115.  A.  hasalis  VoU. 

{Oeta  hasalis  Vol!.,  Tijd.  v.  Ent.  1863,  140,  pi.  ix.,6.) 
Mortal  (Moluccas);  other  localities  quoted  by  various  authors 
require  confirmation,    the  identity  of    the   species  observed  not 
being  established.     This  and  the  two  following  species  are  nearly 
allied,  and  the  group  requires  further  study. 

116.  A.  conspicua  Wals. 

{Atteva  conspicua  Wals.,  Swinh.  Cat.  Het.  ii.,  559.) 

Buru;  not  known  to  me. 

117.  ^.  Mathewi  Butl. 

{Corinea  Mathewi  Butl.,  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1887,  414.) 

(J 9.  30-35  mm.  Head  blackish-grey,  a  streak  along  anterior 
margin  of  eye,  a  patch  behind  eye,  and  undefined  spots  on  fore- 
head and  back  of  crown  white.  Thorax  and  abdomen  orange. 
Posterior  tibiee  in  $  somewhat  short  but  normal,  smooth-scaled. 
Forewings  purple-blackish;  basal  f  deep  orange;  a  white  spot  on 
dorsum  near  base,  and  one  in  disc  at  |;  a  variable  transverse 
white  mark  before  middle,  seldom  reaching  dorsum;  a  while  dot 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  81 

Oil  costa  near  beyond  this,  sometimes  almost  touching  it;  three 
small  variable  white  spots  beneath  costa  on  posterior  half,  some- 
times accompanied  by  one  or  two  additional  dots;  a  rather  large 
pear-shaped  white  spot  above  dorsum  before  tornus,  sometimes 
touching  dorsum  or  connected  with  penultimate  subcostal  spot. 
Hind  wings  thinly  scaled,  bright  orange;  apical  half,  or  rather 
less,  grey,  on  termen  blackish. 

Kulambangia,  Florida  Guadalcanar,  Choiseul,  Gizo,  Rendova, 
probably  throughout  the  Solomon  Is.  (Meek);  fourteen  specimens. 
My  former  quotation  of  A.  apicalis  Voll.,  from  these  islands 
was  founded  on  a  mistaken  identification  of  this  species. 

118.  A.  aJbiguttata  Z. 

{Oeta  alhiguttata  Z.,  Zool.  Bot.  Ver.  1873,  230;  Atteva  albi- 
gnttata  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  goc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1903,  80.) 

Maryborough  and  Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  April  (Barnard, 
Turner). 

119.  A.  charopis  Turn. 

{Atteva  charopis  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1903,  80.) 
Cooktown  and  Cairns,  Queensland  (Dodd). 

120.  A.  megalasfra,  n.sp. 

(J^.  29-30  mm.  Head  ochreous-whitish.  Palpi  dark  grey, 
base  ochreous-whitish.  Antennae  grey.  Thorax  deep  orange, 
apical  margin  of  collar,  and  a  spot  on  outer  side  of  patagia  white, 
and  a  transverse  ochreous-whitish  bar  before  posterior  extremity. 
Abdomen  bright  orange,  beneath  with  segments  white  towards 
middle  of  posterior  margin.  Legs  dark  fuscou.«,  spotted  with 
white,  posterior  tibiae  in  ^  clothed  with  dense  long  hairs  above  and 
beneath.  Forewings  elongate,  costa  anteriorly  nearly  straight, 
posteriorly  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  rather  oblique, 
hardly  rounded ;  deep  fulvou.s-orange,  with  numerous  mostly 
roundish  white  spots;  about  twelve  small  ones  on  costa,  tenth 
largest;  five  moderate  spots,  with  two  or  three  variable  small 
additional  dots,  in  a  supramedian  longitudinal  series,  first  and 
third  sometimes  touching  costal  spots,  second  central,  fifth  almost 
8 


82  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

apical;  a  moderate  spot  above  dorsum  near  base;  two  large  spots 
in  disc  at  about  |  and  f ;  five  or  six  small  spots  on  dorsum,  of 
which  one  beyond  middle  is  larger  and  transverse;  a  more  or  less 
transverse  spot  beyond  tornus,  and  sometimes  some  additional 
^  ariable  dots  above  this:  cilia  orange,  towards  tips  white  round 
apex.  Hindwings  bright  orange;  cilia  orange,  tips  paler. 
Port  Douglas,  Queensland;  two  specimens  (Lucas). 

121.  A.  niphocosma  Turn. 

{Atteva  niphocosma  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1903, 
79.) 

Townsville  and  Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  February  and  March 
(Turner).      Not  known  to  me. 

122.  A.  mt/riastra,  n.sp. 

5.  34  mm.  Head  white  mixed  with  whitish-ochreous.  (Palpi 
broken).  Antennae  dark  grey.  Thorax  deep  orange,  apical  half 
of  collar  and  a  spot  on  outer  side  of  patagia  white  (probably  with 
a  whitish  bar  before  posterior  extremity,  but  defaced).  Abdomen 
bright  orange,  beneath  with  segments  white  towards  middle  of 
posterior  margin.  Legs  dark  fuscous,  spotted  with  white. 
Forewings  elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen 
almost  straight,  somewhat  oblique;  fulv^ous-orange,  with  numerous 
white  spots;  about  thirteen  small  ones  on  costa,  eleventh  largest; 
eleven  small  or  moderate  spots  in  an  irregular  subcostal  series; 
about  eight  in  an  irregular  submedian  series,  variable  in  size, 
two  transverse  spots  about  |  connected,  eighth  transverse;  about 
nine  small  dorsal  spots,  one  beyond  middle  larger  and  transverse: 
cilia  orange,  tips  paler.  Hindwings  and  cilia  bright  orange, 
Maryborough,  Queensland;  one  specimen  (Barnard). 

19.  CORYPTILUM  Z. 

Head  shortly  rough-haired.  Antennae  J  to  almost  1,  in  ^ 
filiform,  simple,  basal  joint  short,  without  pecten.  Labial  palpi 
moderate,  curved,  ascending,  with  rough  projecting  hairs  beneath 
throughout,  terminal  joint  shorter  than  second,  obtuse.    Maxillary 


BY  E.   MEYHICK.  83 

palpi  moderate,  filiform,  subascending.  Posterior  tibiie  with 
appressed  scales.  Forewings  with  2  from  near  angle,  7  to  costa, 
1 1  from  J  of  cell,  secondary  cell  defined.  Hind  wings  1,  elongate- 
ovate,  cilia  J;  3  and  4  somewhat  approximated,  5  and  6  approxi- 
mated. 

A  peculiar  genus  of  somewhat  uncertain  aflinity,  perhaps  nearer 
the  Tortyra  group. 

123.  C.  KlugiiZ. 

{Coryptilitni  Klucjii  Z.,Is.  1839,  Sippharara  eucliromiella^  dXV. 
Suppl.  1822;  S.  Wnodfordi  Druce,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond.  1888, 
579.  pi.  xxix.,  8.) 

(J^.  32-40  mm  Head  black.  Thorax  coppery-red,  suffusedly 
striped  with  black.  Abdomen  blackish.  Forewings  elongate, 
posteriorly  dilated,  costa  posteriori}'  strongly  arched,  apex  obtuse, 
termen  obliquely  rounded;  orange,  mostly  suffused  with  deep 
coppery-red;  costal  edge  blackish;  a  blackish  patch,  strewn  with 
bright  bluish-silvery-metallic  .scales,  extending  along  dorsum  from 
near  base  to  near  tornus;  a  broad  black  oblique  subapical  patch 
from  costa  posteriorly,  not  quite  reaching  termen,  marked  with 
several  streaks  of  bright  bluish-silvery-metallic  scales  on  veins; 
two  more  or  less  indicated  short  black  and  silvery-metallic  streaks 
on  veins  towards  tornus.  Hindwings  black;  apical  third  bright 
orange. 

Rendova,  Isabel,  Gizo,  Solomon  Is.;  Milne  Bay,  New  Guinea; 
Rossel  1.;  Gilolo;  tw^elve  specimens.  Occurs  also  in  the  Philip- 
pines, Celebes,  Sumatra,  Java,  and  Malacca. 

20.  ToNZA  Walk. 
124.  T.purella  Walk. 
{Tonza  purellaWsilk.  1011;  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales, 
1892,  591.) 

Townsville  and  Kockhampton,  Queensland,  in  November,  Feb- 
ruar}^  and  May. 

21.  Antichates  Meyr. 

Head  loosely  haired  or  with  appressed  scales;  tongue  developed. 
Antennae  |-i,  in  g  moderately  or  shortly  ciliated,   basal  joint 


84  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTBRA,   XIX., 

sometimes  with  pecten.  Labial  palpi  moderately  long,  curved, 
ascending,  with  appressed  scales,  terminal  joint  shorter  than 
second,  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  rudimentary.  Posterior  tibiae 
with  appressed  scales.  Fore  wings  with  16  furcate,  2  from  angle, 
2  and  3  sometimes  stalked,  7  to  termen,  7  and  8  or  8  and  9  some- 
times stalked,  11  from  before  middle.  Hind  wings  1,  elongate- 
ovate,  cilia  i-J;  3  and  4  connate  or  stalked,  5-7  tolerably  parallel. 
An  Indo-Malayan  genus  of  moderate  extent. 

125.  A.  isan&ma,  n.sp. 

(JQ.  18-20  mm.  Head,  palpi,  antennse,  thorax,  and  abdomen 
white,  second  joint  of  palpi  pale  ochreous  except  towards  apex, 
terminal  joint  obviously  shorter  than  second.  Fore  wings  elongate, 
costa  moderately  arched,  apex  tolerably  pointed,  termen  faintly 
sinuate,  rather  strongly  oblique,  8  and  9  stalked;  white;  some- 
times two  or  three  minute  dark  fuscous  dots  on  costa  towards 
apex,  and  on  dorsum  towards  tornus:  costal  cilia  whitish-ochreous, 
near  apex  white;  terminal  cilia  pale  ochreous,  becoming  fuscous 
towards  tips,  base  white,  with  a  minute  blackish  apical  dot. 
Hindwings  and  cilia  white. 

Mount  Wellington,  Tasmania,  at  3000  feet,  in  December  and 
January,  apparently  attached  to  Correa  speciosa;  nine  specimens. 
126.  A.  di'osochlora,  n.sp, 

9.  17  mm.  Head,  palpi,  antennae,  thorax,  and  abdomen  white, 
terminal  joint  of  palpi  almost  as  long  as  second.  Forewings 
elongate,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex  pointed,  termen  almost 
straight,  rather  strongly  oblique,  8  and  9  stalked;  white,  strewn 
throughout  with  scattered  pale  brownish  ochreous  scales;  a  series 
of  minute  dark  fuscous  specks  round  apical  portion  of  co.sta  and 
termen  :  cilia  pal^  ochreous,  towards  base  white,  sprinkled  with 
pale  brownish-ochreous.      Hindwings  and  cilia  white. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  August,  amongst  Correa  speciosa; 
one  specimen. 

127.  A.  sulfurata,  n.sp. 

(J  18  mm.,  9  27  mm.  Head  and  thorax  in  $  pale  yellow,  in  ^ 
brownish-ochreous.        Palpi    in    ^    moderate,    ochreous-whitish, 


BY   K.    MKYUICK.  85 

terminal  joint  nearly  equal  second,  in  Q  longer,  more  recurved, 
brownish-ochreous,  terminal  joint  much  shorter  than  second. 
Antenns^e  whitish  ochreous.  Abdomen  whitish.  Fore  wings 
elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  somewhat 
rounded,  oblique,  7  and  8  stalked;  very  pale  shining  brassy- 
j^ellowish  :  cilia  whitish.      Hind  wings  and  cilia  white. 

York,  West  Australia,  in  November,  1  (J;  Ardrossan,  South 
Australia,  1  9.  I  have  no  doubt  these  are  the  same  species, 
but  in  case  of  error  I  specify  the  male  as  the  type. 

128.  A.  jjara.vantha,  n.sp. 

9.  16  mm.  Head  ochreous-yellow.  Palpi  whitish-ochreous, 
second  joint  externally  crimson-tinged.  Antennae  whitish-ochreous. 
Thorax  yellow,  collar  and  posterior  third  mixed  with  dull  crimson. 
Abdomen  pale  ochreous,  tinged  with  crimson.  Forewings  elongate, 
costa  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  little  rounded, 
oblique,  7-9  separate;  yellow,  with  a  few  scattered  pale  crimson 
scales  in  disc  and  posteriorly;  base  narrowly  pale  crimson,  shortly 
produced  along  costa;  an  ill-defined  and  partially  interrupted 
cloudy  pale  crimson  streak  from  J  of  dorsum  to  ^  of  costa;  an 
inwardly  oblique  pale  crimson  streak  from  dorsum  before  tornus, 
terminating  in  previous  streak  at  right  angles :  cilia  yellow, 
slightly  crimson-tinged.  Hindwings  and  cilia  light  ochreous- 
crimson. 

Rockhamptun,  Queensland;  one  specimen  (Barnard). 

129.  A.  za^i/ra,  n.sp. 

(J.  16  mm.  Head  pale  yellow,  crown  red  posteriorly.  Palpi 
reddish.  Antennae  whitish-yellowish.  Thorax  pale  yellow,  with 
red  transverse  median  band.  Abdomen  coppery-ochreous.  Fore- 
wings  elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  some- 
what lounded,  oblique,  7-9  separate;  pale  brassy-yellow;  markings 
crimson-red,  paler  on  costal  half,  deepest  towards  dorsum;  costal 
edge  crimson  towards  base;  a  subdorsal  streak  from  base  to  J  of 
dorsum,  connected  there  wdth  a  median  streak  from  before  middle 
of  dorsum  to  near  costa  at  4;  a  streak  from  base  of  costa  termina- 


S6  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAX  MICKO-LKPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

ting  in  median  streak  on  fold,  and  connected  with  middle  of  sub- 
dorsal streak  by  a  bar  parallel  to  median  streak  and  continued 
upwards  to  meet  next  streak;  a  slender  curved  streak  rising  from 
this  near  base  and  continued  through  middle  of  disc  to  tornus, 
joined  at  right  angles  b}'  a  thick  streak  from  |  of  dorsum  parallel 
to  median;  above  this  the  whole  wing  is  marked  by  cloudy  inter- 
neural  streaks  not  quite  reaching  margin  :  cilia  light  crimson- 
ochreous,  basal  third  dull  crimson.  Hindwingsand  cilia  crimson- 
ochreous. 

Toowoomba,  Queensland,  in  December;  one  specimen. 

22.  Lactura  Walk. 

Characters  are  given  by  Dr.  Turnei',  Init  7  and  8  of  forewings 
sometimes  stalked.  I  include  Epidictica  Turn.,  as  a  synonym  of 
this  genus.      It  appears  to  be  confined  to  the  Australian  region. 

130.  //.  caminaea  Meyr. 

{Enaemia  caminaea  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1886. 
1044.) 

Newcastle  and  Sj^dney,  New  South  Wales,  in  April.  Larva  on 
Eucalyptus;  figured  and  described  by  Olliff,  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist. 
1888,  361,  pi.  XX.,  5;  if  there  is  no  error  of  observation,  it  is  very 
abnormal  in  form. 

131.  Z.  egregiella\\?i\k. 

(Cyptasia  egregiella  Walk.,  Suppl.  1837;  Lactura  egregielta 
Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1903,  84.) 

Duaringa,  Wide  Bay,  and  Rosewood,  Queensland,  in  October. 
132.  L.  dives  Walk. 

[Lactura  dives  Walk.,  Bomb.  486;  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S. 
Wale.s,  1903,  89.) 

Townsville,  Queensland,  in  Marcij. 

133.  L.  laetifera  Walk 

{Theniiscyra  laetifera  Walk.,  Suppl.  258;  Enaemia ^pgrocJivysa 
Low.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894,  111;  Lactura  laptifera 
Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wale.s,  1903,  85.) 

Cairns,  Bundaberg,  and  Brisbane,  Queensland. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  87 

1 34.  L.  suffusa  Walk. 

{Dianasa  su^'usa  Walk.,  Bomb.  488;  Uypoprepia  haematopus 
Feld.,  Reis.  Nov,  pi.  cxxxix.,  54,  55;  Dianasa  obscura  Butl.,  Trans. 
Ent.  Soc,  Lond.  1877,  346;  Lactura  suffusa  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  8oc. 
N.  S.Wales,  1903,88.) 

Mackay  and  Brisbane,  Queensland;  Newcastle,  New  South 
Wales  Felder's  quotation  of  Assam  as  locality  is  undoubtedly 
one  of  his  frequent  errors. 

1 35.  L.  Pilcheri  Luc. 

(Oal/iyenia  Pilcheri  Luc,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1891, 
279;  Epidictica  Pilcheri  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1903, 
83.) 

Rockhampton,  Bundaberg,  and  Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  No- 
vember and  March. 

136.  L.  calliphylla  Turn. 

{Epidictica  calliphylla  Turn  ,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1903, 
81.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  November. 

137.  L.  2?hoenodes  Feld. 
(Mieza  phoenoJes  Feld.,  Reis.  Nov.  pi.  cxxxix.,  37.) 
Locality  quoted  as  doubtfully  Australian.      Not  known  to  me; 

it  may  not  be  referable  to  this  genus. 

138.  L.  cristata  Butl. 

{Cyptasia  cristata  Butl.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  1886,  383; 
Enaetnia  callianthes  Low.,  Trans.  Koy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1894,  111; 
E.  mixoleuca  Turn.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1900,  14.) 

Mackay,  Gayndah,  and  Gympie,  Queensland. 

139.  L.  rutilella  Pag. 
{Enaemia  rutilella  Pag.,  Zoologica  xxix.,  233.) 
Bismarck  Is.;  not  known  to  me. 


88  DESCRIPTIONS  OK  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

140.  L.  erythrocera  Feld. 

{Mieza  erythrocera  Feld.,  Keis.  Nov.  p].  cxxxviii,,  53.) 
Cape  York,  Queensland;  not  known  to  me.     Felder  also  figures 
from  the  same  locality  under  the  name  of  Mieza  picta  a  species 
not   known   to   me,   but  apparently  more  probably  referable  to 

the  Lithosiadae. 

141.  L.  phlogopa  Meyr. . 

{Enaemia (V) phlogopa  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1886, 
258.) 

Fly  River,  New  Guinea. 

142.  L.  thlospila  Turn. 

(Epidictica  thiospila  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1903, 
83.) 

Mackay,  Queensland. 

143.  L.  erythractis  Meyr. 

[Enaemia  erythractis  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1886, 
1043;  Lactura  erythractis  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1903, 
86.) 

Townsville  and  Bowen,  Queensland,  in  January. 

144.  L.  parallela  Meyr. 

[Enaemia  parallela  Meyr.,  Trans.   Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  1889,  522; 
Lactura  eupoecila  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1903,  86.) 
New  Guinea;  Cooktown,  Queensland. 

145.  L.  mactata  Feld. 

[Mieza  mactata   Fold.,   Reis.    Nov.   pi.   cxxxix.,   44  ;     Lactura 

mactata  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1903,  87.) 

Cape  York,  Kuranda,  and  Geraldton,  Queensland,  in  October 

and  November. 

23.  Mieza  Walk. 

Differs  from  Lactura  and  Anticrates  in  having  all  the  veins  of 
hindwings  separate  and  remote.  Hedy charts  Tmyu.,  is  a  synonym 
of  this  genus. 


BY  E.   M  HAYRICK.  89 

146,  M.  phoenobapta  Turtj, 

{Hedycharis  phoenobapta  Turn.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales, 
1903,  90.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  March.      Not  known  to  me. 

147.  M.  leucophthaJ ma^  n.sp. 

(J.  20  mm.  Head  yellow,  sides  and  back  of  crown  suifused 
with  crimson.  Palpi  and  antennje  light  yellowish  Tliorax  yellow, 
posterior  half  pale  crimson.  Abdomen  light  rosy-ochreous.  Fore- 
wings  elongate,  moderately  broad,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex 
rounded,  termen  obliquely  rounded;  p  ile  purplish-brown,  becoming 
darker  purple-fuscous  towards  margins  of  yellow  markings;  a 
rather  irregular  3'^ellow  streak  all  round  costa  and  termen,  margined 
internally  with  fiery-orange  suffusion,  and  a  similar  spot  on  middle 
of  dorsum;  a  roundish  patch  of  white  suffusion  in  disc  above 
middle  :  cilia  yellow,  at  tornus  orange-tinged.  Hindwings  and 
cilia  pale  ochreous-rosy. 

Cooktown,  Queensland;  one  specimen. 

148.  M.  pyriJampis  Meyr. 

{Enaemiapyrilampis  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1886, 
257.) 

Fly  River,  New  Guinea. 

149.  M.  colabristis,n.^p. 

(J.  23  mm.  Head  yellow^,  crown  red  except  on  sides.  Palpi 
red,  beneath  pale  yellowihh.  Antennae  ochreous,  basal  joint  red. 
Thorax  yellow,  anterior  edge  of  collar,  anguiated  marks  on  middle 
of  patagia  connected  b}^  a  streak  on  posterior  edge  of  collar,  and 
a  dorsal  streak  starting  from  this  and  posteriorly  furcate  crimson- 
red.  Abdomen  coppery -orange.  Forewings  elongate,  slightly 
dilated  posteriorly,  costa  posteriori}'  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse, 
termt-n  obliquely  rounded;  7  and  8  stalked;  yellow,  with  longi- 
tudinal reddish-orange  streaks  between  veins  in  disc  and  pos- 
teriorly, not  reaching  margins;  markings  bright  crimson-red;  a 
slender  basal   fascia,  fuicate  costally,  and   connected   with  short 


90  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-Lfi:PIDOPTKRA,  XIX., 

costal  and  dorsal  streaks  from  base;  a  straight  streak  from  I  of 
dorsum  to  middle  of  costa,  and  a  parallel  series  of  three  marks 
between  this  and  basal  fascia;  two  posterior  series  of  marks 
on  veins,  strongl}^  angulated  outwards  in  disc,  towards  dorsum 
becoming  streaks  connected  by  lines  on  veins,  first  rising  from 
costal  extremity  of  preceding  streak  and  terminating  on  middle 
of  dorsum,  where  it  meets  a  bar  from  |  of  preceding  streak; 
terminal  extremities  of  veins  shortl}^  crimson-red  :  cilia  reddish- 
orange  (imperfect).  Hind  wings  and  cilia  orange,  slightly  rosy- 
tinged. 

New  Guinea;  one  specimen. 

24.  Eremothyris  Wals. 

Differs  from  Anticrates  in  having  veins  6  and  7  of  hind  wings 
stalked.      Epopsia  Turn.,  is  a  synonym  of  this. 

150.  £J.  metreta  Turn. 

[Epopsia  metreta  Turn.,  Proc.Linn.Soc.N. S.Wales,  1903,  90.) 
Cooktown,  Queensland.  Not  known  to  me;  but  I  possess  two 
examples  of  an  Anticy^ates  from  Borneo  which  appear  to  agree 
exactly  with  all  particulars  of  Dr.  Turner's  description  except  in 
the  one  distinguishing  neural  character;  and  as  Dr.  Turner's  type 
was  apparently  unique,  it  is  possible  that  it  may  be  an  abnormal 
individual,  and  in  any  case  further  information  is  desirable. 

25.  Anaphantis,  n.g. 

Head  with  appressed  scales;  ocelli  small;  tongue  developed. 
Antennae  f,  thickened  with  smooth  scales,  basal  joint  without 
pecten.  Labial  palpi  moderately  long,  curved,  ascending,  with 
appressed  scales,  terminal  joint  much  shorter  than  second,  pointed. 
Maxillary  palpi  obsolete.  Posterior  tibiae  smooth-scaled.  Fore- 
wings  with  16  long-fiircate,  2  from  towards  angle,  7  to  apex  (but 
indefinite),  11  from  beyond  middle.  Hind  wings.  1,  elongate- 
ovate,  cilia  ^;  3  and  4  connate,  5-7  parallel. 

Differs  from  Aaticrates  by  the  thickened  antenna?. 


HY    E.   MEYRICK.  91 

151.  A.  isochrysa,  n.sp. 

9.  17-18  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  blackish,  collar  orauge. 
Antenmie  blackish,  apical  third  white.  Abdomen  orange,  apical 
third  blackish,  t'orewings  elongate,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex 
rounded,  termen  very  obliquely  rounded;  purplish-black;  a  broad 
direct  transverse  orange  band,  extending  from  i  to  about  4  :  cilia 
blackish.  Hindwings  orange;  apical  third  black;  cilia  black, 
round  dorsum  and  termen  orange. 

Bougainville,  Solomon  Is.;  two  specimens  (Meek). 

26.   HiLAROGRAPHA  Z. 

Head  with  loosely  appressed  hairs;  ocelli  large,  bright;  tongue 
short.  Antennae  hardly  over  ^,  in  ^  strongly  fasciculate-ciliated, 
basal  joint  stout,  without  pecten.  Labial  palpi  moderate,  slender, 
curved,  ascending,  with  appressed  scales,  terminal  joint  shorter 
than  second,  tolerably  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  obsolete. 
Posterior  tibiae  smooth-scaled.  Forewings  with  16  furcate,  2 
from  before  J,  7  and  8  approximated  or  stalked,  7  to  apex  or 
termen,  8  sometimes  to  termen,  11  from  before  middle.  Hind- 
wings  1,  oblong-ovate,  cilia  ^;  3  and  4  short-stalked,  6  and  7 
stalked. 

Idiothaiima  Wals.,  and  Thanmatographd  Wals.,  are  synonyms 
of  this  genus. 

152.  H.  pyranthis,  n.sp. 

jj^.  10-12  mm.  Head  orange  suffused  with  grey,  face  light 
yellowish.  Palpi  pale  ochreous,  base'  of  second  and  terminal 
joints  dark  fuscous.  Antennae  brownish-ochreous.  Thorax 
orange,  with  two  leaden-blue  stripes.  Abdomen  orange.  Fore- 
wings  triangular,  costa  posteriorly  moderately  arched,  apex 
rounded,  termen  sinuate  beneath  apex,  rather  prominent  in 
middle,  rather  oblique  beneath;  7  and  8  stalked;  bright  reddish- 
orange;  three  narrow  leaden-blue  black  edged  streaks  from  base 
to  about  ^,  subcostal  curved  downwards  posteriorly,  between  sub- 
costal and  median  a  broader  yellow  streak;  an  oblique  yellow 
spot   from   costa   at   J;    median    area    occupied    by  about   eight 


92  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTKRA,  XIX., 

strongly  angulated  transverse  purple-black  striae,  irregularly 
anastomosing  especially  in  pairs  so  as  to  form  a  confused  net- 
work, on  costa  reduced  to  five,  outer  pairs  enclosing  a  leaden-blue 
mark;  a  sinuate  leaden-blue  black-edged  streak  from  costa  at  § 
to  near  apex,  where  it  unites  with  a  wedge-shaped  white  black- 
edged  prseapical  mark  on  costa;  a  small  triangular  white  spot  on 
subapical  sinuation,  tipped  with  leaden-bhie  and  edged  with 
blackish;  some  irrej;ular  black  marks  before  termen  on  lower 
half:  cilia  pale  orange,  on  upper  half  of  termen  suffused  with 
blackish,  with  a  white  spot  on  subapical  sinuation,  on  costa  white 
barred  with  black.  Hindwings  bright  orange;  a  subterminal 
series  of  five  partly  confluent  small  black  spots  on  upper  J;  cdia 
orange,  on  upper  half  of  termen  suffused  with  fuscous,  with  black 
basal  line. 

St.  Aignan  I.,  New  Guinea;  three  specimens  (Meek). 

153.^.  zapyra  Meyr. 
[Hxlarographa  zapyra  Meyr.,  Trans.  Ent.  8oc.  Lond.  1886,  286.) 
Port  Moresby,  New  Guinea. 

27.  Gebysa  Walk. 

Head  with  appressed  hairs,  collar  in  g  rough-haired;  tongue 
absent.  Antennse  4,  in  ^  with  very  short  pectinations  terminating 
in  fascicles  of  long  cilia,  in  9  thickened  with  scales,  especially 
towards  |,  basal  joint  short.  Labial  palpi  extremely  short, 
pointed,  porrected,  in  ^  with  long  rough  hairs,  in  9  rough-scaled. 
Maxillary  palpi  absent.  Posterior  tibiae  short,  smooth-scaled. 
Forewings  with  16  long-furcate,  2  from  near  angle/  7  in  ^  to 
termen,  in  9  to  apex,  8  absent,  10  from  near  angle,  11  from 
middle,  secondary  cell  small,  well-marked.  Hindwings  in  ^J  ] , 
broad-ovate,  cilia  ^,  in  9  25  elongate  ovate,  cilia  |;  2-4  parallel,  4 
from  angle,  5  approximated  to  4,  6  and  1  in  $  parallel,  in  $ 
stalked,  7  to  apex. 

A  singular  genus,  which  has  hitherto  been  puzzling,  but  is 
certainly  in  its  right  place  here.  Sezeris  Walk.,  is  a  synonym. 
The  dissimilarity  of  the  sexes  is  extraordinar}'. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  93 

154.  C.  leucoteles  Walk. 

(Cehysa  leucoteles  Walk.,  Bomb.  486  (-us),  (9);  P'ltane  dilecla 
ib.  532  ((J),  959;  Sezeris  conflictella  ib.,  Tin.  509;  Oecinea  Scotti 
Scott,  Austr.  Lep.  29,  pi.  ix.,  4.) 

(J.  15-16  mm.  Head  ochreous-yellow,  mixed  with  dark  fuscous 
except  on  forehead.  Palpi  pale  yellowish.  Antennae  yellow- 
ochreous  ringed  with  dark  fuscous.  Thorax  dark  fuscous,  with  a 
pale  yellow  stripe  on  inner  side  of  patagia.  Abdomen  dark  fus- 
cous, with  segmental  fringes  of  pale  yellowish  hairs.  Forewings 
rather  elongate-triangular,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse, 
termen  obliquely  rounded;  dark  purplish-fuscous/  marked  with 
numerous  minute  ochreous-yellow  dots  except  on  costal  fourth; 
six  small  ochreous-yellow  costal  spots,  last  almost  apical:  cilia 
ochreous-yellow,  basal  half  dark  fuscous.  Hindwings  dark 
purplish-fuscous;  an  elongate  ochreous-yellow  blotch  in  disc  from 
near  base  to  |,  enlarged  posteriorly;  several  small  irregular 
ochreous-yellow  spots  between  this  and  dorsum,  and  one  at  apex; 
cilia  yellow,  basal  third  dark  fuscous  except  at  apex. 

5.  12-18  mm.  Head,  palpi,  antennae,  thorax,  and  abdomen 
shining  blue-blackish,  apex  of  antennae  white;  abdomen  elongate, 
tufted  with  hairs  laterally.  Forewings  elongate,  moderate,  costa 
strongly  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  obliquely  rounded;  shining 
deep  blue;  one  or  sometimes  two  light  orange  spots  on  costa 
towards  middle,  and  sometimes  a  few  scattered  orange  dots;  a 
variable  irregular  light  orange  apical  patch,  extended  on  termen 
to  tornus:  cilia  orange.  Hindwings  deep  fuscous-purple:  one  or 
two  small  irregular  yellow  spots  towards  dorsum;  an  irregular 
pale  orange  apical  patch,  extending  along  termen  to  below  middle; 
cilia  pale  orange,  dark  fuscous  on  dorsum  and  towards  tornus. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales  ;  Melbourne,  Victoria ;  from 
February  to  May,  six  specimens.  Larva  feeding  in  a  portable 
case  of  silk  covered  with  refuse  on  lichens  on  rocks.  It  seems 
likely  that  the  conspicuous  blue  and  orange  tints  of  the  9  are 
warning  colours,  possibly  mimicking  some  wasp-like  insect; 
observations  on  this  would  be  interestinsr. 


94  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

28.    PlESTOCEROS,   11. 


•©• 


Head  with  appressed  scales,  sidetufts  somewhat  spreading; 
ocelli  present;  tongue  developed.  Antennae  |,  strongly  com- 
pressed, flat,  above  with  a  streak  of  rough  scales  throughout, 
basal  joint  short,  without  pecten.  Labial  palpi  rather  short, 
porrected,  loosel}'^  scaled,  terminal  joint  shorter  than  second, 
tolerably  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  rudimentaiy.  Posterior 
tibiie  with  long  hairs  above.  Fore  wings  with  2  from  near  angle, 
7  to  termen,  8-10  from  near  7,  11  from  beyond  middle.  Hind- 
wings  under  1,  elongate-ovate,  cilia  |;  2-7  tolerably  parallel,  5 
and  6  sometimes  approximated,  transverse  vein  oblique. 

Although  abnormal  in  some  particulars,  such  as  the  long  hairs 
of  posterior  tibi?e,  this  curious  genus  seems  better  placed  here 
than  anywhere  else. 

155.  P.  conjuncteUa  Walk. 

{lucurvaria  conjuncteUa  Walk.  491.) 

(J 9.  13-15  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  bronzy,  sidetufts  in  ^ 
yellowish.  Palpi  ochreous-yellow.  AnteniiEe  dark  purplish- 
fuscous,  apex  and  a  median  band  whitish-yellowish.  Abdomen 
bronzy-fuscous.  Forewings  elongate,  posteriorly  dilated,  costa 
gentl}'-  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  slightly  rounded,  rather 
strongl}^  oblique;  purplish-coppery-bronze,  sprinkled  with  black, 
and  strewn  throughout  with  fine  linear  whitish  scales;  a  slender 
outwards-curved  coppery-golden-metallic  fascia  be^^ond  middle  : 
<5ilia  coppery-golden-metallic.  Hind  wings  orange;  apical  |^,  and 
a  narrow  streak  along  termen  to  tornus  dark  fuscous;  cilia  fuscous, 
with  darker  basal  shade. 

Cairns,  Townsville,  and  Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,  New 
South  Wales;  in  November,  February,  and  March,  five  specimens. 
Seems  to  frequent  Acacia, 

29.  Epicroesa,  n.g. 

Head  smooth,  metallic;  ocelli  present;  tongue  developed.  An- 
tennae over  1,  filiform  or  somewhat  flattened,  in  g  simple,  basal 
joint  moderately  elongate,  without  pecten.      Labial  paljDi  short. 


BY   E.    MEYUICK.  95 

poiiected,  filiform,  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  riidimeiitaiy. 
Posterior  tibise  and  basal  joint  of  tarsi  with  rough  projecting 
scales  above.  Forewings  with  2  from  near  angle,  4  absent,  7  to 
termeii,  11  from  l)eyond  middle.  Hindwings  ^,  trapezoidal- 
lanceolate,  cilia  2;  cell  open  between  3  and  4,  2  and  3  forming 
short  branches  of  lower  median,  4-7  appearing  as  branches  of 
upper  median,  or  5  sometimes  absent. 

Type  E.  ambrosia.  This  is  another  curious  genus,  distinguished 
from  its  allies  by  the  antenni\3  being  longer  than  forewings;  the 
species  are  very  Ijrilliantly  coloured. 

1.  Forewings  with  a  metallic  streak  parallel  to  termen 156.  thiamrcha. 

Forewings  without  such  streak. 

2.  Forewings  with  golden-metallic  costal  spots  at  J  and  §..  157.  ambrosia. 
Forewings  without  such  spots 158.  metalli/era. 

156.  E.  thiasa/cha,  n.sp. 

^^.  7-9  mm.  Head  shining  bronze  with  green  reflections. 
Palpi  yellowish.  Antennae  distinctly  flattened,  dark  purple- 
fuscous,  basal  joint  greenish-bronze.  Thorax  metallic  green-blue. 
Abdomen  dark  bluish-fuscous.  Forewings  elongate,  costa  poste- 
jiorly  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  and  dorsum  gently 
and  continuously  rounded  ;  brilliant  metallic  green-blue ;  an 
orange  black-edged  fascia  near  base,  in  ^  narrow  and  suffused 
with  black  towards  costa,  in  ^  crossed  by  several  longitudinal 
black  lines;  a  violet-silvery-metallic  transverse  spot  on  costa 
immediately  beyond  this,  and  another  beyond  middle,  edged 
posteriorly  by  a  black  line  cro.ssing  wing  to  |  of  dorsum,  costal 
area  between  these  suffused  with  blackish;  apical  area  beyond 
this  line  orange,  including  several  violet-silverj'^-metallic  partly 
black-edged  markings,  viz.,  an  erect  triangular  mark  before  tornus, 
a  longitudinal  curved  streak  parallel  to  termen,  and  two  costal 
marks,  in  ^  confluent  into  a  triangular  costal  spot  :  cilia  fuscous, 
with  blackish  basal  line.  Hindwings  almost  lanceolate,  more 
pointed  than  in  the  other  species,  vein  5  present;  blackish-fuscous; 
cilia  dark  fuscous. 

Cairns,  Queensland,  in  September  and  October;  two  specimens 
(Dodd). 


96  DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

157.  E.  ambrosia,  n.sp. 

^9.9-11  mm.  Head  bright  metallic  bronze,  collar  yellowish. 
Palpi  ochreous-yellow.  Antennae  hardly  flattened,  dark  fuscous, 
basal  joint  yellow.  Thorax  metallic  bronze,  with  green  and 
coppery  reflections.  Abdomen  dark  fuscous.  Forewings  elongate, 
costa  anterior!}'-  faintly  sinuinte,  moderately  arched  posteriorly, 
apex  obtuse,  termen  and  dorsum  continuously  rounded;  brilliant 
coppery-purple-bronze;  an  orange  basal  patch,  marked  at  base 
with  some  black  nnd  metallic  green  scales,  at  base  of  costa  with 
a  black  dot,  preceded  and  followed  by  metallic  bronze  dots,  outer 
edge  straight;  a  violet  golden-metallic  dot  on  costa  at  J,  edged 
with  black  anteriorly,  and  followed  by  a  small  semioval  black 
spot;  a  small  transverse  golden-metallic  spot  on  costa  at  |,  pre- 
ceiled  by  a  transverse  black  spot,  and  followed  by  a  smaller  black 
spot,  whence  proceeds  an  oblique  black  line  to  termen  above 
middle,  preceded  in  middle  by  a  triangular  black  spot,  and  beneath 
this  by  some  violet-golden  suff'usion;  a  patch  of  metallic  blue- 
green  scales  towards  middle  of  dorsum;  apical  area  beyond  the 
oblique  black  line  orange,  cut  by  a  violet-metallic  black-edged 
streak  parallel  to  the  black  line :  cilia  dark  fuscous,  towards 
tornus  mixed  with  metallic-bronzy,  tips  pale  grey.  Hindwings 
and  cilia  dark  fuscous;  vein  5  present. 

Cairns,  Queensland,  in  September  and  October  (Dodd);  three 
specimens. 

158.  E.  melallifera,  n.sp. 

5.  8  mm.  Head  bright  bronzy -metallic,  face  light  metallic- 
blue.  Palpi  yellow.  Antenna3  hardly  flattened,  dark  fuscous, 
towards  base  deep  yellow.  Thorax  metallic  bronze.  Abdomen 
dark  bronzy-fuscous.  Forewings  more  pointed  than  in  <nnhrosia; 
shining  bronzy-purple,  with  green  reflections;  an  orange  basal 
patch,  enclosing  a  metallic  green-blue  basal  spot  in  middle,  outer 
edge  straight;  two  small  semioval  black  spots  on  costa  before  and 
beyond  middle;  an  oblique  black  line  from  |  of  costa  to  termen 
above  middle;  apical  area  beyond  this  orange,  cut  by  an  irregular 
violet-metallic  black-edged  streak  parallel  to  the  line  :  cilia  dark 


BY   E.   MEYKICK.  97 

fuscous,  on  lower  half  of  termen  mixed  with  coppery-bronze,  ti[)K 
pale  ij;rey.      Hind  wings  and  cilia  dark  fuscous;   vein  5  absent. 
Duaringa,  Queensland  (Lower);  one  specimen. 

30.  ToRTYRA  Walk. 

Head  smooth,  with  postorbital  cilia;  ocelli  present;  tongue 
developed.  Antennae  |,  thickened  with  scales  except  towards 
apex,  in  (J  serrate,  ciliated,  basal  joint  moderate,  without  pecten. 
Labial  palpi  moderate,  curved,  ascending,  smooth-scaled,  tf  rminal 
joint  shorter  than  second,  obtuse.  Maxillary  })alpi  obsolete. 
Posterior  tibiae  smooth-scaled  above,  sometimes  with  expansible 
whorls  of  scales  on  origin  of  spurs.  Forewings  with  16  furcate, 
'2  from  §,  3  from  angle,  7  to  termen,  9  and  10  from  near  8,  11 
from  before  middle,  secondary  cell  detined.  Hindwings  1  or  over 
1,  ovate-triangular,  cilia  ^-J;  3  and  4  stalked,  5-7  parallel,  8 
approximated  to  cell  in  middle. 

A  genus  of  limited  extent  but  ranging  through  the  tropics  of 
the  Old  and  New  World.  Saptha  Walk.,  Badera  Walk.,  and 
Choreyia  Z.,  are  synonyms.  The  species  are  brilliantly  metallic,, 
but  often  very  similar,  and  require  careful  discrimination. 

1.  Metallic  transverse  postmedian  streak  entire 2. 

Metallic  transverse  postmedian  streak  reduced  to  one 

or  two  patches B. 

2.  Violet-coppery  species,  hindwings  with  yellow  band 162.  divitiosa. 

Brassy-green  species,  hindwings  without  yellow  band..   161.  prasochalca. 

3.  Forewings  with  metallic-blue  postmedian  spot  beneath 

middle 4. 

Forewings  without  such  spot 163.  produjella. 

4.  Hindwings  with  yellow  band \b9.  iridopn. 

Hindwings  without  yellow  band 160.  paradelpha. 

159.  2\  iridopa,  n.sp. 

9.  18-20  mm.  Head  and  palpi  metalHc  blue-green.  Antenna? 
purple-black,  with  white  band  about  |.  Thorax  blackish,  with 
three  metallic  iridescent-green  stripes.  Abdomen  blackish,  ringed 
with  deep  bronze.  Forewings  elongate-triangular,  costa  poste- 
riorly moderately  arched,  apex  rounded,  termen  rather  oblique^ 
9 


98  DESCRIPTfONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTER.^,   XIX., 

hardly  rounded;  deep  bronze:  four  metallic  iridescent-green  black- 
edged  streaks,  first  along  basal  fourth  of  costa,  second  from  base 
above  submedian  fold,  abruptly  curved  to  dorsum  at  i,  third  sub- 
dorsal from  base  to  about  1,  fourth  direct  from  costa  at  ^  to 
submedian  fold,  attenuated  downwards;  a  purple-black  post- 
median  fascia,  anterior  edge  straight,  well-defined,  rp.nning  from 
m-ddle  of  costa  to  middle  of  dorsum,  posterior  edge  merged  in  a 
purple-black  suff'usion  which  extends  over  most  of  posterior  area 
of  wing;  on  this  fascia  near  anterior  edge  are  two  large  brilliant 
metallic-blue  spots  above  and  below  middle,  upper  followed  by  a 
longitudinal  bright  brassv -golden  patch;  a  broad  sujBPused  bright 
brassy-golden  terminal  fascia,  preceded  by  some  similar  irroratiou: 
cilia  shining  whitish-bronze,  basal  third  black.  Hindwings 
blackish;  base  and  dorsal  and  subdorsal  streaks  not  reaching 
termen  hyaline  whitish;  an  irregular  rather  broad  light  ochreous- 
yellow  streak  from  base  to  middle  of  disc,  thence  curved  upwards 
to  beneath  costa  at  J;  cilia  whitish,  basal  third  blackish. 
Florida,  Solomon  Is.  (Meek);  two  specimens. 

160.  7\  paradelpha,  n.sp. 

(J9.  19-20  mm.  Differs  from  iridopa  only  as  follows:  forewings 
with  brassy-golden  irroration  on  posterior  half  more  developed, 
forming  numerous  distinct  longitudinal  lines:  cilia  light  shining 
violet-bronze,  with  black  basal  line  :  hindwings  dark  fuscous, 
wholly  without  yellow  streak,  cilia  in  ^  suffused  with  pale 
fuscous.  Forewings  in  ^  with  termen  more  oblique  than  in  ^; 
liindwings  with  tornus  broadly  expanded. 

Treasury  Island,  Solomon  Is,  (Meek);  two  specimens. 

161.  2\  prasochalca,  n.sp. 

(J^.  19-22  mm.  Head  dark  metallic  blue-bronze,  face  metallic 
blue-green.  Palpi  metallic  greenish-bronze,  towards  apex  blackish. 
Antennae  purple-blackish,  with  an  ochreous-white  band  at  |. 
Thorax  dark  fuscous,  with  three  metallic  coppery-green  stripes. 
Abdomen  fuscous,  in  rC  with  expansible  genital  tuft  of  pale 
fuscous  and  whitish  hairs.      Forewings  elongate-triangular,  costa 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  99 

almost  Straight,  posteriorly  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse, 
termen  rather  obliquely  rounded  ;  deep  golden-bronze  ;  three 
metallic-green,  partially  black-edged  streaks  from  base,  first 
along  costa  to  ^,  second  to  \  of  disc,  thence  curved  to  dorsum 
at  4,  third  subdorsal  to  J,  and  another  from  costa  beyond  J  reach- 
ing half  across  wing;  a  metallic  brassy-golden  streak,  edged 
anteriorly  with  purple-black,  fiom  middle  of  dorsum  to  near 
middle  of  costa,  thence  bent  beneath  costa  to  near  |;  above  and 
beyond  this  streak  the  whole  wing  is  purple-blackish  sprinkled 
with  fine  pale  golden-metallic  scales,  except  a  broad  terminal 
fascia  of  groundcolour  densely  irrorated  with  metallic  brassy- 
golden  :  cilia  pale  violet-blue-fuscous,  with  blackish  basal  line. 
Hindwings  in  g  broader  tlian  in  9,  tornus  not  produced,  with  a 
transparent  almost  dorsal  groove;  fuscous,  on  upper  portion  of 
termen  with  a  more  or  less  defined  broad  dark  fuscous  band; 
sometimes  a  small  undefined  paler  or  fuscous-whitish  patch 
beneath  costa  beyond  middle;  cilia  light  fuscous,  tips  whitish, 
with  dark  fuscous  basal  line. 

ISTew  Britain,  Bismarck  Is.;  Choiseul,  Guadalcanar,  Solomon 
Is.;  seven  specimens  (Meek). 

162.  T.  dlvitiosa^Y8i\k. 

(Saptha  divitiosa  Walk.,  1015;  Badera  nobilisFe\d.,  Reis.  Nov. 
pi.  cxxxix.,  9.) 

^9.  18-21  mm.  Head  metallic  green-blue,  with  a  pale  yellow- 
ish patch  behind  eyes.  Antenna^  purple-black,  with  ochreous- 
white  band  about  f .  Thorax  blackish,  with  three  metallic-green 
stripes.  Forewings  with  termen  obliquely  rounded;  deep  bronze; 
four  metallic-green  streaks  on  basal  area,  as  in  jrrasochalca:  a 
curved  metallic  blue-green  streak  from  middle  of  dorsum  to 
beneath  costa  at  f,  edged  anteriorly  with  blackish  and  [posteriorly 
with  metallic  violet-coppery;  beyond  this  the  wing  is  wholly 
suffused  with  purple-blackish,  thinly  strewn  with  golden-metallic 
scales,  except  a  broad  metallic  violet-coppery  terminal  fascia: 
cilia  pale  purplish-bronze,  with  blackish  basal  line.  Hindwings 
in  ^  with  tornus  expanded  and  more  strongly  prominent  than  in 


100        DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICKO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

prasochalca;  blackish;  partially  confluent  dorsal  and  subdorsal 
hyaline  streaks,  not  reaching  termen;  a  curved  yellow  streak  from 
ba^>e  to  middle  of  disc,  thence  dilated  and  curved  to  beneath 
costa  at  I,  in  ^  hyaline  except  towards  posterior  extremity,  and 
largely  confluent  with  subdorsal  and  dorsal  streaks  towards  base; 
cilia  fuscous-whitish,  with  blackish  basal  line. 

8t.  Aignan,  Woodlark,  and  Sudest  Islands,  New  Guinea 
(Meek):  also  recorded  from  Ceram  and  Amboina;  eight  speci- 
mens. 

163.  T.  prodiyelhi  Walk. 

{Badera  prodiyella  Walk.,  8uppl.  1820.) 

(J^.  18-'2l  mm.  Head  dark  bluish-bronze,  face  metallic  blue- 
green,  a  patch  behind  eye  ochreous-yellow.  Antenme  purple- 
black,  with  white  band  at  |.  Thorax  blackish-bronze,  with  three 
metallic-green  stripes.  Foiewings  with  termen  obliquely  rounded, 
in  9  less  oblique;  very  deep  bronze;  four  metallic  iride-^cent-gieen 
stripes  on  basal  area,  as  in  prasochalca:  posterior  half  beyond  a 
straight  line  from  middle  of  costa  to  middle  of  dorsum  suffused 
with  puiple-blackish;  an  elongate  metallic  violet-golden  })atch 
beneath  costa  bej^ond  middle,  edged  anteriorly  with  metallic  blue; 
posterior  area  thinly  strewn  with  metallic  violet-golden  scales:  a 
suffused  metallic  violet-golden  terminal  fascia:  cilia  bronzj^-grey, 
with  blackish  basal  line.  Hindwings  in  ^  with  tornus  somewhat 
expanded,  little  prominent ;  blackish  ;  dorsal  and  subdorsal 
hyaline  streaks  not  reaching  termen;  an  ochreous-yellow  stripe 
from  base  to  middle  of  disc,  thence  irregularly  expanded  and 
curved  to  beneath  costa  at  f ;  cilia  pale  fuscous,  becoming 
whitish  round  apex,  with  l)lackish  basal  line. 

Cairns,  Queensland  (Barnard,  Dodd);  also  recordetl  from  Java; 

six  specimens. 

31.  MiscERA  Walk. 

Head  with  loosely  appressed  scales;  ocelli  present;  tongue 
developeil.  Antennae  §,  in  ^  unipectinated,  in  9-  roughened 
with  scales,  basal  joint  short,  without  pecten.  Labial  palpi 
moderate,  obliquely  ascending  or  porrected,  thickened  with  scales, 


BY   E.    MKYKICK.  101 

second  joint  more  ov  less  rough  or  hairy  beneatli,  teiiijinal  joint 
slioi't,  obtuse  or  somewhat  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  obsolete 
Posterior  tibiitt  rough-scaled  above.  Forewings  with  1^  long- 
furcate,  2-4  approximated  from  angle,  7  to  apex,  8-10  from  near 
7.  11  from  middle,  no  secondary  cell.  Hindwings  over  1,  ovate, 
cilia  1-1;  3  and  4  connate  or  stalked,  5-7  parallel. 

This  genus  is  the  Australian  representative  of  the  European 
iJrachodes  (formerly  better  known  as  Atychm),  with  which  it 
agrees  in  all  structural  and  superficial  characteristics  except  the 
neuration  of  hindwings,  which  is  quite  different  :  in  Brachodes 
veins  2  and  3  are  closely  approximated  or  connate,  3  and  4  remote 
and  parallel,  whilst  in  Miscera  2  and  3  are  remote,  3  and  4  connate; 
as  the  latter  is  the  normal  structure  of  the  Simaethis  and  Tortyra 
groups,  I  infer  that  Miscera  is  more  ancestral  than  Brachodes. 

1.  Forewings  with  whitish  streak  from  base \&^.  ejn.scota. 

Forewings  without  such  streak 2, 

2.  Hindwings  marked  with  yellow  or  white 3. 

Hindwings  wholly  fuscous 173.  omichleuiis. 

3.  Palpi  with  long  rough  hairs 167.  mcsochry.sa. 

Palpi  at  most  with  short  scales 4. 

4.  Hindwings  yellow,  with  base  and  terminal  fascia  dark 

fuscous 9. 

Hindwings  dark  fuscous,  with  white  or  yellow  markings  6. 

5.  Forewings  dark  fuscous,  with  whitish-ochreous  discal 

spot  ...  165.  resumjytana. 

Forewings  light  fuscous,  without  discal  spot 171.  holodisca. 

6.  Hindwings  with  yellowish  fascia  only. ..  7. 

Hindwings  with  one  or  more  separate  spots 8. 

7.  Forewings  obviously  dilated,  not  whitish-sprinkled 170.  ceH^/■ojJ^"»■. 

Forewings  hardly  dilated,  whitish-sprinkled 166.  orthavla. 

8.  Hindwings  with  white  anterior  fascia  and  median  sub- 

costal spot  ...   164.  leuco2ii-'^- 

Hindwings  with  series  of  three  whitish   or  yellowish 

spots 9. 

9.  Abdomen  with  pale  rings   throughout,  spots  of  hind- 

wings obscure 172.  mkrastra. 

Abdomen  without  pale  rings  on  basal  half,  spots  well- 
marked 168.  de^motowa. 


102       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALAS[AN  MECRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

164.  M.  leucopis,  n.sp. 

9.  13  mm.  Head,  antenna?,  and  thorax  dark  fuscous.  Palpi 
fuscous,  becoming  white  beneath  and  towards  base.  Abdomen 
dark  fuscous,  base  and  three  narrow  rings  beyoiid  middle  white. 
Forew^ngs  elongate,  rather  dilated  posteriorly,  costa  nearly 
straight,  apex  rounded,  termen  obliquely  rounded;  fuscous,  mixed 
with  dark  fuscous  and  some  whitish  scales;  an  indistinct  small 
transver.se  white  spot  in  disc  beyond  middle  :  cilia  fuscous,  base 
mixed  with  dark  fuscous.  Hindwings  blackish-fuscous;  a  moder- 
ately broad  white  fascia  from  middle  of  dorsum  towards  costa  at 
^,  becoming  obsolete  before  reaching  it;  a  rather  large  white  spot 
beneath  middle  of  costa;  cilia  light  fuscous,  base  mixed  with 
dark  fuscous. 

Duaringa,  Queensland  (Barnard);  one  specimen. 

165.  M.  restimptana  Walk. 

(^Miscera  7'esumptana  Walk.,  458;  Atychia  anthomera  Low., 
Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1896,  162.) 

(J.  14-15  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  dark  fuscous,  finely 
sprinkled  with  white.  Antenna?  dark  fuscous,  pectinations  2J. 
Abdomen  dark  fuscous,  with  one  subbasal  and  four  posterior 
narrow  pale  yellowish  rings.  Forewings  elongate,  somewhat 
dilated  posteriorly,  costa  nearly  straight,  apex  rounded,  termen 
obliquely  rounded;  dark  fuscous  tinely  irrorated  with  ochreous- 
whitish;  a  whitish-ochreous  spot  in  disc  bej^ond  middle  :  cilia 
dark  fuscous  mixed  with  whitish-ochreous.  Hindwings  deep 
yellow;  base  dark  fuscous;  a  broad  rather  irregular  dark  fuscous 
terminal  fascia;  cilia  light  yellow,  basal  third  dark  fuscous,  some- 
times more  or  less  wholly  suffu.sed  with  dark  grey. 

Duaringa  and  Rockhampton,  Queensland,  in  April  (Barnard); 
three  specimens.  It  is  possible  that  this  and  lencojris  are  sexes 
of  the  same  species,  but  I  cannot  venture  to  unite  them. 

166.  J/,  orthaida,  n.sp. 

$.  1 6  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  dark  fuscous,  finely 
sprinkled    with    whitish;    palpi    short-scaled,    whitish     beneath. 


BY  E     MKYKICK.  103 

AnteunaB  dark  fuscous,  pectinations  2^.  Abdomen  dark  fuscous, 
witl)  live  slender  pale  yellowish  rings.  Forewings  elongate, 
posteriorly  somewhat  dilated,  costa  nearly  straight,  apex  rounded- 
obtuse,  termen  rather  obliquely  rounded;  dark  fuscous,  irregularly 
sprinkled  with  whitish,  the  irroration  indicating  a  very  undefined 
discal  spot  beyond  middle  :  cilia  dark  fuscous,  tips  of  scales 
fuscous-whitish.  Hindwings  blackish-fuscous,  slightly  purplish- 
tinged;  a  moderate  irregular  whitish-ochreous  antemedian  fascia, 
outer  edge  irregularly  prominent  above  middle;  cilia  whitish- 
yellowish,  basal  third  dark  fuscous. 

Duaringa,  Queensland  (Barnard);  one  specimen.  Considerably 
broader- winged  than  the  preceding,  with  the  yellow  area  of  the 
hindwings  much  reduced. 

167.  M.  mesochrysa  Low. 
(Afijchia  ynesocJivysa  Low.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  8.  Austr.  1903,  68.) 

(J.  17-1 8  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  da)k  fuscous,  very 
finely  whitish-sprinkled;  palpi  white  beneath,  with  long  rough 
projecting  hairs.  Antennae  dark  fuscous,  pectinations  6.  Abdo- 
men dark  fuscous,  with  six  narrow  yellow  rings.  Forewings 
elongate,  posteriorly  dilated,  costa  slightly  arched,  apex  rounded- 
obtuse,  termen  rather  obliquely  rounded;  dark  fuscous,  sufFusedly 
mixed  with  very  long  ochreor.s-brown  scales;  a  somewhat  incurved 
narrow  streak  of  whitish  irroration  from  dorsum  be3''ond  middle 
to  disc  at  |,  reaching  half  across  wing:  cilia  fuscous.  Hind- 
wings blackish;  a  moderate  irregular  orange-yellow  median  fascia, 
broadest  towards  costa,  not  quite  reaching  dorsum,  outer  edge 
angularly  prominent  above  and  below  middle;  cilia  blackish 
grey,  basal  line  blackish,  tips  5^ellow-whitish,  towards  tornus. 
becoming  wholly  yellowish. 

Geraldton  and  Perth,  West  Australia,  in  October  and 
November;  three  specimens.  Differs  from  all  the  other  species 
by  the  much  longer  antennal  pectinations,  and  the  long  rough 
hairs  of  palpi. 


104       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

168.  J/,  desmotorna  Low. 
i^Atydiia  desmotoma  Low.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1896,162.) 
(J.  17-21  mm.  Head  and  thorax  rather  dark  fuscous.  Palpi 
fascous,  becoming  whitish  beneath  and  towards  base.  Antennte 
dark  fuscous,  pectinations  3.  Abdomen  dark  fuscous,  beyond 
middle  with  four  slender  pale  yellowish  rings,  apex  yellowish. 
Forewings  elongate,  posteriorly  dilated,  costa  slightly  arched, 
apex  rounded-obtuse,  termen  somewhat  obliquely  rounded;  dark 
fuscous;  a  small  ochreous-whitish  narrow  transverse  discal  spot 
beyond  middle;  an  indistinct  posteriorly  suffused  whitish  streak 
from  beneath  this  to  dorsum  beyond  middle:  cilia  fuscous,  towards 
base  dark  fuscous.  Hind  wings  blackish;  an  antemedian  series  of 
three  irregular  ochreous-white  or  pale  yellowish  spots,  two  lower 
sometimes  nearly  confluent;  cilia  pale  ochreous  j^ellow,  basal 
third  blackish. 

Blackheath  (3500  feet),  New  South  Wales;  Melbourne  and 
Cheltenham,  Victoria;  in  December  and  January,  three  speci- 
mens. 

169.  M.  episcota  Low. 

{Atychia  episcota  Low.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1903,  68.) 
Henley  Beach,  South  Australia.     Not  known  to  me, 

170.  M.  centropus,  n.sp. 

(J.  2  I  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  dark  fuscous,  very  finely 
spi'inkled  with  whitish,  palpi  white  beneath,  shortly  rough-scaled. 
Antennae  dark  fuscous,  pectinations  3.  Abdomen  dark  fuscous, 
with  six  narrow  ochreous-yellow  rings.  Forewings  elongate, 
posteriorly  dilated,  costa  nearly  straight,  apex  rounded-obtuse, 
termen  somewhat  obliquely  rounded;  dark  fuscous;  a  small 
wiiitish  spot  in  disc  beyond  middle:  cilia  dark  fuscous,  tips 
whitish.  Hindwings  purple-blackish;  a  moderate  irregular  deep 
yellow  antemedian  fascia,  not  quite  reaching  dorsum,  outer  edge 
irregularly  prominent  above  middle;  cilia  ochreous-yellow,  basal 
third  dark  fuscous,  tips  whitish. 

Perth,  West  Australia,  in  November;  one  specimen. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  105 

171.  M.  holudisca,  n.sj). 

(^.16  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  pale  oclireous-i^rey,  face 
more  whitish,  palpi  beneath  whitish.  Antennae  dark  fuscous, 
pectinations  3.  Abdomen  grey,  with  seven  slender  ochreous- 
whitish  rings.  Fore  wings  elongate,  posteriorly  dilated,  costa 
gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  obliquely  rounded ;  light 
fuscous,  with  prismatic  reflections,  irregularly  sprinkled  with 
white:  cilia  pale  whitish-fuscous  mixed  with  fuscous.  Hind  wings 
light  ochreous-yellow;  base  suffused  with  grey;  a  moderate 
fuscous  fascia  round  apex  and  along  termen,  becoming  narrow 
near  tornus;  cilia  fuscous,  becoming  pale  ochreous-yellow  round 
tornus. 

Geraldton,  West  Australia,  in  November;  one  specimen. 

172.  J/.  7nicrastra,  n.sp. 

(J.  14-17  mm.  Head  fuscous,  face  whitish-tinged.  Palpi 
whitish,  towards  apex  infuscated.  Antennae  dark  fuscous,  pec- 
tinations 2.  Thorax  dark  fuscous,  sometimes  mixed  with  och- 
reous.  Abdomen  dark  fuscous,  with  six  or  se\en  narrow  ochreous- 
whitish  rings.  Forewings  elongate,  posteriorly  dilated,  costa 
slightly  arched,  apex  rounded-obtuse,  termen  rather  obliquely 
rounded;  dark  fuscous,  suffusedly  mixed  with  very  long  brownish- 
ochreous  scales;  undefined  marks  of  ochreous-grey-whitish  suffu- 
sion on  or  towards  costa  at  |,  and  dorsum  in  middle;  an  ochreous- 
whitish  discal  dot  at  |,  sometimes  obsolete  :  cilia  fuscous,  some- 
times with  a  few  whitish  scales.  Hindwings  blackish,  slightly 
purple-tinged;  an  antemedian  series  of  three  small  irregular  white 
or  light  ochreous-yellow  spots;  cilia  j-ellow-whitish,  basal  half 
suffusedly  mixed  with  grey. 

York  and  Perth,  West  Australia,  in  Octobe!-  and  November; 
two  specimens. 

173.  M.  omichleutis,  n.sp. 

(J.  19-23  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  thoiax  dark  fuscous  finel}^ 
irrorated  with  white,  palpi  white  beneath.  Antenna;  lather  dark 
fuscous,  pectinations  3.  Abdomen  fuscous.  Forewings  elongate, 
posteriorly   dilated,   costa    gently   arched,   apex   obtuse,    termen 


106       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICKO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

obliquely  rounded;  fuscous,  sometimes  more  or  less  sti-oogly 
ochreous-tinged,  sometimes  variably  sprinkled  with  whitish  :  cilia 
fuscous.  Hindwings  ratlier  light  ochreousfuscous,  becoming 
dark  fuscous  posteriorly;  cilia  light  fuscous,  darker  at  base,  tips 
whitish. 

Bathurst,  New  South  Wales;  Mount  Lofty,  South  Australia; 
in  November,  February,  and  March,  six  specimens 

32.  Imma  Walk. 

I  have  recently  set  forth  an  account  of  this  interesting  tropical 
genus  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  London 
for  1906,  pp.  169-206,  and  therefoie  only  give  a  list  of  the  Aus- 
tralian species  here. 

174.  /.  autodoxa  M*vr. 
Fiji. 

175.  /.  atrosignata  Feld. 
Amboina. 

176.  /.  transver sella  Siiell. 

New  Guinea;  ranging  also  to  Java  and  Singapore.  Tortrico- 
morplia  ohJ iquifasciata  Wals.,  is  a  synonym. 

Ml.  I.  albifasciella  Pag. 

Duaringa,  Queensland;  Bismarck  Is.  Tortricomorpha  mono- 
c?esmrt  Low.,  is  a  synonym. 

178.  /.  acosrita  Turn. 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  in  September,  January,  and  May. 

179.  /.  conyrualis  Wals. 
New  Guinea,  Halmahera. 

180.  /.  marileiitis  Me}^'. 
Duaringa,  Queensland;  also  from  South  Australia. 

181.  /.  leiodiroo.  Low. 

Brisbane,  Queensland. 

182.  /.  psithyristis  Meyr. 
Solomon  Is. 


BY   E.   MliYRICK.  107 

183.  /.  costi2?7inctn  Feld. 
Amboiiia. 

184.  /.  aidonias  Meyr. 
Solomon  Is. 

185.  /.  bilinedla  Snell. 

Bismarck  Is.,  Biiru;  also  from  Celebes  and  Sangir. 

186.  /.  diaphana  Pas. 

{Tortricomorpha  diaphana,  Pag.,  J  B.  Nass.  Ver.  1884,  290,  pi.  vi. 
12.) 

Amboina. 

187./.  thi/7'iditis  Meyr. 
Solomon  Is. 

188.  /.  dioptrids  Meyr. 
New  Guinea. 

189.  /.  p'^.nthinoides  Pag. 

(Tortricomo7'pha  penthinoides  Pag,  JB.  Nass.  Ver.  1884,  291.) 

Amboina.     This   species  and  /.  diapharia  were  omitted  ivom 

my  paper  as  quoted, 


A  I'll. 

New  Guinea. 
New  Guinea. 
Buru. 

New  Guinea. 
New  Guinea. 
Solomon  Is. 


190.  /.  viola  Pag. 
191./.  grammatistis  Meyr. 

192.  /.  minatrix  Meyr. 
193./.  hetnixantheUa  Holl. 

194.  /.  crocozela  Meyr. 
195.  /.  chri/sop/aca  Meyr. 

196.  /.  epiconiia  Meyr. 


197.  /.  stilbiota  Low. 
Duaringa,  Queensland 

198.  /.  lichenopa  Low, 
Cooktown,  Queensland. 


108       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

[33.  LoxoTROCHis  Meyr. 
199.  L.  sepias  Meyr. 
(Lo.votrochis  sepias  Meyr.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lend.  1906,  205.) 
Sir  George   Hampson   informs  me    that  this   was   erroneously 
assigned  to  the  New  Hebrides;  its  real  locality  is  the  pruvince  of 
Espirito  Santo,  in  Brazil.] 

34.  Brenthia  Clem. 

Differs  from  Simaethis  and  ChoreiUis  by  the  labial  palpi,  which 
are  pointed,  without  tuft;  in  Simaethis  they  are  obtuse  or  truncate, 
in  Choreutis  they  are  pointed,  bat  the  second  joint  is  tufted  with 
hairs  beneath. 

200.  B.  quadriforella  Z. 

{Brenthia    qiiadriforella   Z.,   Hor.   Ross.    1877,  172,  pi.  ii.,   61; 
Simaethis  hypocalla  Low.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.   S.  Austr.  1905,  113.) 
North  Queensland,  New  Guinea. 

201.  5.  trilitha,  n.sp. 

,-J.  10  mm.  Head  and  thorax  bronzy-fuscous.  Palpi  whitish, 
terminal  joint  with  base  and  anterior  edge  fuscous.  Antennae 
whitish  ringed  with  dark  fuscous,  ciliations  \^.  Abdomen  daik 
fuscous,  segmental  margins  whitish.  Forewings  elongate-trian- 
gular, costa  slightly  arched,  apex  rounded,  ternieu  somewhat 
rounded,  little  oblique;  bronzy-fuscous,  irrorated  with  whitish 
except  on  basal  area;  edge  of  basal  area  straight,  somewhat 
darker-suffused;  a  round  darker  fuscous  discal  spot  beyond 
middle,  crossed  by  two  transverse  white  bars;  a  terminal  light 
bronzy-ochreous  fascia,  almost  wholly  occupied  by  three  large 
black  spots,  each  marked  with  two  or  three  violet-metallic  dots: 
cilia  bronzy-fuscous.  Hind  wings  with  termen  bent  in  middle; 
rather  dark  fuscous;  a  roundish  white  spot  in  middle  of  disc;  a 
straight  whitish  subterminal  line,  not  reaching  costa  or  dorsum; 
between  this  and  termen  a  violet-golden-metallic  line  on  costal 
half;  cilia  whitish,  with  dark  fuscous  basal  and  ajjical  shades. 

New  Georgia,  Solomon  Is.  (Meek);  one  specimen. 


HY   E.   MKYRICK.  10^ 

202.  B.  hecataea,  ii.sp. 

(3^9.  11-12  mm.  Hea(.l,  thorax,  and  abdomen  rather  dark 
bronzy-fuscous.  Palpi  whitish,  two  rings  of  second  joint,  and 
base  and  anterior  edge  of  terminal  joint  fuscous.  Autennai 
whitish  ringed  with  dark  fuscous^  ciliations  in  ^  3.  Forewings 
elongate-triangular,  costa  slightly  arched,  apex  rounded,  termen 
almost  vertical,  slightly  rounded;  dark  bronzj'-fuscous;  a  straight 
cloudy  whitish  fascia  before  \,  hardly  reaching  costa;  some 
scattered  golden-metallic  scales  towards  costa  before  middle;  a 
transverse-oval  whitish  spot  in  disc  beyond  middle  ;  a  cloudy 
whitish  dot  on  dorsum  before  tornus;  a  transverse  whitish  mark 
towards  termen  in  middle;  a  narrow  suffused  blackish  terminal 
fascia,  marked  with  seven  pale  violet-golden-metallic  dots:  cilia 
fuscous,  with  a  darker  median  shade.  Hindwings  dark  fuscous; 
a  longitudinally  elongate  whitish  spot  in  middle  of  disc:  a  straight 
whitish  subtermiual  line,  becomino-  obsolete  towards  marsfins;  a 
violet-metallic  line  before  termen,  obtusely  angulated  so  as  to 
touch  termen  in  middle:  cilia  fuscous,  with  darker  subbasal  shade, 
l3elovv  middle  with  an  oblique  whitish  patch. 

St.  Aignan  I.,  New  Guinea  (Meek):  two  specimens. 

35.  Choreutis  Hb. 
203.  C.  hjerkancheUa  Thnb. 

[Choreutis  hjerkandrella  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales, 
1880,  215.) 

Duaringa,  Brisbane,  and  Toowoomba,  Queensland;  Murrurundi, 
Sydney,  Blackheath,  and  Shoalhaven,  New  South  Wales;  Mel- 
bourne and  W^arragul,  Victoria;  Adelaide,  South  Australia; 
from  September  to  March,  common.  Widely  distributed  through 
most  of  the  globe. 

204.  C.  hoiiiotypa^^  n.sp. 

(^O.  9-12  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  bronzy-fuscous,  with  a 
few  white  scales.  Palpi  dark  fuscous  mixed  Nvith  white.  Antennre 
white  ringed  with  black.  Abdomen  dark  bronzy-fuscous,  seg- 
mental margins  whitish.     Forewings  rather  elongate,  posteriorly 


110       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTKRA,   XIX., 

dilated,  costa  genth'  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  sinuate, 
oblique;  blackish-fuscous  mixed  \\ith  bronzy-brown;  basal  area 
finely  sprinkled  with  white,  outer  edge  angulated  near  costa; 
first  line  represented  by  a  broad  double  fascia  of  white  irroration, 
forming  a  white  dot  on  costa  at  4;  a  transverse  silvery-white 
mark  in  disc  at  |,  and  another  on  dorsum  at  |;  a  rather  irregular 
silvery-white  line  from  a  white  dot  on  costa  at  §  to  dorsum  before 
tornus,  usuall}^  more  or  less  interrupted;  a  fascia  of  whitish 
irroration  from  a  white  dot  on  costa  at  4  to  tornus;  a  row  of 
silvery-metallic  marks  surrounded  with  black  round  apex  and 
termen:  cilia  whitish,  round  apex  and  below  middle  of  termen 
suffused  with  dark  grey,  basal  third  tawny-bronze  limited  by  a 
blackish  shade.  Hind  wings  rather  dark  fuscous,  becoming  darker 
posteriorly;  a  white  line  from  disc  at  f  to  tornus;  cilia  fuscous- 
whitish,  with  dark  fuscous  basal  shade. 

Mount  Kosciusko  (5000  feet).  New  South  Wales;  Gisborne, 
Victoria;  Deloraine,  George's  Bay,  and  Hobart,  Tasmania;  from 
November  to  Januar}^  and  in  April  fourteen  specimens. 

205.  C.  lampadias,  n.sp. 

J9.  12  16  mm.  Head  and  thorax  tawn3'^-bronze,  more  or  less 
irrorated  with  white.  Palpi  grey  mixed  with  white  and  black. 
Antennae  white  ringed  with  black.  Abdomen  light  bronze, 
segmental  margins  white.  Forewings  rather  elongate,  rather 
dilated  posteriori}',  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen 
sinuate,  oblique;  light  tawny-bronze,  more  or  less  mixed  with 
dark  fuscous;  a  basal  patch  of  white  irroration,  sometimes  small; 
a  somewhat  curved  whitish  fascia  from  J  of  costa  to  |  of  dorsum; 
an  indistinct  line  of  whitish  irroration  from  a  white  dot  on 
middle  of  costa  to  a  silverj'-'white  mark  on  dorsum  at  |;  a  silvery- 
metallic  transverse  sometimes  interrupted  mark  in  disc  at  ^,  more 
or  less  surrounded  with  black  scales;  a  silvery  mark  from  a  white 
dot  on  costa  above  this,  and  an  oblique  silvery  mark  below  it;  a 
straight  whitish  fascia  from  a  white  spot  on  costa  at' 4  to  tornus; 
an  almost  marginal  silverj^-metallic  streak  before  termen  through- 
out, preceded  by  some  black  scales:  cilia  whitish,  with  a  blackish 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  HI 

basal  line;  and  indications  of  a  grey  median  sliade  sometimes 
reduced  to  three  patches.  Hind  wings  gre}'-,  sometimes  darker 
posteriorly;  a  white  streak  from  disc  at  |^  to  tornus,  and  indistinct 
traces  of  a  second  streak  be3^ond  this;  cilia  whitish,  with  dark 
fuscous  basal  and  fuscous  median  shades. 

Mount  Kosciusko  (5500  feet),  New  South  Wales;  Deloraine 
and  Hobart,  Tasmania;  from  November  to  January,  twenty 
specimens. 

36.  SiMAETHis  Leach. 

206.  S.  bamli's  Feld. 

{Simaethis  basalis  Feld.,  Reis.  Nov.  pi.  cxxxviii.,  19;  *S'.  chiono- 
clesma  Low.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1896,  167.) 

Rockhampton  and  Brisbane,  Queensland,  in  December  and 
January;  Aru;  Amboina.  Varies  considerably  in  presence  or 
absence  of  orange  suffusion  in  hindwings  and  on  terminal  area 
of  forewings. 

207.  >S'.  limonias,  n.sp. 

(J.  14:  15  mm.  Head  and  thorax  ochreous-orange,  thorax  with 
a  central  transverse  dark  fuscous  band.  Palpi  orange,  second 
and  terminal  joints  with  basal  and  subapical  dark  fuscous  rings. 
Antennse  white  ringed  with  black.  Abdomen  dark  fuscous  mixed 
with  orange,  anal  tuft  orange.  Posterior  legs  orange  banded 
with  black,  basal  joint  of  tarsi  rough-scaled  above,  third  joint 
snow-white  above.  Forewings  triangular,  costa  gently  arched, 
apex  obtuse,  termen  slightly  rounded,  rather  oblique,  sinuate 
above  tornus;  blackish-fuscous,  markings  ochreous-orange;  two 
straight  fasciae  near  base;  first  line  broad,  straight,  from  a  whitish 
dot  on  costa  at  ^  to  |-  of  dorsum,  closely  followed  by  a  nari-ow 
rather  irregular  line;  a  transverse-oval  discal  spot  beyond  middle; 
second  line  moderate,  rather  irregular,  from  a  whitish  dot  on  costa 
at  I  to  f  of  dorsum,  curved  outwards  round  discal  spot,  not 
touching  it,  with  a  short  dentation  outwards  below  middle, 
separated  by  a  fine  line  of  groundcolour  from  a  broader  uneven 
streak  following  it;  terminal  area  more  or  less  irrorated  with 
ochreous-orange  :  cilia  grey,  with  a  blackish  basal  line.      Hind- 


112       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTKRA,   XIX., 

wings  dark  fuscous;  longitudinal  median  and  submedian  streaks 
of  orange  suifusion  from  base  to  J,  more  or  less  expanded  at 
posterior  extremity;  sometimes  a  suffused  orange  streak  along 
lower  half  of  termen;  cilia  as  in  forewings. 

Cairns,  Queensland  (Barnard);  Woodlark  Island  (Meek);  two 
specimens.  Attention  may  be  directed  to  the  good  specific 
characters  furnished  in  this  genus  b}'-  the  posterior  tarsi,  which 
are  often  distinctively  decorated.  In  order  to  understand  the 
complex  markings  of  the  forewings  it  is  necessary  to  assume  the 
blackish  tint  to  be  the  ground,  even  when,  as  in  the  present 
species,  the  orange  occupies  the  greater  portion  of  the  wings. 

208.  6'.  sycopola  Meyr. 

[Simaethis  sycopola  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1880, 
211.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  from  JNIarch 
to  May.      Larva  in  folded  leaves  of  Ficus  stijoidata. 

2  09.  aS'.  reguJaris  Pag. 
(Simaethis  regular  is  Pag.,  JB.  Nass.  Ver.  1884,  288.) 
Amboina.     This  and  some  other  of  Pagenstecher's  species  are 

in   my  judgment   too  loosely   described   to   be   identified,  and   I 

cannot  determine  them. 

210.  S.  sessilis  Pag. 

(Simaethis  sessilis  Pag.,  JB.  Nass.  Ver.  1886,  179.) 
New  Guinea.     Not  known  to  me. 

211.  S.  parva  Pag. 

(Simaethis  parva  Pag.,  JB.  Nass.  Ver.  1884,  288.) 
Amboina.      Not  known  to  me.     S.  taprobanes  Z.,  is  also  quoted 
by    Pagenstecher   from   Amboina   and   Aru;    it  is  a    well-known 
Ceylon  species,  and  it  seems  more  probable  that  the  identification 
was  mistaken. 


BY  E.   MEYHICK.  113 

212.  aS'.  suhmarginalis  Walk. 

( Ilerbula  suhmarginalis  Walk.,  Suppl.  1286;  //.  mulliferalis  ib., 
1286.) 

Ceram.     I  have  seen  this  species,  but  do  not  possess  it. 

213.  S.  ophiosema  Low. 
{Siniaethis  ophiosema  Low., Trans.  Roy.Soc.  S.  Austr.  1896,167.) 
Townsville    and     Kockhampton,    Queensland,    in     November, 
December,  February,  and  May.      Posterior  tarsi  with  basal  joint 
rough-scaled,  blackish  with  white  tip,  second  joint  yellow-ochreous 
with  white  tip,  other  three  black. 

21  4.  aS*.  hUesceiLS  Feld. 
{Simaethis  hitescens  Feld.,  Reis.  Nov.  pi.  cxxxviii,  16.) 
Amboina.      Not  known  to  me. 

215.  aS'.  cyanotoxa,  n.sj). 

^.  16  mm.  Head  and  thorax  ochreous-orange,  thorax  with 
central  transverse  blackish  bar,  posteriorly  infuscated.  Palpi 
orange,  second  and  terminal  joints  with  basal  and  subapical 
blackish  rings.  Antennae  whitish  ringed  with  black.  Abdomen 
dark  fuscous  mixed  with  brownish-orange,  apex  deep  orange. 
Posterior  legs  orange  banded  with  blackish,  tibiae  and  basal  joint 
of  tarsi  rough-scaled  above,  third  joint  of  tarsi  snow-white  above. 
For^-wings  triangular,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen 
gently  rounded,  rather  oblique;  black;  an  almost  basal  ochreous- 
orange  fascia  and  line  immediately  following,  angulated  near 
costa;  first  line  steel-blue  edged  with  orange,  from  I  of  costa  to 
f  of  dorsum,  angulated  above  middle;  immediately  beyond  this 
an  irregular  line  of  orange-ochreous  suffusion,  acutely  angulated 
in  middle;  an  oblique  steel-blue  discal  mark  beyond  middle, 
surrounded  with  ochreous-orange;  second  line  steel-blue  edged 
with  orange,  widely  broken  inwards  below  middle,  upper  portion 
evenl}^  curved,  lower  inwardly  oblique,  the  two  portions  connected 
by  a  fine  orange  line;  this  is  very  closely  followed  throughout  by 
10 


114       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALA8I A.N  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

an  uneven  ochreous-orange  streak,  attenuated  above  middle  and 
beneath  break;  terminal  area  with  some  scattered  ochreous- 
orange  scales,  and  a  roundish  spot  towards  termen  beneatli  apex: 
cilia  leaden-grey,  with  a  black  basal  line  mixed  with  orange,  tips 
grey- whitish.  Hindwings  dark  fuscous;  an  orange  median  streak 
from  base,  and  indications  of  subdorsal  and  dorsal  streaks,  all 
terminated  in  a  postmedian  transverse  orange  streak  not  reaching 
costa;  orange  spots  on  termen  in  middle  and  above  tornus;  cilia 
ochreous-whitish,  with  blackish  basal  line,  round  tornus  grey. 
Isabel  Island,  Solomon  Is.;  one  specimen  (Meek). 

216. /S.  a-caeruleum  Pag. 
{Simaethis  a-caeruleum  Pag.,  JB.  Nass.  Ver.  1884,  287.) 
Amboina.     Not  known  to  me. 

217.  *S'.  meiaJlica  Turn. 
{Simaethis  metallica  Turn.,  Trans.  Ro3^Soc.  S.  Austr.  1898,  202.) 
Townsville  and  Brisbane,  Queensland.      Bred  in  December  by 

Mr.  Dodd. 

218.  S.j^liomlealis  Pag. 

(Slmcethis  ijlumhealis  Pag.,  JB.  Nass.  Ver.  1884,  288.) 
Amboina.      Not  known  to  me. 

219.  S.  chalcotoxa  Meyr. 

{S imcef his  chalcotoxa  M.eyi\,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  1886,  287.) 
Tonga  and  Fiji  Islands. 

220.  S.  orthogona  Meyr. 

Simcethis  orthogona  Meyr.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  1886,  287.) 
New  Guinea.     Also  from  Ceylon. 

221.  S.  melanopepla  Meyr. 

{SimcEthis  melanopepla  Meyr.,Proc.  Linn.  Soc. N.S.Wales,  1880, 
212.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  November. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  115 

37.  Glyphipteryx  Hb. 

I  do  not  coiisidei-  it  advantageous  to  maintain  Pliryqanostola 
and  Apistomorpha  as  distinct  genera,  as  increased  material  shows 
that  they  would  not  be  natural  groups,  whilst  when  merged  in 
Glyplilpterijx^  the  whole  forms  a  ver}'-  easily  recognised  and 
well-marked  genus.  As  the  Australian  species  now  number  43, 
I  give  a  tabulation  to  assist  identification. 

1.  CiUa  of  forewings  with  dark  line  indented  below 

apex 2. 

Cilia  of  forewings  with  dark  line  not  indented 36. 

2.  Forewings  with  pale  dorsal  spot  near  base 3. 

Forewings  without  dorsal  spot  near  base 18. 

3.  Forewings   with   more   or    less    black    posterior 

marking 4. 

Forewings  without  black  posterior  marking 12. 

4.  Forewings  with  black  tornal  patch  and  more  or 

less  striation  above  it 5. 

Forewings  without  such  markings 11. 

5.  Forewings  with  whitish  spot  on  base  of  dorsum  . .  249.  cyanophracta. 
Forewings  without  basal  spot 6. 

6.  Subbasal  dorsal  spot  connected  with  costa 7. 

Subbasal  dorsal  spot  not  connected  with  costa....  9. 

7.  First  two  entire  transverse  streaks  parallel 8. 

First   two   entire   transverse    streaks  converging 

towards  costa , 245.  as(erie//a. 

8.  Second  transverse  streak  whitish  on  dorsum 247.  pharefropis. 

.Second  transverse  streak  not  whitish  on  dorsum  248.  parazona. 

9.  Subbasal  dorsal  spot  outwardly  oblique 252.  2Jhospho7'a. 

Subbasal  dorsal  spot  rather  inwardly  oblique 10. 

10.  Second  joint  of  palpi  with  long  projecting  scales 

beneath 251.  argyrosema. 

Second  joint  of  palpi  shortly  scaled 250.  iometalla. 

11.  Subbasal  dorsal  spot  outwardly  oblique 246.  amhlycerella. 

Subbasal  dorsal  spot  erect 244.  uozela. 

12.  Two  anterior  dorsal  spots  yellow 238.  cliryi^oplanetis. 

Two  anterior  dorsal  spots  whitish 13. 

13.  Two  anterior  dorsal  spots  erect 14. 

Two  anterior  dorsal  spots  outwardly  oblique 15. 

14.  Forewings  with  metallic  discal  dot  at  f 236.  platydisema. 

Forewings  without  such  dot 237.  metcora. 


116       DESCaiPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTKRA,  XIX., 

15.  Forevvings  with  six  pale  streaks  from  costa.. J6. 

Forewings  with  seven  pale  streaks  from  costa 17. 

16.  Dorsal  streaks  sharply  marked 239.  leucocerastes. 

Dorsal  streaks  indistinct 235.  Isabella. 

17.  Forewings   with    several    metallic   dots  in   disc 

posteriorly 240.   tetra^ema. 

Forewings  without  such  dots 234.  chuterasfis. 

18.  Forewings  with  black  posterior  markings 19. 

Forewings  without  black  posterior  markings 22. 

19.  Forewings   with    short   white    streak   from    base 

along  fold 254.  hrachymda. 

Forevvings  without  basal  streak  20. 

20.  Forewings   with    black    metallic-marked    tornal 

patch 21. 

Forewings  without  such  patch 255.  call.i-scopa. 

21.  Tornal  black  patch  with  three  metallic  bars 25^.  comefophora. 

Tornal  black  patch  with  five  or  six  metallic  dots.  253.  lamprocoma. 

22.  Forewings  with  white  median  streak  from  base...  23. 
Forewings  without  such  streak 26. 

23.  Costal  streaks  distinct  and  sharply  defined 24. 

Costal  streaks  indistinct,  partly  suffused 232.  mef^aula. 

24.  Third  costal  and  tornal  streaks  united 231.  tnthyheltmua^ 

Third  costal  and  tornal  streaks  not  united 25. 

25.  Forewings  with  six  costal  streaks 233.  macrantha. 

Forewings  with  seven  costal  streaks 230.  macraula. 

26.  Forewings  with  white  subdorsal  streak  from  base  27. 
Forewings  without  such  streak 28. 


Forewings  with  oblique  white  postmedian  streak 


from  dorsum 223.  jjrotomarra. 

Forewings  without  such  streak 222.  haUmo2)hila. 

28.  Forewings  with  entire  transverse  anterior  streak.  29. 
Forewings  without  such  streak 30. 

29.  First  costal  streak  reaching  dorsum 242.  holocU'ima. 

Second  costal  streak  reaching  dorsum  241,  metronoma. 

30.  Forewings  with  silvery-metallic  dorsal  spots 243.  drosophat^. 

Forewings  without  such  spots 31. 

31.  Forewings  with  oblique  white  mark  above  dorsum 

in  middle 224.  antopefes. 

Forewings  without  such  mark.  . 32. 

32.  Forewings  with  oblique  white  streak  from  dorsum 

beyond  middle 33. 

Forewings  without  such  mark 229.  palneomorpho.. 

33.  Forewings  with  five  white  costal  streaks 225.  acinacella. 

Forewings  with  six  white  costal  streaks 34. 


13Y  E.    MEYRICK.  117 

34.  Toinal  metallic  mark  erect 35. 

Tornal  metallic  mark  oblique 228.  callicrossa. 

35.  Dorsal  oblique  streak  uniting  with  second  costal..  226.  gonoteks. 
Dorsal  oblique  streak  not  reaching  second  costal.  227.  actinobola. 

36.  Forewings  with  black  blotch  in  centre  of  disc 257.  {jemmipunctella. 

Forewings  without  central  blotch ....  37. 

37.  P^orewings  with  black  posterior  marking 38. 

Forewings  without  black  posterior  marking 41. 

38.  Black  posterior  mark  resting  on  tornus .39. 

i>lack  posterior  mark  not  reaching  tornus 261.  cyanochalca. 

39.  Forewings    with    continuous    metallic    terminal 

streak  to  tornus 263.  polychroa. 

Forewings  without  continuous  terminal  streak.  . .  40. 

40.  Antepenultimate  costal  streak  direct 264.  trigonaspis. 

Antepenultimate  costal  streak  very  oblique  inwards  262.  anaclastis. 

41.  First  costal  streak  extended  to  dorsum 260.  tripselia. 

First  costal  streak  not  crossing  fold 42. 

42.  Forewings  with  supramedian  metallic  streak  from 

base 259.  perimefalla. 

Forewings  without  such  streak 258.  chalcostrepta. 

Sect.  A.     Dark  line  in  cilia  of  forewings  indented  beneath  apex. 

222.  G.  kaUmophila  Low. 

{Gli/phipferyx  halimophila  Low.,  Trans.  Roy.  8oc.  S.  Austr.  1893, 
183.)' 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  Adelaide,  South  Australia;  Perth 
and  Albany,  West  Australia;  in  September  and  October.  The 
peculiar  white  subdorsal  streak  separates  this  from  all  others 

223.  G.  protomacra,  n.sp. 

(J9.9-12  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  shining  bronze,  with  a 
white  stripe  on  side  of  head  becoming  subdorsal  on  thorax. 
Palpi  white  with  four  black  rings,  apex  black  in  front,  scales 
short.  Antennae  grey.  Abdomen  bronzy-fuscous.  Forewings 
elongate,  narrow,  costa  slightly  arched,  apex  round-pointed, 
teiinen  hardly  sinuate,  very  oblique;  shining  bronze;  a  white 
very  oblique  line  from  dorsum  near  base  to  beneath  fold  befoi-e 
middle  ;  seven  diversely  oblique  white  blackish-edged  streaks 
from  costa,  reaching  nearly  half  across  wing,  tending  to  become 


118       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

violet-golden-metallic  in  disc,  first  from  J;  an  oblique  white  wedge- 
shaped  mark  from  dorsum  beyond  middle,  neafly  or  quite  reaching 
a  violet-golden-metalHc  dot  in  disc  at  |;  a  nearly  erect  violet- 
golden-metallic  black-edged  streak  from  dorsum  before  tornus, 
and  another  along  lower  part  of  termen;  a  round  blackish  apical 
spot,  preceded  on  termen  by  a  small  violet-golden-metallic  black- 
edged  mark:  cilia  bronzy,  outer  half  whitish  with  an  indentation 
below  apex,  above  apex  wholly  bronze  tipped  with  blackish. 
Hindwings  and  cilia  dark  grey. 

Geraldton  and  Perth,  West  Australia,  in  October  and  Novem- 
ber, thirteen  specimens.  The  long  oblique  streak  from  near 
base  of  dorsum  is  unique. 

224.  G.  aufopetes^  n.sp. 

$.  8  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  bronze,  with  a  tine  white  line 
on  side  of  head,  becoming  subdorsal  on  thorax.  Palpi  white  with 
four  black  rings,  apex  black  in  front,  scales  short.  Antennse 
dark  grey,  beneath  whitish.  Abdomen  dark  grey.  Fore  wings 
elongate,  narrow,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  round-pointed, 
termen  very  obliquely  rounded;  deep  bronze;  a  slender  white  streak 
along  dorsum  from  base  to  |;  a  very  oblique  white  streak  from 
above  this  beyond  middle  to  fold  at|;  six  diversely  oblique  white 
blackish-edged  streaks  from  costa,  first  from  beyond  ^,  shorter, 
second  and  third  reaching  half  across  wing,  tips  violet-metallic; 
an  erect  violet-silvery-metallic  blackish-edged  streak  from  tornus, 
almost  reaching  second  costal,  and  another  along  lower  part  of 
termen;  a  round  black  apical  spot,  beneath  which  is  a  violet- 
golden-metallic  dot  on  termen:  cilia  whitish,  basal  half  bronzy 
limited  by  a  dark  fuscous  line  indented  on  subapical  dot,  on  costa 
dark  fuscous  barred  with  white,  with  a  dark  fuscous  apical  hook. 
Hindwings  dark  grey;  cilia  grey. 

Albany,  West  Australia,  in  December;  two  specimens. 

225.  G.  acinaceUa  Meyr. 
{Glyphipteryx  acinaceUa  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales, 

1882,' 193.) 

Warragul,  Victoria;  Deloraine,  Tasmania;  in  November  and 
December. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  119 

226.  G.^onoteles,  n.sp. 

(J 9.  6-7  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  bronze.  Palpi  white 
with  four  black  rings,  apex  black  in  front,  scales  short.  Antennae 
dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  bronzy-fuscous,  beneath  white.  Fore- 
wings  elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  round-pointed,  termen 
very  obliquely  rounded;  deep  bronze;  six  diversely  oblique 
silvery-white  streaks  from  costa,  edged  with  dark  fuscous,  first 
from  ^-,  second  uniting  with  a  similar  streak  from  dorsum  beyond 
middle  to  form  an  acutely  angulated  fascia,  third  silvery-tipped, 
almost  or  quite  connected  with  a  nearly  erect  silvery-metallic 
streak  from  dorsum  before  tornus;  a  silvery-metallic  mark  along 
lower  part  of  termen,  and  a  dot  above  its  posterior  extremity;  a 
round  black  apical  spot,  beneath  which  is  a  silver^'-metallic  dot: 
cilia  whitish,  basal  third  bronzy  limited  by  a  blackish  line  indented 
beneath  apex,  above  apex  dark  fuscous  marked  with  white. 
Hindwings  and  cilia  dark  fuscous. 

Gisborne,  Victoria  (Lyell):  Deloraine,  Tasmania;  in  November 
and  December,  seven  .<?pecimens. 

227.  G.  actiuohola  Meyr. 

{Ghjpliipterijx  actinohola  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales, 
1880,  241.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  October  and  November. 

228.  G.  callicrossa,  n.sp. 

(^9.  10-15  mm.  Head,  thorax,  and  abdomen  bronzy-fuscous. 
Palpi  white  mixed  with  dark  fuscous,  with  rough  projecting  hairs 
diminishing  to  apex.  Antennae  dark  fuscous  Forewings 
elongate,  rather  narrow,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse, 
termen  sinuate,  oblique;  light  bronzy-fuscous,  deeper  in  <^\  an 
oblique  white  wedge-shaped  mark  from  dorsum  beyond  middle; 
six  diversely  oblique  silvery-metallic  black-edged  streaks  from 
costa,  white  on  costa  and  in  cilia,  rirst  near  before  middle,  rather 
short,  second  and  third  reaching  half  across  wing;  a  silvery- 
metallic  dot  in  disc  before  apex  of  second;  an  oblique  silvery- 
metallic  black-edged  streak  from  dorsum   before  tornus,  another 


120       DESCRIPTIONS  OP  AUSTRALASIAN   MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

along  lower  part  of  termen,  and  a  short  one  from  termen  above 
middle:  a  small  oval  black  apical  spot  :  cilia  whitish,  with 
blackish  basal  line  indented  beneath  apex,  on  costa  bronzy  with 
blackish  tips  towards  apex.  Hindwings  rather  dark  grey;  cilia 
grey,  becoming  pale  3'ellow  on  lower  half  of  termen  and  dorsum. 
York  and  Geraldton,  West  Australia,  in  October  and  Novem- 
ber; two  specimens.  The  yellow  cilia  of  hindwings  are  a  special 
character. 

229.  G.  paJaeomorpha  Meyr. 

{Glyphipteryx  paJaeomorpha  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 
1880,  242.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Bulli,  New  South  Wales;  Mount  Mace- 
don  and  Gisborne,  Victoria;  Deloraine,  Hobart,  and  George's  Bay, 
Tasmania;  Mount  Gambler,  South  Australia;  from  September  to 
January. 

230.  G.  macraida^  n.sp. 

(J^.  9-10  mm.  Head  and  thorax  pale  greyish-bronze  or  whitish- 
bronze.  Palpi  white  with  four  black  rings,  apex  black  in  front, 
beneath  with  rather  short  projecting  hairs.  Antennte  bronzy- 
fuscous.  Abdomen  bronzy-grey.  Forewings  elongate,  rather 
narrow,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  pointed,  termen  very  obliquely 
rounded;  bronze,  more  or  less  mixed  with  dark  fuscou.s;  a  rather 
broad  white  median  streak  from  base  to  beyond  middle,  marked 
beneath  with  a  black  line  on  fold  towards  middle;  seven  diversely 
oblique  short  white  dark  edged  streaks  fi-om  costa,  first  from 
before  J,  second  and  third  longer;  sometimes  additional  whitish 
streaks  before  and  beyond  third  ;  an  oblique  silvery-metallic 
blackish-edged  streak  from  before  tornus,  almost  meeting  third 
costal  streak,  and  a  spot  on  lower  part  of  termen;  a  silvery- 
metallic  dot  beneath  or  touching  fourth  costal  streak;  a  roundish 
black  apical  dot,  beneath  wdiich  is  a  silvery-metallic  dot  :  cilia 
whitish,  basal  third  bronzy  limited  b}^  a  blackish  line,  indented 
beneath  apex,  on  costa  barred  with  white  and  blackish,  with  a 
blackish  supra-apical  hook.      Hindwings  and  cilia  grey. 

Deloraine,  Tasmania,  in  December;  eight  specimens. 


BY   E.   MEVHICK.  121 

231.  G.  fill  til  yheUmna  Meyr. 

{PJirijganostola  eathijhelemiin  Meyr.,  Proc.Linn.Soc.N.S. Wales, 
1880,  250.) 

}>athurst,  New  South  Wales;  Melbourne,  Victoria;  Launcestoii, 
Peloraine,  and  Hol)art,  Tasmania;  Wirrabara  and  Mount  Lofty, 
8outh  Australia;  from  October  to  January. 

232.  G.  mesaula,  n.sp. 

(J.  1 1  mm.  Head  and  thorax  whitish-bronze.  Palpi  whitish 
banded  with  fuscous,  beneath  with  projecting  hairs.  Antennae 
dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  whitish-ochreous.  Forewings  elongate, 
narrow,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  acute,  termen  subsinuate,  ver}' 
oblique;  7  and  8  stalked;  whitish-bronze,  with  indications  of 
fuscous  longitudinal  lines;  a  suffused  whitish  streak  along  dorsum; 
a  moderately  broad  white  streak  from  base  above  fold  almost  to 
tornus,  edged  posteriorly  with  dark  fuscous;  eight  ill-detined 
short  oblique  white  marks  from  costa,  edged  anteriorly  with 
dark  fuscous,  becoming  suffused  and  indistinct  in  disc,  first  from 
|,  third  long  and  sharper-defined,  reaching  apex  of  median  streak; 
a  string  of  about  five  silvery- whitish  dots  on  lower  part  of  termen, 
edged  anteriorly  with  dark  fuscous;  a  small  black  apical  dot, 
beneath  which  is  a  silvery-metallic  dot  :  cilia  whitish,  with  a 
dark  fuscous  median  line  indented  beneath  apex,  and  a  dark 
fuscous  supra-apical  hook.      Hind  wings  and  cilia  whitish-grey. 

Wirrabara,  South  Australia,  in  October;  one  specimen. 

233.  G.  macrantha  Low. 

{Phryganostola  macrantha  Low.,  Trans.Roy.Soc. S.Austr.  1905, 
113.) 

Gisborne,  Victoria,  in  October.      Not  known  to  me. 

234.  G.  deuterastis,  n.sp. 

9.  10-12  mm.  Head,  antenna,  thorax,  and  abdomen  bronzy- 
fuscous.  Palpi  white  banded  with  fuscous,  beneath  with  pro- 
jecting hairs.  Forewings  elongate,  narrow,  costa  gently  arched, 
apex  round-pointed,  termen  sinuate,  oblique;  bronze,  mixed  with 


122       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTKRA,   XIX., 

rather  dark  fuscous;  two  oblique  whitish  streaks  from  dorsum 
before  and  beyond  middle,  reaching  fold;  seven  diversely  oblique 
slender  white  dark-edged  streaks  from  costa,  tirst  from  ^;  a  white 
dot  in  disc  at  4;  an  oblique  silvery-metallic  dark-edged  streak 
from  dorsum  before  tornus,  and  another  along  lower  part  of 
termen;  a  silver3'-metallic  dot  on  termen  above  middle;  an  oval 
black  apical  spot  :  cilia  white,  basal  half  bronze  limited  by  a 
blackish  line,  indented  on  the  metallic  dot,  with  a  dark  fuscous 
hook  above  apex.      Hindwings  dark  fuscous;  cilia  fuscous. 

Perth  (Greenmount),    West   Australia,   in    November;     three 

specimens. 

235.  G.  sahella  Newm. 

{GJyphipteryx  sahella  Newm.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.,  N.S.  iii., 
299;  Meyr.,  Proc.  LLnn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880,  237.) 

Mount  Alexander  Range,  Victoria.  I  am  still  unable  to 
identify  this  species. 

236   G.  platydlsema  Low. 

{Glyphij^terifx  plafydisema  Low.,  Trans. Roy.Soc. S.  Austr.  1893^ 
183.) 

Gisborne,  Victoria  (Lyell);  Deloraine,  Tasmania;  in  November. 
Larva  in  stems  of  Jiincus.  The  difference  in  the  sexes  is  unusual, 
the  markings  in  the  female  being  much  broader. 

237.  G.  meteor  a  Meyr. 
{Glyphipteryx  meteora  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1880, 
237.)' 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Murrurundi,  Bathurst,  and  Bulli,  New 
South  Wales;  Melbourne  and  Mount  Macedon,  Victoria;  Laun- 
ceston,  Campbelltown,  Deloraine,  and  Hobart,  Tasmania;  Mount 
Lofty  and  Wirrabara,  South  Australia  ;  from  October  to 
December. 

238.  G.  clirysoplanetis  Meyr. 

{Glyphipteryx  clirysoplanetis  Meyr.,  Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, 
1880,238.) 

Brisbane,  Toowoomba,  and  Wallangarra,  Queensland ;  Glen 
Innes,  Murrurundi.  and  Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  Melbourne 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  123 

and  Healesville,  Victoria;  Campbelltown,  Deloraine,  George's 
Bay,  and  Hobart,  Tasmania;  from  October  to  December,  and  in 
March. 

239.  G.  leiicoceraates  Meyr. 

{Glyphipteri/x  leucocerastes  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.  Wales, 
1880,  239.) 

]\Iurrurundi,  New  South  Wales,  in  November. 

240.  G.  tetrasema  Meyr. 

{Glyph ipteri/x  tetrasema  Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.  S.Wales,  1 882, 
191.)' 

Mount  Wellington,  Tasmania,  in  February. 

241.  G.  metronoma,  n.sp. 

$.  8  mm.  Head,  antennae,  and  thorax  dark  bronzy-fuscous. 
Palpi  whitish  banded  with  black,  second  joint  with  rough  pro- 
jecting scales  beneath.  Abdomen  grey.  Fore  wings  elongate, 
costa  gently  arched,  apex  round-pointed,  termen  subsinuate,  very 
oblique;  7  and  8  stalked;  dark  bronzy  fuscous,  base  of  scales 
whitish;  six  violet-silvery-metallic  streaks  from  v  hite  dots  on 
costa,  first  from  ^,  somewhat  oblique,  rather  short,  second  from 
before  middle  of  costa  to  dorsum  beyond  middle,  third  from  4  of 
costa  to  dorsum  before  tornus,  interrupted  in  middle,  fourth  and 
fifth  short,  sixth  apical,  interrupted  by  a  blackish  dot:  a  silvery- 
metallic  dot  in  disc  beyond  third  streak;  an  irregular  violet- 
silvery-metallic  mark  along  lower  part  of  termen  :  cilia  whitish, 
basal  half  fuscous  limited  by  a  blackish  line  indented  beneath 
apex,  on  costa  dark  fuscous  barred  with  whitish,  with  a  blackish 
apical  hook.      Hind  wings  and  cilia  grey. 

Gisborne,  Victoria,  in  November;  one  specimen  (Lyell). 

242.  G.  liolodesma  Meyr. 

{Glyphipteryx  liolodesma  Meyr,,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 
1882,  190.) 

Mount  Wellington,  Tasmania,  in  December  and  February. 


124       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN   MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

243.  G.  drosopliaes  Meyr. 
(Phryganostola  d rosojoliaes  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 
1880,  249.) 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  Deloraine,  Tasmania;  in  October 
and  December. 

244.  G.  isozela,  n.sp. 

(^9-  11-13  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  bronze,  side  of  head 
with  a  fine  white  line.  Palpi  white  with  four  black  rings,  apex 
black  in  front,  scales  short.  Antennae  and  abdomen  dark  bronzy- 
fuscous.  Forewings  elongate,  rather  dilated  posteriorly,  costa 
gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  sinuate,  oblique:  shining 
l)ronze  mixed  with  dark  fuscous,  especially  on  margins  and 
towards  base;  a  moderate  erect  white  fascia  from  dorsum  at  J, 
narrowed  upwards  and  not  reaching  costa;  six  violet-silvery- 
metallic  dark-edged  nearh^  direct  streaks  from  white  dots  on  costa, 
tirst  at  J,  terminating  in  a  trapezoidal  white  spot  on  dorsum 
beyond  middle,  second  to  fourth  i-eaching  nearly  half  across  wing, 
fifth  somewhat  curved  and  continued  to  tornus,  sixth  ante-apical 
reaching  termen;  discal  area  between  tirst  and  fifth  irregularly 
marked  with  black,  with  three  violet-silver3^-metallic  dots  on  a 
submedian  irregular  black  streak,  and  one  or  two  subconfluent 
towards  tornus  :  cilia  whitish,  basal  half  bronzy  limited  by  a 
blackish  line  indented  beneath  apex,  above  apex  dark  fuscous 
marked  with  white.      Hind  wings  dark  grey;  cilia  grey. 

Mount  Kosciusko  (4500  feet),  New  South  Wales;  Deluraine, 
Tasmania;  in  December  and  January,  seven  specimens. 

245.  G.  asteriella  Meyr. 
{Glyiyhipteryx  asteriella  Mejn*.,  Proc. Linn. Soc.N.S.Wales,  1880, 
235.) 

Shoalhaven,    New    South   Wales;    Melbourne,    Victoria;    in 

January. 

246.  G.  amhJycerella  Meyr. 

{Glypliipteryx  amhlycereUa  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales, 
1882,^89.) 

Melbourne,  Healesville,  and  Warragul,  Victoria,  in  November 
and  December. 


BY   E.   MEYKICK  125 

247.  G.  pharetropis,  n.sp. 

(J.  11  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  bronze.  Palpi  wliitisli, 
mixed  and  ringed  with  blackish,  with  rough  projecting  hairs 
beneath.  Antennae  and  abdomen  dark  fuscous.  Forewings 
elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  ol)tuse,  termen  subsinuate, 
oblique;  golden-bronze,  towards  base  suffused  with  dark  fuscous; 
a  golden-whitish  transverse  streak  from  \  of  costa  to  |  of  dorsum; 
six  pale  violet-golden-metallic  streaks  from  white  dots  on  costa, 
edged  with  dark  fuscous,  first  at  \,  short,  second  from  t  of  costa 
to  dorsum  beyond  middle,  becoming  ochreous-whitish  towards 
dorsum,  third  parallel,  entire,  fourth  and  fifth  very  short,  sixth 
ante-apical,  reaching  termen;  between  third  and  sixth  in  upper 
part  of  disc  a  violet-golden-metallic  dot  and  two  or  three  fine 
black  lines,  and  in  lower  part  an  irregular  black  blotch,  marked 
with  one  golden-metallic  dot  above  tornus,  and  three  on  lower 
part  of  termen  :  cilia  whitish,  basal  half  bronzy  limited  by  a 
blackish  line  indented  beneath  apex,  above  apex  dark  fuscous 
marked  with  white.      Hind  wings  dark  grey;  cilia  grey. 

Gisborne,  Victoria,  in  March;  two  specimens  (Lyell). 

248.  G.  parazona,  n.sp. 
(^.11  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  bronze,  face  whitish-edged. 
Palpi  whitish,  with  four  black  rings,  apex  black  in  front,  scales 
short.  Antennae  and  abdomen  dark  bronzj'-grey.  Forewings 
elongate,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  rounded, 
rather  strongly  oblique;  ochreous-bronze,  suffused  with  dark 
fuscous  on  margins  and  towards  base;  two  direct  parallel  pale 
violet-golden-metallic  transverse  streaks  before  middle,  first 
whitish  on  dorsum;  a  pale  violet-golden-metallic  dot  on  costa 
beyond  middle,  and  a  curved  streak  from  a  white  dot  on  costa  at 
1^  to  tornus;  area  between  this  and  antemedian  streak  nearly  all 
occupied  by  a  large  black  blotch,  of  which  the  upper  half  is 
crossed  by  about  six  whitish-ochreous  longitudinal  lines,  lower 
half  marked  with  five  golden-metallic  dots;  an  almost  apical 
transverse  golden-metallic  streak,  extremity  white  :  cilia  white, 
basal  half  bronze  limited  by  a  blackish  line  indented  beneath 


126       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTEKA,   XIX., 

apex,  above  apex  l:)lackish  marked  with  white.      Hind  wings  dark 
grey;  cilia  grey. 

Gisborne,  Victoria,  in  April;  one  specimen  (Lyell).  At  first 
sight  very  similar  to  the  preceding  species  from  the  same  locality, 
but  on  examination  the  markings  are  seen  to  be  quite  different 
in  detail;  in  pharet^'opis  the  first  fascia  is  much  nearer  the  base, 
there  is  an  additional  costal  streak  between  it  and  the  second 
fascia,  there  is  an  additional  fascia  beyond  second,  the  penulti- 
mate streak  is  ver}^  short  instead  of  being  continued  to  tornus, 
and  the  palpi  are  rough-haired. 

249.  G.  ci/anophracta  Meyr. 

(Glypliipteryx  cyanopliracta  Meyr.,  Proc. Linn. Soc.N.S. Wales, 
1882,186.) 

Burragorang,    New   South    Wales  :    Melbourne,    Victoria  ;    in 

April. 

250.  G.  iometalla  Meyr. 

{GlypJiipteryx  iometalla  Meyr.,  Proc.Linn. Soc.N.S.  Wales,  1880, 
232.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydne}-,  New  South  Wales;  from  August 
to  November. 

251.  G.  argyrosema  Meyr. 

{Apistomorpha  argyrosema  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales, 
1880,247.) 

Mount  Tambourine,  Queensland;  Sj^dney  and  Bowenfels,  New 
South    Wales;    Campbelltown,    Tasmania;    from    September    to 

March. 

252.  G.  pliosphora,  n.sp. 

(J.  10  mm.  Head,  thorax,  and  abdomen  bronze.  Palpi  white 
with  four  blackish  rings,  apex  black  in  front,  scales  short. 
Antennae  dark  grey.  Forewings  elongate,  costa  gently  arched, 
apex  obtuse,  termen  subsinuate,  rather  strongly  oblique;  dark 
bronze;  an  oblique  suffused  whitish  spot  from  dorsum  at  J, 
reaching  fold;  six  violet-silvery-metallic  nearly  direct  streaks 
from  white  dots  on  costa,  first  from  ^,  rather  short,  somewhat 
oblique,  second  from  middle  of  costa  to  dorsum  beyond  middle, 


BY  E.   iMEYKICK.  127 

whitish  on  dorsum,  third  and  fourth  reaching  middle,  fifth  very 
sliort,  sixth  ante-apica],  to  termen  beneath  apex;  a  pale  violet- 
golden-metallic  streak  from  dorsum  before  tornus,  nearly  reaching 
fourth  costal;  a  longitudinal  black  mark  along  lower  half  of 
termen,  containing  three  golden-metallic  dots,  above  which  are 
three  or  four  fine  black  longitudinal  lines  :  cilia  whitish,  basal 
half  bronzy  limited  by  a  dark  fuscous  line  indented  beneath  apex, 
above  apex  dark  fuscous  (?).  Hindwings  dark  fuscous;  cilia 
fuscous. 

Wirrabara,  South  Australia,  in  October;  one  specimen. 

253.  G.  lamprocoma,  n.sp. 

^9.  8-9  mm.  Head  and  thorax  bronze.  Palpi  whitish  mixed 
with  blackish,  with  rough  projecting  hairs  beneath.  Antennae 
and  abdomen  dark  grey.  Forewings  elongate,  costa  gently 
arched,  apex  round-pointed,  termen  hardly  sinuate,  rather  strongly 
oblique;  ochreous-bronze;  six  violet-silvery-metallic  nearly  direct 
streaks  from  white  spots  on  costa,  first  from  |-,  somewhat  oblique, 
reaching  fold,  second  from  before  middle  of  costa  to  dorsum 
beyond  middle,  third  to  fifth  short,  sixth  ante-apical,  to  termen 
beneath  apex;  a  triangular  black  patch  resting  on  lower  half  of 
termen,  containing  two  anterior  and  three  posterior  golden- 
metallic  spots,  and  two  or  three  undefined  bronzy  marks  between 
them;  above  this  patch  several  subconfluent  longitudinal  ochreous- 
whitish  lines:  cilia  white,  basal  third  bronze  limited  by  a  blackish 
line  indented  beneath  apex,  above  apex  bronzy  mixed  with 
blackish.      Hindwings  grey;  cilia  light  greyish-ochreous. 

Adelaide,  South  Australia,  in  October;  two  specimens. 

254.  G.  hracliyaula^  n.sp. 

(J.  9  mm.  Head  and  thorax  dark  bronze.  Palpi  whitish  with 
four  black  rings,  apex  black  in  front,  scales  short.  Antennae 
and  abdomen  dark  fuscous.  Forewings  elongate,  costa  slightly 
arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  sinuate,  oblique;  deep  golden-bronze; 
a  white  streak  from  base  along  fold  to  \\  five  pale  violet-golden- 
metallic  dark-edged  streaks  from  whitish  dots  on  costa,  first  from 


128       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

^  of  costa  to  dorsum  beyond  middle,  whitish  on  dorsum,  second 
from  middle  of  costa,  not  quite  reaching  a  golden-metallic 
blackish-edged  dot  in  disc,  third  curved,  from  §  of  costa  ta 
dorsum  before  tornus,  fourth  from  f  of  costa  to  termen  above 
tornus,  fifth  ante-apical;  a  golden-metallic  dot  between  second 
and  third  above  middle;  between  third  and  fourth  some  undefined 
slender  longitudinal  blackish  lines,  and  a  stronger  irregular  black 
streak  below  middle:  cilia  whitish,  basal  half  bronze  limited  by 
a  dark  fuscous  streak  indented  beneath  apex,  above  apex  dark 
fuscous.      Hindwings  and  cilia  dark  fuscous. 

Queensland  (1);  one  specimen,  without  note  of  locHlit3\ 
255.  G.  calliscopa  Low. 

{GlypJiipteryx  calliscopa  Low.,  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1905, 
112.) 

Melbourne,  Victoria,  in  November.      Not  known  to  me. 

256.  G.  cometophora  Meyr. 

{Glyphipteryx  cometophora  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 
1880,  231.) 

Blackheath,  New  Soutli  Wales  ;  Melbourne  and  Trafalgar,^ 
Victoria:  George's  Bay,  Ta.smania;  from  November  to  January. 

257.  G.  gemmipunctella  Walk. 

{Glijpliipteryx  cjemmipun ctella  Walk  ,  Cliar.  Het.  86;  G.  atri- 
striella  Zell.,  Hor.  Ross.  1877,  398;  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc  N.  S. 
Wales,  1880,  230;  G.  chrysolithella  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S. 
Wales,  1880,  229.) 

Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney  and  Blackheath,  New  South 
Wales;  Melbourne,  Healesville,  Sale,  and  Traralgon,  Victoria; 
George's  Ba}'^,  Tasmania;  from  February  to  April.  Varies  locally 
in  the  development  of  yellow  in  the  hindwings. 


Sect.  B.      Dark  line  in  cilia  of  forewin^js  not  ii'idented  beneatl 


apex. 

258.  G.  clialco8trepta^  n.sp. 

(J^.  14-15  mm.     Head  and  thorax  bronze;  in  (J  a  lateral  pencil 
of    scales   from   behind   prosternum.     Palpi   white   ringed    with 


BY  E.   MFA'KICK.  129 

blackish,  second  joint  with  projecting  scales  beneath.  Antenn;e 
whitish  ringed  with  dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  bronzy -grey, 
segmental  margins  whitish.  Forewings  elongate,  narrow,  costa 
gently  arched,  apex  round-pointed,  termen  very  obliquely  rounded; 
7  and  8  stalked:  in  ^  beneath  with  a  long  black  bristle  from  base 
of  costa;  light  golden-bronze,  anteriorly  infuscated;  a  fine  line  of 
black  scales  along  submedian  fold  from  base,  terminating  in  a 
silver}^- metallic  mark  near  posterior  extremity;  five  pale  golden- 
metallic  partially  black-edged  streaks  from  yellow-whitish  spots 
on  costa,  first  from  before  middle  of  costa,  rather  oblique,  not 
reaching  fold,  second  from  beyond  middle  of  costa  to  dorsum 
before  tornus,  slightly  curved,  interrupted  by  a  small  blackish 
spot  below  middle,  third  from  f  of  costa  to  tornus,  fourth  short, 
fifth  almost  terminal  from  apex  to  near  tornus:  cilia  ochreous- 
whitish,  basal  third  bronzy  limited  by  a  blackish  shade,  above 
apex  blackish  barred  with  ochreous-whitish.  Flind wings  and 
cilia  grey. 

Deloraine,  Tasmania,  in  December;  two  specimens. 

259.  G.  perimetaUa  Low. 

[GI y plilpteryx perimetalla  Low.,  Trans.  Ro}'.  Soc.  S.  Austr.  1905, 
112.) 

Stawell,  Victoria,  in  November.  Not  known  to  me;  according 
to  the  description  it  should  be  near  tripselia,  but  with  antennae 
fuscous,  and  first  transverse  streak  not  crossing  fold. 

260.  G.  tripselia,  n.sp. 
(^.  1 2  mm.  Head  and  thorax  bronze.  Palpi  white  with  four 
black  rings,  apex  black  in  front,  beneath  with  projecting  scales. 
Antennae  white  ringed  with  black.  Abdomen  bronzy-grey, 
.segmental  margins  whitish.  Forewings  elongate,  rather  narrow, 
costa  gently  arched,  apex  round-pointed,  termen  nearly  straight, 
rather  strongly  oblique;  golden-bronze;  markings  pale  violet- 
golden-metallic,  on  costa  white,  edged  with  a  few  scattered  black 
scales;  a  streak  above  middle  from  base  to  ^,  enlarged  posteriori}', 
and  another  subdorsal  from  base  to  'i;  three  parallel  entire  trans- 
11. 


k 


130       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

verse  streaks,  tirst  from  before  middle  of  eosta  to  dorsum  beyond 
middle,  third  from  before  J  of  costa  to  toriius;  a  short  streak  from 
costa  beyond  this,  and  one  almost  apical  to  termen  below  middle: 
cilia  bronze,  outer  half  mixed  with  whitish,  on  tornus  obscurely 
barred  with  whitish  and  fuscous,  on  costa  barred  with  white. 
Hindwings  grey;  cilia  pale  grey. 

Gisborne,  Victoria,  in  January;  one  specimen  (Lyell). 

•JGl.  G.  ci/anochalca  Meyr. 

{Glyphipteryx  cyanochalca  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales, 
1882,  185;   G.  Jyelliana  Low.,  Trans.  Roy. Soc. S.Austr.  1893,182.) 

Blackheath  and  Mittagong,  New  South  Wales  ;  Gisl)orne, 
Victoria  ;  Mount  Lofty,  South  Australia;  in  February  and 
JNIarch. 

262.  G.  anaclastis,  n.sp. 

(J.  12-16  mm.  Head  and  thorax  bronze.  Palpi  whitish  with 
four  blackish  rings,  beneath  with  projecting  scales.  Antenna? 
dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  bronzy-grey.  Foi-e wings  elongate, 
rather  narrow,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  round-pointed,  termen 
very  obliquely  rounded;  light  golden-bronze;  a  curved  silvery- 
metallic  streak  from  base  above  fold,  crossing  fold  at  ^  and  con- 
tinued to  near  dorsum  before  middle;  five  silvery-metallic  streaks 
from  costa,  tirst  from  I,  oblique,  reaching  fold,  extended  along 
costa  to  near  base,  second  from  middle  of  costa  to  dorsum  beyond 
middle,  interrupted  on  fold,  third  from  J  of  costa  very  obliquely 
inwards  to  disc  beyond  middle,  fourth  near  apex,  to  termen  below 
middle,  tifth  almost  apical;  a  silvery-metallic  dot  or  mark  in  disc 
between  third  and  fourth;  an  oblique  black  bar  from  beneath 
apex  of  third  to  termen  above  tornus,  cut  by  three  golden, 
metallic  spots  extended  downwards  beyond  it;  a  silvery-metallic 
dot  on  dorsum  before  tornus:  cilia  whitish-fuscous,  basal  half 
bronzy,  not  indenteil  beneath  apex,  on  costa  barred  with  whitish. 
Hindwings  and  cilia  grey. 

Gisborne  and  Traralgon,  Victoria;  Mount  Lofty,  South  Aus- 
tralia: in  April,  three  specimens  (Kershaw,  Lyell,  Guest). 


BY   E.   MEYRICK.  131 

263.  G.  poJychroa  Low. 

{GlyjjJiipteryx  polychroa  Low.,  Proc.Liiin.8oc.N.S.Wales,1897, 
•23.)    ■ 

(J.  11-14  mm.  Head  and  thorax  bronze.  Palpi  whitish  with 
four  dark  fuscous  rings,  without  projecting  hairs.  Antennae 
dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  bronzy-fuscous,  segmental  margins 
whitish.  Forewings  elongate,  rather  narrow,  costa  slightly 
arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  obliquely  rounded;  fuscous-bronze; 
a  pale  violet-golden-metallic  streak  from  beyond  \  of  costa  to 
middle  of  dorsum;  five  short  or  verj^^  short  violet-golden-metallic 
streaks  from  whitish  dots  on  costa  between  this  and  apex,  and 
another  from  apex  along  termen  to  tornus;  an  oblique  black  bar 
from  disc  beyond  middle  to  tornus,  cut  by  three  violet-golden 
metallic  spots  extended  downwards  beyond  it,  with  some  scattered 
black  scales  beneath  it;  above  this  indistinct  traces  of  a  patch  of 
longitudinal  pale  lines  separated  by  some  scattered  black  scales  : 
cilia  whitish,  basal  half  bronze  limited  by  a  dark  fuscous  shade 
not  indented  beneath  apex,  on  costa  bronze  barred  with  whitish. 
Hindwings  dark  fuscous;  cilia  fuscous,  round  apex  whitish  with 
basal  third  dark  fuscous. 

Melbourne  and  Gisborne,  Victoria,  in  December  and  March; 
three  specimens  (Lyell,  Lower). 

264.  G.  trigonasins,  n.sp. 

J 9.  10-12  mm.  Head  and  thorax  bronze.  Palpi  whitish  with 
four  black  rings,  apex  black  in  front,  without  projecting  hairs. 
Antennae  bronze  ringed  with  black.  Abdomen  grey.  Forewings 
elongate,  rather  narrow,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  tolerably 
pointed,  termen  hardly  sinuate,  rather  strongly  oblique;  golden- 
bronze;  a  curved  violet-golden-metailic  streak  from  base  above 
fold,  crossing  fold  at  about  \  and  continued  to  near  middle  of 
dorsum  but  not  reaching  it;  five  violet-golden-metallic  finely  dark- 
edged  streaks  from  costa,  violet-white  on  costa,  first  from  1, 
oblique,  reaching  fold,  second  from  middle  of  costa  to  dorsum 
be3'Ond  middle,  third  at  J,  direct,  reaching  half  across  wing, 
fourth  and  fifth  near   together  before  apex,  reaching  termen;  a 


132       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

triangular  black  patch  resting  on  lower  half  of  ternien,  with  an 
anterior  transverse  golden-metallic  mark,  and  four  variable  some- 
times parth^  conjoined  golden-metallic  dots;  above  this  a  patch 
of  more  or  less  indicated  paler  longitudinal  lines,  sometimes 
separated  by  fine  black  lines  :  cilia  whitish,  basal  third  golden- 
bronze  limited  by  a  dark  fuscous  shade,  not  indented  beneath 
apex,  abo^'e  apex  dark  fuscous  marked  with  white.  Hindwings 
dark  grey;  cilia  grey. 

Albany,  West  Australia,  in  September  and  October  ;  nine 
specimens. 

38.  Snellenia  Wals. 

Head  smooth;  tongue  developed.  Antenn?^  nearly  1,  clothed 
above  with  long  rough  fringe  of  dense  scales  from  base  to  near 
apex,  basal  joiut  elongate,  without  pecten.  Labial  palpi  extremely 
long,  recurved,  second  joint  very  long,  somewhat  rough-scaled 
anteriorly,  terminal  joint  shorter  than  second,  somewhat  rough- 
scaled  anteriorly,  acute.  Maxillary  palpi  very  short,  filiform. 
Abdomen  margined  with  projecting  scales,  in  ^  with  expansible 
anal  tuft.  Posterior  tibiae  smooth-scaled,  with  expansible  whorls 
of  scales  at  origin  of  spurs.  Fore  wings  with  lb  furcate,  2  from 
i  3  from  angle,  7  and  8  stalked,  7  to  apex,  1 1  from  middle. 
Hindwings  under  1,  very  elongate-ovate,  cilia  1;  3  and  4  connate, 
5-7  parallel. 

This  and  the  next  genus,  with  the  South  American  7'ijiaegen'a, 
constitute  a  group  of  singular  facies,  but  are  certainly  to  be 
regarded  only  as  a  peculiar  development  of  the  Phitella  group. 
I  think  there  must  be  a  real  phylogenetic  connection  with  the 
Aegeridae^  which  probably  originated  from  this  group,  being 
structurally  distinguished  therefrom  by  the  loss  of  vein  8  of  hind- 
wings.  I  do  not,  however,  see  any  clear  evidence  of  near  relation 
to  the  Elachistid  genera  Oedenintopoda  and  its  allies,  although  it 
is  possible. 

265.  S.  lineata  Walk. 

{Tinaegeria  lineata  Walk.  Cat.  viii.,  261;  Eretmocera  sesioides 
Feld.,  Reis.  Nov.  pi.  cxL,  22;  Snellenia  /i/iea^a  Wals.,  Trans.  Ent. 
Soc.  Lend.  1889,  16,  pl.vi.,  4.) 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  133 

(^9.  12-15  min.  Head  and  thorax  blue-black,  thorax  on  sides 
and  posteriorly  vermilion-red.  Palpi  blackish,  base  red.  An- 
tennae blue-black,  fringed  with  scales  to  |,  above  this  with  suffused 
white  subapical  band.  Abdomen  black,  base  reddish,  with 
slender  white  median  and  ante-apical  rings.  Legs  blue-black, 
ringed  with  white.  Fore  wings  elongate,  narrow,  costa  almost 
straight,  arched  towards  apex,  apex  obtuse,  termen  ver}' obliquely 
rounded;  vermilion-red,  streaked  with  black  in  disc  and  between 
veins,  along  dorsum  with  a  thicker  blackish  streak  :  cilia  purple- 
blackish.  Hind  wings  reddish-orange;  posterior  half  dark  fuscous, 
sometimes  produced  anteriorly  along  termen;  cilia  dark  fuscous. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  from  December  to  March;  twenty- 
four  specimens.  This  curious  insect  is  locally  common  amongst 
Knnzea  capitata  (though  I  think  this  is  probably  not  the  food- 
plant)  in  certain  rocky  places  in  the  harbour,  but  I  have  never 
received  it  from  elsewhere.  It  flies  in  sunshine;  and  in  repose 
carries  the  posterior  legs  semierect  above  the  back,  and  the  antenna 
erect  and  waving.  I  can  suggest  no  reason  for  this  display 
except  sexual;  no  other  insect  or  natural  object  resembling  it 
occurs  in  the  localities,  so  far  as  I  could  perceive.  Walker's 
locality  reference  is  erroneous  (see  Wals.  l.c). 

39.  PSEUDAEGERIA  Wals. 

Head  smooth;  tongue  developed.  Antennae  4,  clothed  above 
with  long  rough  fringe  of  dense  scales  from  base  to  near  apex, 
basal  joint  without  pecten.  Labial  palpi  long,  recurved,  second 
joint  densely  clothed  with  appressed  scales,  terminal  joint  as 
long  as  second,  slender,  acute.  Maxillary  palpi  rudimentary. 
Abdomen  rather  broad,  towards  apex  with  projecting  lateral 
scales.  Posterior  tibia?  smooth-scaled,  with  expansible  whorls  of 
scales  on  origin  of  spurs.  Forewings  with  \h  furcate,  2  from  4, 
3  from  angle,  7  and  8  stalked,  7  to  apex,  11  from  middle.  Hind- 
wings  1,  elongate-ovate,  cilia  1;  3  and  4  stalked,  5  parallel,  6  and 
7  connate  or  stalked. 

Based  on  the  following  species  only.  In  Lord  Walsingham's 
figure  of  the  neuration  of  forewings  vein  16  is  erroneously  given 
as  simple. 


134       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO  LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 

266.  P.  squamicornis  Feld. 

{Ochsenheimeria  squaniicor7iis  Feld.,  Reis.  Nov.  pi.  cxxxix,  6; 
Pseudaegeria  squamicornis  Wals.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  1889, 
18,  pi.  iii. 

^2.  22-24  mm.  Head,  palpi,  antennBe,  and  thorax  iridescent 
blackish, thorax  partly  reddish  on  sides  and  posteriorly.  Abdomen 
blackish,  with  slender  white  median  ring.  Fore  wings  elongate, 
narrow,  costa  almost  straight,  posteriorly  gently  arched,  apex 
obtuse,  termen  obliquely  rounded;  orange-red;  dorsal  half  black, 
upper  edge  projecting  streaks  towards  base  along  fold  and  in 
disc:  cilia  coppery-blackish.  Hindwings  reddish-orange;  a  broad 
purple-blackish  terminal  band,  anterior  edge  suffused  and 
irregular;   cilia  blackish. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  October ;  two  specimens. 
Felder  quotes  Fiji  as  a  locality  (doubtfull}^),  but  this  is  probably 
erroneous,  as  are  many  of  his  localities  for  other  species. 

40.  Metaphrastis,  n.g. 

Head  smooth;  ocelli  present;  tongue  developed.  Antennae  4, 
in  (J  fasciculate-ciliated  (2),  basal  joint  without  pecten.  Labial 
palpi  long,  curved,  ascending,  second  joint  with  appressed  scales, 
terminal  joint  as  long  as  second,  slender,  acute.  Maxillary  palpi 
obsolete.  Posterior  tibise  smooth-scaled,  with  expansible  whorls 
of  scales  on  origin  of  spurs.  Fore  wings  with  vein  16  shortly 
furcate,  2  from  angle,  7  to  costa,  8  absent,  9  and  10  from  near  7, 
11  from  middle,  remote.  Hindwings  1,  elongate-ovate,  cilia  4; 
4  absent,  5-7  parallel. 

A  peculiar  form,  probabl}^  with  some  relationship  to  the  pt-e- 
ceding  genus. 

267.  J/,  acrochalca,  n.sp. 

(J^.  11-13  mm.  Head  shining  bronze,  collar  pale  j^elluw. 
Palpi  yellow,  terminal  joint  blackish  anteriorl3\  Antennae  dark 
bronzy-fuscous.  Thorax  dark  shining  bronze.  Abdomen  light 
ochreous-yellowish,  becoming  bronz}'  towards  base.  Forewings 
elongate,    narrow,    costa   slightly   arched,    apex   obtuse,    termen 


BY  E.  MEYRICK.  135 

obli(|uely  rounded  ;  rather  dark  bronzy-fuscous,  mixed  with 
blackish,  and  strewn  with  linear  whitish  scales;  a  moderate 
rather  cloudy  white  spot  tow^ards  tornus,  and  sometimes  one 
towards  costa  posteriorly;  a  narrow  shining  bronze  terminal 
fascia:  cilia  shining  bronze.  Hindwings  light  ochreous-oranae; 
apical  half  dark  fuscous;  margins  of  basal  half  sometimes  suffused 
with  dark  fuscous;  cilia  dark  grey,  with  blackish  basal  line. 

York  and  Albany,  West  Australia,  from  October  to  December; 
three  specimens. 

41.  Orthenches  Meyr. 

Head  smooth;  ocelli  present;  tongue  dev^eloped.  Antennae  4, 
in  $  simple  or  pubescent,  somewhat  thickened  at  base,  basal 
joint  with  strong  pecten.  Labial  palpi  moderate  or  long,  recurved, 
with  appressed  scales,  somewhat  rough  beneath  throughout, 
terminal  joint  as  long  as  second  or  longer,  acute.  Maxillary  palpi 
filiform,  curved,  ascending.  Posterior  tibiae  with  appressed 
scales  above.  Fore  wings  with  16  furcate,  2  almost  from  angle, 
7  to  apex  or  termen,  11  from  before  middle,  secondary  cell 
defined.  Hindwings  I ,  elongate-ovate  or  ovate-lanceolate,  termen 
sometimes  sinuate,  cilia  |-1;  2-7  remote,  nearly  parallel. 

A  small  New  Zealand  genus,  represented  in  Australia  as  yet 
by  one  species  only, 

268.  0.  epiphricta,  n.sp. 

^9.  9-11  mm.  Head  whitish,  sometimes  slightly  fuscous- 
sprinkled.  Palpi  white,  externally  grey  except  apex  of  joints. 
Antennae  white  ringed  with  fuscous.  Thorax  white  sprinkled 
with  fuscous.  Abdomen  grey-whitish.  Fore  wings  elongate, 
rather  narrow,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen 
straight,  oblique;  white,  finely  sprinkled  and  strigulated  with 
dark  fuscous;  five  small  dark  fuscous  spots  on  posterior  half  of 
costa;  stigmata  cloudy,  ill-marked,  dark  fuscous,  plical  directly 
beneath  and  sometimes  confluent  with  first  discal:  cilia  whitish, 
with  thick  blackish  sometimes  interrupted  subbasal  line,  and 
broad  dark  fuscous  subapical  shade.  Hindwings  pale  whitish- 
giey;  cilia  grey-whitish. 

Quorn,  South  Australia,  in  October;  nine  specimens. 


136       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

42.  Phalangitis,  n.g. 

Head  with  appressed  scales;  tongue  developed.  Antennae  p 
in  (J  serrulate,  pubescent,  basal  joint  with  dense  anterior  flap  of 
Scales.  Labial  palpi  rather  long,  straight  or  somewhat  curved, 
subascending  or  "porrected,  clothed  with  loose  or  rough  scales, 
terminal  joint  as  long  as  second,  tolerably  pointed.  Maxillary 
palpi  moderate,  loosely  scaled,  porrected.  Posterior  tibise  smooth- 
scaled.  Forewings  with  \b  furcate,  2  from  angle,  7  to  costa,  8, 
9,  10  from  near  7,11  from  before  middle.  Hindwings  1,  elongate- 
ovate,  cilia  4;  2-7  separate,  tolerabl}^  parallel. 

Type  P.  veterana.  An  endemic  genus,  allied  to  Plutella.  The 
species  vary  rather  considerabl}'^  in  markings,  and  are  difficult  to 
understand.     The  antennae  are  directly  porrected  in  repose. 

1.  Head  and  thorax  grey  or  fuscous .  2. 

Head    and   thorax    white,    sometimes    irrorated   with 

fuscous 8. 

2.  Subcostal  streak  white,  well-defined 272.  ceterana. 

Subcostal  streak  whitish,  suffused 271.  triaria. 

3.  Forewings  with  distinct  white  subcostal  streak 270.  tumultuosa. 

Forewings  without  apparent  white  streak 269.  crymorrhoa. 

269.  F.  crymorrliua^  n.sp. 

(J9.  10-13  mm.  Head  and  thorax  white,  sonit^times  tinged 
with  fuscous.  Palpi  white,  second  joint  externally  light  brownish 
except  towards  apex.  Antennae  white,  ringed  with  fuscous. 
Abdomen  whitish.  Forewings  elongate,  rather  narrow,  costa 
moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  obliquely  rounded;  white, 
strewn  with  golden-fuscous  strigula3  sprinkled  with  dark  fuscous; 
variable  markings  of  same  colour,  consisting  principally  of  two  or 
three  small  posterior  spots  on  costa,  and  three  or  four  irregular 
larger  spots  arranged  in  a  median  longitudinal  series  and  some- 
times partially  connected  to  form  an  irregular  streak,  and  some- 
times a  dark  suffusion  along  dorsum,  but  these  vary  much  in 
different  specimt-ns  :  cilia  whitish,  with  two  dark  fuscous  shades 
varying  in  development.     Hindwings  and  cilia  white. 

Mount  Wellington  (2500  feet),  Tasmania,  amongst  Leptosper- 
minn  in  December,  six  specimens;  also  one  from  Port  Lincoln, 
South  Australia,  in  November,  which  is  apparently  identical. 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  137 

270.  P.  tumultuosa,  n.sp. 

^9.  11-13  iniD.  Head  and  thorax  white,  usually  mote  or  less 
irrorated  with  fuscous.  Palpi  fuscous  sprinkled  with  white. 
Aiiteniiai  fuscous,  sometimes  ringed  wdth  whitish.  A))domen 
grey- whitish.  Forewings  elongate,  rather  narrow,  costa  moder- 
ately arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  rounded,  rather  strongly 
oblique;  light  fuscous,  sprinkled  and  sometimes  indistinctly 
strigulated  with  dark  fuscous,  sometimes  suffusedl}'  mixed  with 
white;  a  broad  white  more  or  less  suffused  streak  above  middle 
from  base  to  apex,  reaching  costa  towards  base,  sometimes  strewn 
with  scattered  dark  fuscous  strigulee,  low-er  edge  usually  sharply 
defined  anteriorly,  sometimes  marked  w4th  two  dark  fuscous  spots 
representing  discal  stigmata;  three  or  four  small  cloudy  dark 
spots  on  costa  posteriorly  :  cilia  whitish  with  dark  fuscous  ante- 
median  shade  and  usually  two  or  three  dark  fuscous  patches? 
sometimes  wholly  dark  fuscous  except  a  whitish  patch  above 
apex.      Hindwings  and  cilia  grey-whitish. 

Murrurundi,  Sydney,  and  Bathurst,  New  South  Wales;  Gis- 
borne,  Victoria;  Perth  and  Albany,  West  Australia;  from  August 
to  November,  and  in  February,  ten  specimens. 

271.  P.  triaria,  n.sp. 

(J.  18-19  mm.  Head  and  thorax  fuscous,  slightly  reddish- 
tinged.  Palpi  rather  dark  fuscous,  whitish  beneath  tow^ards 
base.  Antennae  rather  dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  whitish-fuscous. 
Forewings  elongate,  narrow,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex 
obtuse,  termen  very  obliquely  rounded;  bronz}'- fuscous,  obscurely 
darker  strigulated,  on  submedian  fold  suffused  with  darker  and 
purplish-tinged;  a  broad  suffused  whitish  streak  above  middle 
from  base  to  apical  portion  of  costa,  anteriorly  sharply  defined 
beneath,  reaching  costa  from  near  base  to  near  middle,  sometimes 
marked  with  an  irregular  dark  fuscous  spot  forming  an  indenta- 
tion on  lower  margin  at  J,  and  an  oblique  dark  fuscous  spot  in 
middle,  posteriorly  narrowed  and  irrorated  with  fuscous  striguhis; 
two  inwardly  oblique  dark  fuscous  marks  on  costa  at   r!  and  ff  : 


138       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

cilia  fuscous  mixed  with  dark  fuscous,  above  apex  with  a  whitish 
patcli.  Hiiidwings  light  grey;  cilia  whitish,  with  pale  grey  sub- 
basal  shade. 

Albany,  West  Australia,  in  September  and  October.  This 
species  is  easily  distinguished  from  the  others  by  its  larger  size. 

272.  P.  Viterana^  n.sp. 

(J^.  11-15  mm.  Head,  palpi,  antennae,  and  thorax  grey. 
Abdomen  whitish-grey.  Fore  wings  elongate,  rather  narrow, 
costa  moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  obliquely  rounded; 
dark  grey,  towards  dorsum  mixed  with  grey- whitish  and  appearing 
indistinctly  striated,  on  costal  half  blackish-grej^;  a  broad  white 
variable  streak  above  middle  from  base  to  apex,  sometimes 
straight,  sometimes  thrice  sinuate  so  that  the  lower  edge  shows 
three  rounded  indentations  and  the  upper  edge  is  thrice  more  or 
less  strongly  connected  with  costa,  sometimes  interrupted  by  an 
oblique  bar  of  groundcolour  on  central  indentation,  posteriorly 
somewhat  sprinkled  with  dark  grey:  cilia  dark  grey  with  two 
blackish  shades,  at  apex  with  a  white  patch.  Hindwings  grey- 
whitish  or  pale  grey;  cilia  whitish. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  in  September,  December,  and 
January;  fifteen  specimens.  Larva  with  10  pro-legs,  fusiform 
(attenuated  towards  extremities),  anteriorly  with  short  scattered 
hairs,  head  very  small;  uniform  dull  pale  green:  feeds  openly 
on  Mo7iotoca  elUptica  {Epacridem),  gnawing  leaves,  in  August. 
Pupa  in  a  white  open-network  cocoon. 

43.  Amphithera  Meyr. 

Whilst  still  uncertain,  it  seems  probable  that  this  genus  should 
be  included  here. 

273.  il.  heteromorplia  Meyr. 

{Amphithera  heteromorpha  Meyr.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales, 
1892,  597.) 

Sydney  and  Bulli,  New  South  Whales;  George's  Bay,  Tasmania; 
from  October  to  April. 


BV   K.   MEYRICK.  139 

44.  DiATHRYPTICA,  n.g. 

Head  witli  appressed  scales;  tongue  developed.  Antennae  |, 
in  (J  simple,  basal  joint  rather  long,  densely  scaled,  with  anterior 
tuft.  Labial  palpi  moderately  long,  curved,  ascending,  thickened 
with  scales  and  rough  in  front  throughout,  second  joint  relatively 
short,  terminal  longer  than  second,  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi 
moderate,  filiform,  porrected.  Thorax  crested.  Posterior  tibise 
with  appressed  scales.  Fore  wings  with  lb  furcate,  2  from  near 
angle,  7  to  termen,  8,  9,  10  rather  near  7,  11  from  before  middle. 
Hind  wings  1,  subtriangular,  cilia  |;  3  and  4  connate,  5-7  parallel. 

Obviously  allied  to  Platella,  yet  with  some  suggestions  of 
Glyi)hipteryx. 

274.  D.  prolerva,  n.sp. 

(J^.  11-15  mm.  Head  and  thorax  pale  brownish-ochreous. 
Palpi  pale  ochreous,  second  and  terminal  joints  each  with  two 
fuscous  rings  edged  above  with  whitish.  Antennae  grey  ringed 
with  blackish.  Abdomen  light  grey.  Forewings  elongate, 
rather  narrow,  costa  gently  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  sinuate, 
oblique;  dark  grey,  towards  base,  dorsum  and  termen  lighter  and 
sometimes  tinged  with  ochreous;  markings  pale  grey,  edged  and 
sometimes  suffused  with  white,  and  margined  with  blackish;  a 
rather  broad  straight  fascia  from  \  of  costa  to  f  of  dorsum; 
three  fascia-like  spots  from  costa  between  this  and  subterminal 
fascia,  more  or  less  confused  and  subconfluen  t  in  disc,  reaching 
half  across  wing  or  rather  more,  central  longest;  an  irregular 
subterminal  fascia  from  costa  before  apex  to  tornus,  usually 
interrupted  in  middle,  upper  half  with  an  abrupt  excavation  on 
middle  of  anterior  edge  :  cilia  whitish,  with  two  partial  grey 
lines,  dark  grey  patches  at  apex  and  on  middle  of  termen,  and 
clear  white  patches  between  these  and  above  apex.  Hindwings 
and  cilia  grey. 

Sydney,  Wollongong,  and  Blackheath,  New  South  Wales,  from 
August  to  December;  sixteen  specimens.  The  species  is  locally 
common  under  sheltered  ledges  of  liclien-covered  rock,  and  the 
larva  prol)ably  feeds  on  lichens.      The  imago  when  running  over 


140       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

the  rock  has  a  curious  habit  of  agitating  the  wings,  together  with 
the  hind-legs,  on  each  side  alternately. 

45.  Paraphyllis,  n.g. 

Head  with  appressed  scales,  sidetufts  somewhat  spreading; 
tongue  developed.  Antennae  4,  in  ^  filiform,  simple,  basal  joint 
short,  with  dense  anterior  flap  of  scales.  Labial  palpi  moderate, 
slender,  porrected,  loosely  scaled,  terminal  joint  rather  longer 
tlian  second,  somewhat  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  very  short, 
filiform.  Posterior  tibiee  clothed  with  long  fine  hairs.  Fore- 
wings  with  2  from  towards  angle,  7  and  8  stalked,  7  to  costa,  11 
from  before  middle.  Hind  wings  §,  lanceolate,  cilia  1|;  2  and  3 
long-stalked,  cell  open  between  3  and  5,  4  absent,  5  approxi- 
mated to  6,  6  and  7  short-stalked. 

A  genus  of  very  dubious  affinity;  it  may  be  a  degenerate 
development  of  the  Pbitella  group,  and  at  least  seems  to  fit  no 
better  elsewhere. 

275.  P.  scaeopa,  n.sp. 

(^9.  17-20  mm.  Head  and  thorax  pale  brownish-ochreous, 
crown  sometimes  yellowish-tinged.  Palpi  whitish-ochreous. 
Antennae  fuscous.  Abdomen  ochreous.  Forewings  elongate, 
narrow,  costa  moderately  arched,  bent  about  |,  apex  pointed, 
termen  extremely  obliquely  rounded;  purplish-fuscous;  a  slight 
dorsal  projection  of  whitish-ochreous  scales  towards  base;  a  small 
whitish  ochreous  apical  spot :  cilia  fuscous,  base  suff'used  with 
whitish-ochreous  towards  tornus.  Hindwings  rather  dark  fuscous; 
cilia  fuscous,  becoming  whitish-ochreous  towards  base  on  lower 
half  of  termen. 

Bathurst,  New  South  Wales;  Adelaide,  South  Australia;  York, 
West  Australia;  from  August  to  November;  four  specimens. 

46.  CopiDORis,  n.g. 

Head  loosely  haired,  sidetufts  spreading;  tongue  developed. 
Anteiuue  |,  in  ^J  shortly  ciliated,  basal  joint  moderate,  without 
pecten.  Labial  palpi  very  long,  recurved,  second  joint  with  large 
rough  projecting  tuft  of  scales  beneath,  terminal  joint  as  long  as 


BY  E.   MEYRICK.  141 

second,  slender,  acute.  Maxillary  palpi  obsolete.  Posterior 
tibi?e  clothed  with  long  hairs  above.  Fore  wings  with  16  furcate, 
upper  fork  little  marked,  2  from  |,  3  from  angle,  7  and  8  very 
long-stalked,  7  to  costa,  9  and  10  from  near  8,  11  from  middle^ 
secondary  cell  indicated.  Hind  wings  1,  rounded-trapezoidal^ 
cilia  4;  2  widely  remote,  3  and  4  connate,  5  somewhat  approxi- 
mated, 6  and  7  short-stalked. 

Apparently  related  to  the  European  genus  Cerosfonia. 

276.  C.  dimorpha,  n  sp. 

(J^.  17-20  mm.  Head  ochreous-white.  Palpi  white,  second 
joint  with  a  brownish-ochreous  median  band,  posterior  edge  of 
terminal  joint  dark  fuscous.  Antennae  dark  fuscous  spotted  with 
white.  Thorax  pale  ochreous,  centrally  more  or  less  suffused 
with  white.  Abdomen  whitish.  Forewings  elongate,  costa 
moderately  arched,  apex  acute,  termen  faintly  sinuate,  extremely 
oblique;  yellow-ochreous,  along  costa,  dorsum,  and  termen,  or 
sometimes  wholly  suffused  with  rather  dark  fuscous  irrorated 
witli  white;  usually  a  clear  white  median  longitudinal  streak 
from  base  to  apex,  but  sometimes  this  is  suffusedly  mixed  with 
fuscous  :  cilia  fuscous  sprinkled  with  whitish,  at  apex  usually 
with  a  slender  whitish  bar.  Hindwings  grey-whitish,  becoming 
light  grey  posteriorly;  cilia  white,  at  apex  greyish. 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales;  Melbourne,  Victoria;  in  February 
and  March,  amongst  scrub,  apparently  very  local  but  plentiful 
where  it  occurs;  twenty  specimens. 

47.  Trachycentra  Meyr. 

Head  with  loosely  appressed  scales;  tongue  rudimentary  or 
absent.  Antennae  i-|,  in  ^  simple,  basal  joint  moderate,  without 
pecten.  Labial  palpi  long,  curved,  ascending,  second  joint  with 
large  rough  spreading  tuft  of  projecting  scales  towards  apex 
beneath,  terminal  joint  as  long  as  second,  with  appressed  scales, 
laterally  compressed,  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  short,  drooping. 
Anterior  tibiae  very  short,  tarsi  dilated  with  rough  projecting 
scales;    posterior   tibiae   and   tarsi   with   rough  projecting  scales 


142       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

above  and  beneath.  Forewings  with  tufts  of  scales  on  surface; 
16  furcate,  2  and  3  stalked  from  angle,  7  to  termen,  8  and  9 
stalked,  10  approximated,  11  from  before  middle.  Hindwings 
1,  elongate-ovate,  apex  pointed,  termen  sinuate  beneath  apex, 
cilia  |;  2-7  separate,  tolerably  parallel,  with  dense  scale-pectens 
towards  base  on  la  and  beneath  cell. 

Type  2\  calamias.  A  peculiar  genus,  belonging  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  the  Indian  Dasyses  and  Autoniachae7'is;  ap]»arently 
characteristic  of  the  islands  of  the  Australasian  region,  as  I  have 
not  yet  met  with  it  elsewhere.  The  species  require  careful  dis- 
crimination. Their  aspect  suggests  that  the  larvae  may  probably 
feed  on  dead  wood.  All  the  species  show  on  the  forewings  three 
subdorsal  tufts  of  scales,  median  tuft  more  remote  from  dorsum. 

1.  Forewings  narrow 2. 

Forewings  moderate 4. 

2.  Forewings  with  apex  produced,  termen  concave 3. 

Forewings  with  apex  not  produced,  termen  sinuate.   279.  -psorodes. 

3.  Forewings     with      brownish-ochreous      interneural 

streaks 278.  chlorogramvm. 

Forewings   with   numerous    small   faint   brownish- 
ochreous  spots 277    calamias. 

4.  Forewings  with  well-marked  dark  interneural  lines..  280.  aulacitU, 
Forewings  without  dark  interneural  lines 5. 

5.  Forewings  with  suffused  dark  fascia  from  base  of 

costa  to  tornus 281.  amphiloxa. 

Forewings  without  such  fascia 6. 

6.  Forewings    with    elongate    blackish-fuscous    costal 

patch  282,  sar/matias. 

Forewings  without  such  patch 283.  glancias. 

'211 .  T.  calamias  Meyr. 

{Trachycent/ra  calamias  Meyr.,  Trans. Ent.Soc.Lond. 1886, 288.) 
Tonga  and  Fiji. 

278.  T.  chlorogramma,  n.sp. 

(J.  26-30  mm.  Head,  palpi,  antennai,  thorax,  and  abdomen 
whitish-ochreous.  Forewings  elongate,  narrow,  costa  gently 
arched,    apex    acute,   produced,    termen  concave,    very    oblique. 


BY  E.  mp:yrick.  143 

wliitish-ochreous,  towards  dorsum  slightly  tinged  with  rosy-fus- 
cous; brownish-ochreous  interneural  streaks,  sometimes  sprinkled 
with  fuscous,  those  running  to  costa  terminated  by  dots  of 
blackish  irroration;  dorsal  area  sometimes  sprinkled  with  fuscous; 
three  normal  subdorsal  tufts  pale,  tipped  with  blackish  points  : 
cilia  pale  whitish-ochreous,  with  a  few  fuscous  and  blackish 
points.  Hind  wings  grey;  cilia  whitish-ochreous,  suffused  with 
light  grey. 

Choiseul,  Bougainville,  Florida,  Guadalcanar,  Solomon  Is,; 
five  specimens  (Meek). 

279.  2\  psorodes,  n.sp. 

(J.  25-29  mm  Head,  palpi,  antennae,  and  thorax  whitish- 
ochreous,  somewhat  speckled  with  fuscous.  Abdomen  pale 
ochreous  sprinkled  with  grey.  Forewings  elongate,  narrow, 
costa  gently  arched,  apex  pointed,  termen  sinuate,  rather  strongly 
oblique:  pale  brownish-ochreous,  with  numerous  small  undefined 
brownish  or  dark  fuscous  dots  tolerably  regularly  arranged,  pos- 
teriorly in  interneural  series;  three  normal  subdorsal  tufts  tipped 
with  brownish  or  blackish  :  cilia  pale  brownish-ochreous,  with 
rows  of  fuscous  points.  Hindwings  grey;  cilia  pale  ochreous, 
sprinkled  with  grey. 

Choiseul,  Isabel,  Solomon  Is.;  two  specimens  (Meek). 

280.  T.  aulacitis,  n.sp. 

9.  24-33  mm.  Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  pale  ochreous  mixed 
with  brown.  Antenm«  pale  ochreous  spotted  with  fuscous 
towards  base.  Abdomen  greyish-ochreous.  Forewings  elongate, 
costa  moderately  arched,  apex  pointed,  termen  sinuate,  oblique; 
wliitish-ochreous;  strong  brown  interneural  lines  n-rorated  with 
blackish,  that  between  6  and  7  nearly  obsolete;  a  thick  suffused 
brown  streak  running  from  base  above  submedian  fold  to  tornus, 
upper  edge  with  a  projection  beyond  middle,  whence  an  undefined 
fascia  seems  to  proceed  to  costa  beyond  middle,  formed  by  thick- 
ening of  interneural  lines;  some  brown  suffusion  along  dorsum  : 
cilia  whitish-ochreous,  more  or  less  distinctly  barred  with  fuscous 


144       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,   XIX., 

mixed  with  blackish,  more  broadly  above  tornus.       Hindwings 
grey;  cilia  pale  greyish-ochreous,  with  grey  subbasal  shade. 

Choiseul,  New  Georgia,  Kulambangra,  Solomon  Is. ;  five 
specimens  (Meek). 

281.  T.  aiaphiloxa,  n.sp. 

(J.  22-29  mm.  Head  and  thorax  pale  ochreous,  shoulders  some- 
times with  some  brown  scales.  Palpi  whitish-ochreous  sprinkled 
with  dark  fuscous.  Antennae  wliitish-ochreous  spotted  with  fus- 
cous. Abdomen  pale  ochreous,  sprinkled  with  grey.  Forewings 
elongate,  costa  moderately  arched,  apex  pointed,  termen  concave, 
oblique;  whitish-ochreous  more  or  less  mixed  with  yellow-ochreous 
and  brown  between  veins;  undefined  markings  formed  by  black 
and  brown  irroration,  viz.,  a  suffused  fascia  from  basal  fourth  of 
costa  to  tornus;  small  costal  spots  before  and  beyond  middle,  and 
a  submarginal  streak  from  apex  to  dorsum  before  tornus;  first 
and  third  scaletufts  mixed  with  black,  second  pale  :  cilia  whitish- 
ochreous  mixed  with  ochreous,  at  apex  and  towards  tornus  mixed 
with  dark  brown.  Hindwings  fuscous,  towards  base  more  or  less 
suffused  with  whitish-ochreous;  cilia  fuscous,  towards  dorsum 
becoming  pale  greyish-ochreous. 

Q.  Similar,  but  forewings  almost  wholly  suffused  with  dark 
fuscous  except  a  short  pale  longitudinal  mark  in  middle  of  disc. 

Bougainville,  Choiseul,  Rendova,  Treasury,  Solomon  Is.;  Sariba 
I.,  New  Guinea;  sixteen  specimens  (Meek). 

282.  T.  sagmatias,  n.sp. 

^.  18  mm,  Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  whitish-ochreous,  with  a 
few  dark  fuscous  specks.  Antennae  whitish-ochreous,  spotted 
with  dark  fuscous.  Abdomen  grey.  Forewings  elongate,  costa 
moderately  arched,  apex  acute,  somewhat  produced,  termen 
sinuate,  oblique;  pale  yellowish-ochreous,  with  some  brown  irro- 
ration towards  costa  beyond  middle,  middle  of  submedian  fold, 
and  tornus;  a  narrow  blackish-fuscous  patch  extending  along 
costa  from  base  to  |,  widest  and  angularly  prominent  beneath 
before  middle,    wdiere  it   reaches   half    across   wing,    posteriorly 


BY  E.  MEYRICK.  145 

attenuated;  three  blackish  dots  on  costa  posteriorly,  and  one  on 
middle  of  termen;  three  normal  subdorsal  tufts  tipped  with 
blackisli  :  cilia  pale  ochreous,  sprinkled  with  brown,  with  a  small 
blackish  spot  opposite  middle  of  termen  Hindwings  and  cilia 
dark  grey. 

Sariba  Island,  New  Guinea;  one  specimen  (Meek). 

283.  T.  glaucias,  n.sp. 

(J.  21-25  mm.  Head  and  thorax  brownish-ochreous  sprinkled 
with  dark  fuscous.  Palpi  pale  ochreous,  sprinkled  with  dark 
fuscous.  Antennae  brownish-ochreous,  suffusedly  ringed  with 
blackish.  Abdomen  dark  grey.  Forewings  elongate,  costa 
moderately  arched,  apex  pointed,  termen  sinuate,  oblique;  pale 
ochreous,  irregularly  mixed  with  ochreous-brown  scales  with 
blackish  tips;  costa  irregularly  spotted  with  blackish;  round 
blackish  spots  in  disc  before  and  beyond  middle;  some  undefined 
blackish  suffusion  towards  termen  and  tornus  :  cilia  pale  ochreous, 
mixed  with  brown  scales  tipped  with  dark  fuscous.  Hindwings 
dark  grey,  lighter  towards  base,  pecten  pale  greyish-ochreous; 
cilia  pale  greyish  sprinkled  with  dark  grey 

9-  Similar  but  mostly  suffused  with  dark  fuscous. 

Sudest  Island,  New  Guinea;  eight  specimens  (Meek). 

48.  Plutella  Schrk. 

Both  the  following  species  have  probably  been  artificially 
introduced,  though  now  widely  established. 

284.  F.  maculi2)ennis  Curt. 

{Plutella  macidipennis  Curt.  Guide  186;  P.  cruciferarum  ZelL, 
Stett.  Eat.  Zeit.  1843,  281;  Meyr., Trans. N.Zeal. Inst.  1885,  177.) 

Duaringa  and  Rosewood,  Queensland;  Glen  Innes  (4500  feet), 
Sydney,  Blackheath,  Bathurst,  Cooma,  and  Bulli,  New  South 
Wales;  Melbourne,  Warragul,  and  Mount  Macedon,  Victoria; 
Hobart  and  Deloraine,  Tasmania;  Mount  Gambier,  Adelaide, 
Wirrabara,  Quorn,  and  Port  Lincoln,  South  Australia;  Carnarvon, 
12 


146       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 


Gerald  ton,  Perth,  York,  and  Albany,  West  Australia;  in  June, 
and  from  August  to  March,  common  everywhere  and  often 
abundant.  Occurs  also  throughout  New  Zealand  and  the  rest 
of  the  globe,  probably  wherever  man  has  introduced  cabbages 
and  turnips,  on  the  leaves  of  which  the  larva  feeds  principally, 
though  it  will  also  eat  other  Cruciferce.  Probably  Europe  is  its 
original  home. 

285,  P.  sera  Meyr. 

{Plutella  sera  Mej^r.,  Trans.  N.  Zeal.  Inst.  1885,  178.) 
Rosewood  and  Brisbane,  Queensland;  Sydney,  New  South 
Wales;  Melbourne,  Victoria;  Geraldton,  West  Australia;  from 
July  to  March,  not  uncommon.  Also  occurs  freely  in  the  North 
Island  of  New  Zealand  and  in  Ceylon.  I  am  not  acquainted 
with  the  larva,  but  it  seems  likely  that,  like  the  preceding,  it  is 
attached  to  some  garden  plant,  and  the  insect  is  artificially 
introduced. 


INDEX  OF  GENERA. 

No. 

No. 

Amphithera  Meyr. 

..     43 

LoxoTROCHis  Meyr. 

...     33 

Anaphantis,  n.g. 

..     25 

Macarangela  Meyr. 

...     10 

Anticrates  Meyr. 

..     21 

Macarostola,  n.g. 

...       8 

Aristaea,  n.g 

..       2 

Metaphrastis,  n.g. 

...     40 

Atteva  Walk 

..     18 

Mieza  Walk 

...     23 

Brenthia  Clem 

..     34 

Miscera  Walk.    .. 

..     31 

BURLACENA  Walk. 

..     49 

Opsiclines,  n.g 

...       9 

CEBYSAWalk 

..     27 

Orthexches  Meyr. 

...     41 

Choreutis  Hb 

..     35 

Paraphyllis,  n.g. 

...     45 

CoNOPOMORPHA  Meyr. 

..       4 

Phalangitis,  n.g. 

...     42 

CopiDORis,  n.g 

..     46 

Piestoceros,  n.g. 

...     28 

CORYPTILUM  Zell. 

..     19 

Plutella,  Schrk. 

...     48 

Cyclotorna,  n.g. 

..     13 

Prays  Hb 

...     15 

Cyphosticha,  n.g. 

..       5 

Pseud AEGERiA  Wals. 

...     39 

DiATHRYPTICA,  n.g. 

..     44 

SiMAETHis  Leach 

..     36 

Epicephat.a  Meyr. 

3 

Snellenia  Wals. 

...     38 

Epicroesa,  n.g.    ... 

..     29 

Thyridectis  Meyr. 

...     17 

Eremothyris  Wals. 

..     24 

TiMODORA  Meyr 

...       8 

Glyphipteryx  Hb. 

..     37 

ToxzAWalk 

...     20 

Gracilaria  Hw 

..      7 

ToRTYRA  Walk 

.       30 

HlLAROGRAPHA  Zell. 

..     26 

Trachycentra  Meyr. 

...     47 

HOMADAULA,    n.g 

..     14 

Xyrosaris,  n.g.     ..      '   ... 

...     12 

iMMAWalk 

..     32 

Yponomeuta  Latr. 

...     16 

Lactura  Walk 

..     22 

Zelleria  Stt. 

...     11 

LiTHOCOLLETIS  Hb 

1 

BY  E.  MEYRICK. 


147 


INDEX  OF  SPECIES. 

The  numbers  refer  to  those  prefixed  to  each  species  in  succession;  names 
italicised  are  quoted  as  synonyms  or  without  being  adopted;  those  without 
authors'  names  suffixed  are  new. 


No. 

No. 

a-caeruleum  Pag. 

...  216 

caenotheta  Meyr. 

...      14 

acinacella  Meyr 

...  225 

calamias  Meyr 

...  277 

acosma  Turn 

,..   178 

calicella  Stt 

...     19 

acrobaphes  Turn. 

...      7 

caUianthes  Low 

...   1.38 

acrochalca 

...  267 

callierossa             

...  228 

actinobola  Meyr 

...  227 

callidoxa  Meyr 

...     86 

aegerioides  Walk. 

...  286 

calliphylla  Turn. 

..    136 

aeolella  Meyr 

...     45 

calliscopa  Low 

..    255 

aglaozona  Meyr 

2 

calycias     

...  101 

albicincta  Turn. 

'.'.'.     65 

caminaea  Meyr 

...   130 

albifasciella  Pag. 

...  177 

centropis 

...   170 

albiguttata  Z 

...  118 

chalcoptera  Meyr. 

...     58 

albimaculella  Turn. 

...     20 

chalcostrepta         

...  258 

albispersa  Turn 

...     62 

chalcotoxa  Meyr. 

...  219 

albistriatella  Turn. 

..      41 

charopis  Turn.     ... 

...   119 

albitarsis  Feld 

...   110 

chionochtha 

...     30 

albomarginata  Stt. 

...     42 

chionodesma  Low. 

...  206 

alysidota  Meyr 

...     28 

chionoplecta  Meyr. 

...     15 

amalopa 

...     53 

chlorella  Turn 

...     63 

arablycerella  Meyr, 

...  246 

chlorogramma     

...  278 

ambrosia 

...   157 

chrysochoa  Meyr. 

...     75 

amphiloxa            

...  281 

chrywlitheUa  Meyr. 

...  257 

anaclastis 

...  262 

chrysoplaca  Meyr. 

...  195 

anthomera  Low 

...   165 

chrysoplanetis  Meyr. 

...  238 

antimacha 

...     29 

cirrhopis 

..     68 

aphrospora  Meyr. 

...     85 

citrina  Meyr 

...     90 

araeodes  Meyr 

...     81 

colabristis             

...   149 

archepolis 

...     21 

colymbetella  Meyr. 

5 

argyrodesma  Meyr. 

...     16 

cometophora  Meyr. 

...  256 

argyrosema  Meyr. 

...  251 

covflictella  Walk 

...  154 

asteriella  Meyr 

...  245 

congrualis  Wals 

...  179 

atristriella  Z 

...  257 

conjunctella  Walk. 

...  155 

atrosignata  Feld. 

...   175 

conspicua  Wals 

...  H6 

auchetidella  Meyr. 

...     67 

coscinopa  Low 

...     95 

aulacitis 

...  280 

costipuncta  Feld. 

...  183 

aulonias  Meyr 

..    184 

cremnospila  Low. 

...     84 

aurata  Butl 

...  108 

cristata  Butl 

...   138 

aurora  Turn 

...     69 

crocozela  Meyr 

...  194 

australis  Turn 

...       8 

cruciferarmn  Z 

...  284 

autadelpha  Meyr. 

...     13 

crymorrhoa 

...  269 

autocasis 

...  10.3 

cuprina  Feld 

..  114 

autodoxa  Meyr 

...   174 

cyanochalca  Meyr. 

...  261 

autopetes  ... 

...  224 

cyanophracta  Meyr. 

...  249 

basalis  Feld 

...  206 

cyanotoxa             

..    215 

hasalis  Voll 

,..  115 

cynetica  Meyr 

...     80 

bilineella  Snell 

...  185 

desmochrysa  Low. 

...       3 

bjerkandrella  Thnb. 

...  203 

desmotoma  Low... 

...  168 

br  achy  aula 

...  254 

deuterastis            

...  234 

148       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX., 


No. 

No. 

diaphana  Pag 

...  186 

isanema 

...  125 

didymella  Meyr 

...     38 

ischiastris 

...     66 

d^l€cta^Ya.Yk 

...   154 

isochrysa 

...   151 

dimorpha  ... 

...  276 

isozela       

...  244 

dioptrias  Meyr 

...  188 

Klugii  Z 

...   123 

dives  Walk 

...  132 

laciniella  Meyr 

..     35 

divitiosa  Walk 

...  162 

laetif era  Walk 

..     133 

drosochlora          

..   126 

lampadias..          

...  205 

drosophaes  Meyr. 

...  243 

lamprocoma         

...  253 

dryopa       

...     93 

lasiochroa  Low 

...     98 

egregiella  Walk 

...  131 

leiochroa  Low 

...  181 

epicomia  Meyr 

...   196 

lepidella  Meyr 

...     60 

epiphricta 

..  268 

leptalea  Turn 

...     43 

episeota  Low 

...   169 

leucocerastes  Meyr. 

...  239 

erythractis  Meyr. 

...  148 

leueochrysa  Meyr. 

...     79 

erythrocera  Feld. 

...   140 

leucomorpha  Low. 

...     76 

euchlamyda  Turn.          .  . 

...     22 

leueophthalma     

...  147 

eiLchromiella  W^alk. 

...  123 

leucopis      

...  164 

euglypta  Turn 

...     72 

leucoteles  "Walk 

..    154 

eumetalla  Meyr 

...     26 

lichenopa  Low 

...   198 

eupetaia  Meyr 

...     25 

limonias 

...  207 

eupotcila  Turn.     . 

...    144 

lineataWalk 

...  265 

eurycnema  Turn. 

...     74 

lutescens  Feld 

...  214 

euthybelemna  Meyr. 

...  231 

lyellianaltow 

...  261 

Jluorescens  Turn 

...     34 

lyginella  Meyr 

...     52 

formosa  Stt.         

...     55 

macrantha  Low 

...  233 

gemmipunctella  Walk.  ... 

...  257 

macraula 

...  230 

glaucias 

...  283 

mactata  Feld 

..    145 

gonoteles  ... 

...  226 

maculipeunis  Curt. 

...  284 

grammatistis  Meyr. 

...  191 

marileuti&  Meyr 

..    180 

(jrossipunctella  Gn. 

...   104 

Mathewi  Butl 

...   117 

habrodes 

...     24 

megalastra           

...  120 

haematopus  Feld. 

...   134 

melanopepla  Meyr. 

...  221 

halimophila  Low. 

222 

memorella  Meyr. 

...     83 

hecataea    

...  202 

mesaula 

..    232 

heliopla     

..      27 

mesoehrysa  Low. 

...   167 

hemixanthella  Holl. 

...  193 

metallica  Turn 

...  217 

hemixipha  Low 

...     82 

metallif  era           

...   158 

heteromorpha  Meyr. 

...  273 

meteora  Meyr 

...  237 

heteropsis  Low 

...     33 

metreta  Turn 

...   150 

holodesma  Meyr. 

...  242 

metronoma           

...  241 

holodisca 

...  171 

micrastra 

...  172 

homotypa 

...  204 

microta  Turn 

...     47 

hoploca  a  Meyr 

..      18 

minatrix  Meyr 

...  192 

hypocallajjow 

...  200 

mixoie^ica  Turn 

...  138 

ida  Meyr.              

...     57 

mnesicala  Meyr. 

...     54 

inscripta    ...         

...  100 

monocentra          

...     94 

internellus  Walk. 

...   104 

monodesma  Low. 

...  177 

interruptellus  Saub. 

...  106 

7)1  ultiferatU  Walk. 

...  212 

iometalla  Meyr 

...  250 

myriastra 

...   J22 

iridopa      

...   159 

myriosemus  Turn. 

...  105 

iris  Feld.  ...         ...     -     ... 

...   112 

myriospila            

...     96 

irrorata  Turn; 

..       10 

mystarcha  Meyr. 

...     S9 

nephelomima 
nereis  Meyr. 
nigricansella  Tepp. 
niphocosma  Turn. 
nitidula  Turn. 
nohilis  Feld. 
ohUqidfa>iciata  Wals. 
ohscura  Butl. 

obscurella  Turn 

ochridorsella  Meyr. 
ochrocephala  Meyr. 
octopunctata  Turn, 
oenopella  Meyr.  .  , 
omichleutis 
ophidias    ... 
ophiodes  Turn.   ... 
ophiosema  Low.  ... 
ordinatella  Meyr. 
orthaula    ... 

orthogona  Meyr 

palaeomorpha  Meyr. 
paradelpha 
parallela  Meyr.    ... 
parallela  Turn.    ... 
paraxantha 
parazona  ... 
parva  Pag. 
paurodes  ... 
peltophanes 
penthinoides  Pagi 
perimetalla  Low. 
periphanes 
pharetropis 
phlogopa  Meyr,  ... 
phoenobapta  Turn, 
phoenodes  Feld.... 
phosphora 
pi'-ta  Feld 
Pilcheri  Luc. 
plagata  Stt. 
platydisema  Low. 
plebeia  Turn, 
plumbealis  Pag. 
poliodes    ... 
polychroa  Low.   ... 
polyplaca  Low.   ... 
porphyris 
prasochalca 
prodigella  Walk, 
proterospila  Meyr. 
proterva    ... 
protomacra 
psephonoma  Meyr. 


BY  E.  MEYRICK. 

No. 

...  102 

psithyristis  Meyr. 

...     34 

psorodes    

...       3 

purella  Walk. 

..    121 

pustulellus  Walk. 

...     44 

pyracma  Meyr.   ... 

...  162 

pyranthis.. 

...  176 

pyrigenes  Turn. 

...  134 

pyrilampis  Meyr. 

...     23 

pyrochroma  Turn. 

...     46 

pyrochryna  Low. 

.     39 

pyroleuca  Meyr.  ... 

...     59 

quadriforella  Z.   ... 

..      64 

regularis  Pag.     ... 

..    173 

resumptana  Walk. 

...     51 

rex  Butl 

...     40 

rutilella  Pag. 

...  213 

sabella  Newm.     ... 

...       9 

sagmatias 

...  166 

scaeopa 

...  220 

Scotti  Scott 

...  229 

sepias  Meyr. 

...  160 

sera  Meyr. 

...   144 

se.9^■o^VZe.9  Feld. 

...     32 

sessilis  Pag. 

...   128 

sigillata  Meyr.     ... 

...  248 

simUata  Walk.    ... 

211 

squamicornis  Feld. 

...  287 

stephanota 

70 

stilbiota  Low. 

...  189 

stylograpta 

...  259 

submarginalis  Walk 

4 

sutt'usa  Walk. 

..    247 

sulfurata  

...  141 

sycopola  Meyr.    ... 

...   146 

teratias      

...  137 

tetrasema  Meyr.  ... 

.  .  252 

thalassias  Meyr.  ... 

.     140 

thiasarcha 

...  135 

thiospila  Turn.    ... 

...     61 

thyriditis  Meyr.  ... 

...  236 

toxomacha  Meyr. 

.  .     36 

transversella  Snell. 

..  218 

trapezoides  Turn. 

...     97 

triaria        

...  263 

tricuneatella  Meyr. 

...     56 

trigonaspis 

...  Ill 

trigonophora  Turn. 

...   161 

trilitha       

...  163 

tripselia     

..     87 

tristaniae  Turn.  ... 

...  274 

tumultuosa 

...  223 

tyrastis      

...   107 

unilineata  Turn. . . . 

149 

No. 

182 
279 
124 
104 

77 
152 

44 

,   148 

,     48 

133 

88 
200 
209 
165 
109 
139 
235 
282 
275 
154 
199 
285 
265 
210 

91 

286 

266 

1 

197 

92 

212 

134 

127 

208 

113 

240 

49 

156 

142 

187 

50 

176 

17 

271 

11 

264 

6 

201 

260 

31 

270 

99 

37 


150       DESCRIPTIONS  OF  AUSTRALASIAN  MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA,  XIX. 


No. 

No. 

uranarcha  Meyr 

...     78 

xylophanes  Turn. 

...     78 

veterana 

...  272 

zaplaca      

...     12 

viola  Pag 

...  190 

zapyra       

...  129 

Woodfordi  Druce 

...  123 

zapyra  Meyr 

...   153 

xanthopharella  Meyr.     ... 

...     71 

ADDENDUM. 
49(37a).  BuRLACENA  Walk. 

Head  smooth;  ocelli  present;  tongue  developed.  Antennae  4, 
thick,  in  ^  shortly  bipectinated,  teeth  fasciculate-ciliated.  Labial 
palpi  rather  long,  ascending,  with  appressed  scales,  terminal  joint 
short,  obtuse.  Maxillary  palpi  obsolete.  Posterior  tibise  smooth- 
scaled.  Forewiugs  with  cell  very  long,  2  and  3  stalked,  7  and 
8  stalked,  7  to  apex,  11  from  beyond  middle.  Hindwings  1, 
elongate-ovate,  cilia  J;  4  absent,  6  and  7  stalked. 

A  transparent-winged  form,  resembling  the  Aegeriadae,  probably 
allied  to  Snellenia.     A  second  species  occurs  in  Celebes. 

286  (264rt).  B.  aegerioides  Walk. 

{Bnrlacena  aegerioides  Walk.  Suppl.  80;  B.  similata,  ib.  81.) 

New  Guinea,  Mysol. 

287.    Yponomeuta  jyaiirodes,  n.sp. 

^.  19-23  mm.  Head  and  antennae  white.  Palpi  white,  apex  of 
second  joint  and  a  median  band  of  terminal  joint  black.  Thorax 
white,  with  two  black  dots  on  shoulders,  two  on  back,  and  one 
on  posterior  extremity.  Abdomen  dark  grey,  segmental  margins 
and  anal  tuft  white.  Forewings  elongate,  rather  narrow,  costa 
moderately  arched,  apex  obtuse,  termen  nearly  straight,  oblique; 
snow-white;  four  or  five  small  black  dots  on  anterior  half  of  costa, 
three  beneath  posterior  half  of  costa,  one  at  base  in  middle,  five 
in  a  submedian  series,  the  third  somewhat  above  the  others  and 
rarely  with  an  additional  dot  above  it,  three  in  a  subdorsal  series, 
and  two  on  lower  part  of  termen  :  cilia  w^hite.  Hindwings  dark 
grey,  lighter  anteriorly  and  becoming  whitish  towards  base;  cilia 
white,  basal  third  grey. 

Townsville,  Queensland;  five  specimens  (Dodd).  Near  myrio- 
semus,  but  smaller  and  shorter-winged,  forewings  with  fewer  dots 
generally,  and  especially  no  dots  on  upper  half  of  termen,  and 
only  three  in  subdorsal  series. 


I 


151 


DECAPOD  CRUSTACEA  FROM  NORFOLK  ISLAND. 

By  the  late  F.  E.  Grant,  F.L.S.,  axd  Allan  R.  McCulloch, 
Australian  Museum. 

(Plate  i.) 
The  small  collection  enumerated  herein  has  reached  us  from 
two  sources.  The  first  series  was  collected  by  Messrs.  R.  M.  and 
W.  Laing,  the  latter  a  resident  of  the  island,  who  placed  them 
in  the  hands  of  Prof.  Chas.  Chilton,  of  Christchurch,  N.Z.,  and 
who  in  turn  very  kindly  forwarded  them  to  us.  For  the  others 
we  are  indebted  to  Mr.  A.  Liddell,  for  whom  they  were  collected 
by  Mr.  J.  Cornish  Quintal.  Our  best  thanks  are  due  to  both 
our  friends. 

BRACHYURA. 

Tribe  CYCLOMETOPA. 

Xanthias  atromanus  (Has well). 

18S'2.  Xanthodes  atromanus  Haswell,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.N,  S.Wales, 

vi.  p. 542;  and  Cat.  Aust.  Crust,  p.49,  pl.i.  fig  1. 

Common  (Liddell). 

Eriphia  norfolcensis,  n.sp.  (Plate  i.,  figs.l,  \a,  \b). 
Carapace  almost  |  as  long  as  broad,  gastric  and  cardiac  regions 
faintly  delimited.  A  well  marked  groove  runs  from  each  lateral 
angle  inwards  and  forwards  in  the  direction  of  the  orbits.  Dorsal 
surface  smooth  except  on  the  hepatic  regions,  which  carry  a 
number  of  subspiniform  tubercles,  and  immediately  behind  the 
front  where  it  is  granular. 

Front  emarginate,  lobes  much  deflexed,  but  their  free  edge, 
which  is  well  defined  and  granular,  is  visible  from  above. 

The  inner  orbital  angles  are  separated  from  the  front  proper 
by  a  shallow  sulcus. 

Orbits  entire,  their  upper  borders  granular,  the  lower  minutely 
spinulose. 


152  DECAPOD  CRUSTACEA  FROM  NORFOLK  ISLAND, 

Anterior  lateral  margins  short,  not  lobulate,  but  carrying  five 
or  six  small  almost  equidistant  spinulous  tubercles. 

Chelipeds  very  unequal,  either  the  right  or  left  the  larger. 
Carpus  of  larger  cheliped  smooth  proximally,  but  carrying  on  its 
distal  margin  two  rows  of  rounded  tubercles  which  become  spinu- 
lous above;  some  stiff  hairs  on  its  anterior  margins.  The  upper 
margin  of  the  hand  is  equal  to  the  length  of  the  finger,  its  inner 
surface  punctate,  and  the  outer  with  a  number  of  smooth  rounded 
tubercles  having  a  roughly  linear  arrangement;  a  patch  of  short 
stiff  yellow  hairs  at  the  base  of  the  wide  gape  between  the  fingers. 
Finger  and  thumb  acuminate,  quite  smooth;  not  dentiform,  but 
each  showing  a  tendency  to  bear  a  low  rounded  tubercle. 

In  the  smaller  cheliped  the  tubercles  on  the  outer  surface  of 
the  palm  are  markedly  spinulous,  and  the  fingers,  which  are  con- 
siderably bent  inwards,  are  costate,  dentiform,  meeting  along 
their  whole  length  when  closed,  and  spoon-excavate  at  the  tips. 

Ambulatory  legs  somewhat  flattened  and  clothed  with  scattered 
stiff  yellow  bristles. 

The  abdomen  of  the  male  is  seven-jointed,  the  third  joint  being 
the  widest. 

Colour  in  spirits  dark  chestnut-brown,  the  chelipeds  reddish, 
fingers  black,  white  at  the  extreme  tips.  There  is  a  patch  of 
reddish  colour  on  the  palm  behind  the  base  of  the  mobile  finger 
and  at  the  junction  of  the  carpus  and  propodus. 

Dimensions  of  type  (,-J): — 

Breadth  of  carapace  between  lateral  angles 18  mm. 

Length  of  carapace 13    ,, 

Length  of  larger  cheliped 30    ,, 

A  number  of  specimens  were  collected  by  Mr.  Liddell,  who 
informs  us  that  it  is  common  on  the  island,  where  it  is  known 
as  the  "  Poison  Crab." 

The  type  is  in  the  Australian  Museum. 

Cymo  andreossyi  (Audouin). 
1852.  Dana,  U.  S.  Explor.  Exped.,  Crust,  i.  p. 225,  pl.xiii.  figs.2a-6. 
Common  (Liddell). 


BY  THE  LATE  F.  E.  GRANT  AND  ALLAN  R.  McCULLOCH.       153 

OZIUS   TRUNCATUS  M.Edw. 
1837.  H.  Milne  Edwards,  Hist.  Nat.  Crust,  i.  p.406,  pl.xvi.  fig.ll. 
Common  (Liddell,  Laing). 

Plagusia  dentipes  De  Haan. 

1835.  De  Haan,  Faun.  Japon.,  Crust,  p.58,  pl.viii.  fig.l. 
1878.  Miers,  Ann.  it  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  (5)  i.  p.l52. 

This  species  differs  from  P.  capensis  De  Haan  {  =  P.  chahrus 
Aud.)  so  common  on  the  Australian  coast  in  the  following 
particulars  : — 

The  lower  distal  end  of  the  merus  of  the  legs  is  armed  with  a 
spine  and  not  rounded.  There  is  a  group  of  granules  on  the 
hepatic  regions.  There  are  three  or  four  dentiform  processes  on 
the  front,  the  hindermost  being  the  largest,  while  in  P.  capensis 
each  lobe  presents  a  row  of  six  to  seven  granules.  The  teeth  on 
the  ambulatory  legs  are  stronger,  the  hairs  on  the  dorsum  of  the 
carapace  are  shorter  and  do  not  in  the  adult  cover  the  branchial 
prominences. 

In  P.  dentipes  rudimentary  exopods  are  also  developed  on  the 
ambulatory  legs. 

Common  (Liddell,  Laing).  The  species  is  also  common  on  Lord 
Howe  Island. 

Percnon  planissimum  (Herbst.). 

1900.  Leiolophus  planissimus  Alcock,  Journ.  Asiatic  Soc.  Bengal, 

Ixix.  p. 439. 
1906.  Rathbun,  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Bulletin,  1903,  p.842. 
Common  (Liddell). 

Hymenosoma  lacustris  Chilton. 

1882.  Elamena  (?)  lacustris  Chilton,  Trans.  N.  Z.  Inst.  xiv.  p.  17 2, 

pl.viii. 
1902.  Fulton  &  Grant,  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  Vict.  xv.(N.S.)  p. 5 9,  pl.viii. 
Common  (Laing).     A  freshwater  species  inhabiting  rocky  pools 
It  has  also  been  recorded  from  New  Zealand  and  Victoria.         ..■: 


4 


L  I  B  F 

■  \ 


154  DECAPOD  CRUSTACEA  FROM  NORFOLK  ISLAND, 

Tribe  CATOMETOPA. 
OcYPODE  URviLLEi  Guerin.* 

1836.  Guerin,  Voy.  ''Coquille,"  Crust,  p.9,  pl.i.  fig.  1, 
1897.  Ortmann,  Zool.  Jahrb.  Syst.  x.  pp.360  and  366. 

Common  (Liddell,  Laing). 

Leptograpsus  variegatus  (Fabr.). 
1853.  Milne  Edwards,  Ann.  Sci  Nat.  (3)  xx.  p.lTl. 
Common  (Liddell,  Laing). 

Pachygrapsus  transversus  Gibbes. 

1850.  Gibbes,  Proc.  Amer.  Assoc.  Adv.  Sci.  iii.  p. 182. 
1900.  Ratlibun,  American  Naturalist,  xxxiv.  p. 588,  figs. 8,  9. 
Common  (Liddell,  Laing). 

Cyclograpsus  punctatus  M.Edw. 

1837.  Milne  Edwards,  Hist.  Nat.  Crust,  ii.  p.78. 

1880.  Kingsley,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philad.  p.201(ubi  syn.). 
Common  (Liddell). 

Plagusia  depressa  var.  squamosa  (Herbst.). 

1900.  Alcock,  Journ.  Asiatic  Soc.  Bengal,  Ixix.  p.437. 
Common  (Liddell). 

MACRURA. 

Tribe  ANOMALA. 
Calcinus  imperialis  Whitelegge. 

1901.  Whitelegge,  Records  Aust.  Mus.  iv.  p.48,  pl.ix. 
Common  (Liddell,  Laing).       Also  occurs  in  great  numbers  on 

Lord  Howe  Island. 


■^^  Mr.  Grant  was  inclined  to  consider  this  species  as  a  variety  of  0.  cera- 
iophthalma  Pallas,  to  which  it  is  closely  allied,  but  as  our  specimens  present 
all  the  characters  assigned  to  it  by  Ortmann,  who  monographed  the  genus, 
they  are  perhaps  best  kept  distinct  until  intermediate  stages  have  been 
obtained. --A.R.M. 


BY  THE  LATE  F.  E.  GRANT  AND  ALLAN  R.  McCULLOCH.  155 

Calcinus  latens  Randall. 

1839.  Randall,  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philad.  p.l35(yio?e  Dana;. 
1906.  Grant  &McCulloch,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  xxxi.p.3-t. 
One  specimen  (Laing). 

Calcinus  hbrbstii  De  Man. 

1887.  De  Man,  Archiv  fiir  Naturgescli.  liii.,i.,  p.437. 
1905.  Alcock,  Cat.  Indian  Decapod  Crust,  ii.  p. 5 3. 
One  specimen  (Laing). 

Pachycheles  lifuensis  Borradaile.     (Plate  i.  figs. 2,  2a). 
1900.  Borradaile,  Willey's  Zool.  Results,  p.424. 

We  refer  our  specimens  to  the  above  species,  somewhat  briefly 
diagnosed  by  its  author. 

Its  nearest  ally  appears  to  be  P.  ^arfea^i^s  (A.M.Edw.),*  but 
it  differs  from  the  figure  of  that  species  given  in  the  "Challenger" 
Reports  in  (1)  the  much  narrower  front,  which  is  slightly  produced 
medianly;  (2)  the  shape  of  the  orbits,  whose  external  angle  is 
produced  as  a  spine;  and  (3)  the  structure  of  the  external  max- 
illipeds,  which  have  the  antero-external  angle  of  the  ischium  pro- 
duced as  a  long  spine,  and  the  merus  slenderer,  with  its  internal 
lobe  cristate. 

From  P.  scM^|>^ws(M.Edw.),t  to  which  it  bears  a  superficial 
resemblance,  it  may  be  separated  by  the  broader  proportions  of 
the  carapace,  by  the  shape  of  the  external  orbital  angles,  and  by 
the  sculpture  of  the  chelipeds,  which  in  P.  sculptus  have  larger 
granules  arranged  in  more  definite  rows  and  not  clothed  with 
hairs,  while  in  the  specimens  under  consideration  they  carry  a 
plentiful  pubescence. 

Two  specimens  (Liddell). 


*  1888.  Henderson,  Challenger  "  Anomura,"  p.  114,  pl.xi.  fig. 4. 
t  1906.  Grant  &  McCulloch,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  xxxi.  p.40,  pl.ii. 
fig.l. 


156  DECAPOD  CRUSTACEA  FROM  NORFOLK  ISLAND. 

Tribe  CARIDEA. 

Alpheus  edwardsii  Audouin. 

1809.  Audouin,  Savigny's  Descript.  de  I'Egypt,  pl.x.  fig.l. 
Common  (Liddell,  Laing). 

XiPHOCARis  compressa  (De  Haan). 

1849.  E'phyra  comjyressa   De   Haan,   Faun.  Japon.,  Crust,  p.  186, 

pl.xlvi.  fig. 7. 
1894.  Xiphocaris  compressa  Ortmann,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philad. 
p.  400. 

A  freshwater  species.  We  have  a  good  series  taken  on  both 
sides  of  the  island  by  the  Messrs.  Laing. 

The  variability  of  the  dentition  of  the  rostrum  of  specimens 
from  Norfolk  Island  has  already  been  drawn  attention  to  by  G. 
M.  Thomson*  who  also  records  its  occurrence  in  New  South 
Wales  and  Victoria.  We  are  indebted  to  Prof.  Chilton  for 
pointing  out  that  those  taken  from  streams  on  the  east  side  of 
the  divide  are  smaller  in  size  and  with  a  proportionately  shorter 
ro:strum  than  those  on  the  west. 

EXPLANATION  OF   PLATE. 

Plate  i. 
Fig.l.  — Eriphia  7iorfolcensis,  sp.nov. 
Fig.  la. — Eri2)hia  norfolcensis,  oral  region. 
Fig.  16. — EHjihia  norjolcensis,  larger  cheliped. 
Fig,  2.  — Pachychehs  lifuensis  Borradaile. 
Fig.2a. — Pachychehs  lifuensis,  external  maxilliped. 


1903.  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  London,  Vol.  viii.  p. 449 


157 


WEDNESDAY,  APRIL  24th,  1907. 


The  Ordinary  Monthly  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  in 
the  Linnean  Hall,  Ithaca  Road,  Elizabeth  Bay,  on  Wednesday 
evening,  April  24th,  1907. 

Mr.  A.  H.  S.  Lucas,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Messrs.  William  Noel  Benson,  Killara;  Walter  L.  Hammond, 
B.Sc,  Marrickville;  Allan  R.  McCulloch,  Australian  Museum, 
Sydney;  and  Reginald  H.  Relton,  Mary  Street,  Brisbane,  were 
elected  Ordinary  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  President  announced  that  the  Society  had  been  honoured 
with  invitations  from  the  Royal  University  of  Upsala,  and  the 
Royal  Swedish  Academy  at  Stockholm,  to  be  represented  officially 
at  the  ceremonial  gatherings  arranged  by  them  to  take  place  next 
month  in  connection  vviih  the  celebration  of  the  Bicentenary  of 
Ca»l  von  Linne,  the  great  Swedish  naturalist;  and  that  the 
Council  had  deputed  Professor  J.  P.  Hill,  D.Sc,  of  University 
College,  r.ondon,  to  act  as  the  Society's  envoy. 

The  President  also  gave  notice  of  a  Special  General  Meeting 
of  the  Societ}^,  to  be  held  in  the  Linnean  Hall  on  Thursday,  23rd 
May,  to  mark  the  occasion  of  the  two-hundredth  anniversary  of 
the  birth  of  Linnaeus  (1707-1778).  The  Council  had  approved 
of  a  programme  which  would  take  the  form  of  a  series  of  short 
addresses  by  Members  of  the  Society,  especially  intended  to  set 
forth  the  place  of  Linnseus  among  the  pioneers  of  systematised 
biological  science,  and  the  importance  of  his  work  and  influence. 
As  the  accommodation  available  would  be  limited,  the  Council 
regretted  that  it  would  he  unfortunately  necessary  to  restrict  the 
admission  of  visitors  on  this  occasion.  But  if  desired,  and  as  far 
as  circumstances  permitted,  one  visitor's  ticket  would  be  sent  to 


158  ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

every  Member  on  application  to  the  Secretary,  the  tickets  to  be 
allotted  in  the  order  in  which  applications  were  received,  so  long 
as  accommodation  was  available. 

The  President  further  stated  that  the  Ordinary  Monthly  Meet- 
ing would  be  held  on  Wednesday,  29th  May.  It  was  requested 
that  Members  would  postpone  Notes  and  Exhibits  to  the  follow- 
ing Meeting,  on  26th  June,  so  that  as  much  time  as  possible 
might  be  available  for  a  discussion  of  the  papers  by  Messrs.  E. 
C.  Andrews,  G.  H.  Halligan,  T.  G.  Taylor  and  Dr.  Woolnough, 
which  appeared  in  Part  4  of  the  Proceedings  for  1906,  recently 
issued.  As  it  was  proposed  to  make  the  discussion  the  feature 
of  the  Meeting,  Members  who  wished  to  take  part  were  requested 
to  take  note  of  the  date. 

The  Donations  and  Exchanges  received  since  the  previous 
Monthly  Meeting,  amounting  to  40  Vols.,  56  Parts  or  Nos.,  12 
Bulletins,  7  Reports,  30  Pamphlets,  and  15  Maps,  received  from 
46  Societies,  &c.,  and  2  Individuals,  were  laid  upon  the  table. 


NOTES    AND    EXHIBITS. 

Mr.  Froggatt  exhibited  a  very  complete  and  fine  collection  of 
sexed  examples  of  Hymenopterous  insects  of  the  Family  Thyn- 
nidcB,  in  illustration  of  the  paper  b}'-  Mr.  Rowland  E.  Turner. 
As  in  the  case  of  the  allied  family  AhUillidce,  the  male  insects 
are  handsome,  winged,  wasp-like  creatures;  while  the  females  are 
small  and  wingless,  and  often  so  unlike  the  corresponding  males 
that  it  is  usually  very  difficult  to  obtain  correctly  matched  pairs. 

Mr.  Froggatt  also  showed  adult  specimens  and  living,  newly 
hatched  young  ones,  of  a  grasshopper  {CEdaleus  senegalensis 
Krauss),  which  might  be  regarded  as  the  common  plague  locust 
of  the  eastern  coastal  area  of  the  State. 

Mr.  Jensen  exhibited  a  specimen  of  the  Kava-root,  Piper 
inethysticum,  from  which  the  national  beverage  of  the  South  Sea 
Islands  is  made. 


I 


I 


NOTES    AND    KXHIBIIS.  159 

Mr.  H.  Leighton  Kesteven  exhibited  a  specimen  of  the  curious 
fungus,  Aseroe  rubra  Labill.,  collected  by  Dr.  Leighton  Kesteven 
at  Mullumbioiby,  Brunswick  River,  N.S.W. 

Mr.  E.  Cheel  exhibited,  and  contributed  Notes  upon,  a  very 
interesting  collection  of  Fungi,  representing  29  genera  and  38 
species,  including  one  species  and  one  form  not  previously 
described;  and  several  species  not  hitherto  recorded  from  New 
South  Wales.  Series  of  examples  of  Aseroe  rubra  Labill.,  and 
Lysurus  australiensis  Cke.  &  Massee,  preserved  in  spirit,  and 
illustrating  different  stages  of  growth,  were  particularly  worthy 
of  note.     (For  a  list  of  the  species,  see  p. 202). 

Dr.  E.  S.  Stokes  showed  a  remarkable  felted  deposit  of  fila- 
mentous Algae  from  filter-beds  at  West  Maitland;  a  sample  of  a 
diatomaceous  deposit  {Amphora  sp.)  from  the  same  locality;  and 
a  quantity  of  the  dried  thalli  of  Chroococcus  from  the  storage 
reservoir  at  the  same  place. 

Mr.  Duncan  Carson  sent  for  exhibition  the  greater  portion  of 
the  right  ramus  of  the  lower  jaw  of  an  immature  example  of  one 
of  the  large  extinct  Marsupials  (Diprotodon  australis  Owen) 
which  had  been  found  in  what  well-sinkers  term  "wash,"  at  a 
depth  of  40  feet  in  sinking  a  well,  situated  about  three  miles 
from  Tanbar  Springs  in  the  Gunnedah  district.  The  specimen 
was  nine  inches  in  length,  a  portion  of  each  end  of  the  ramus 
being  missing;  and  showed  the  remnants  of  three  cheek-teeth. 

Mr.  Fletcher  showed  five  typical  examples  of  a  frog,  Hyla 
Ewingii  D.  &  B.,  collected  recently  on  King  Island,  Bass  Straits, 
by  Mr.  Arthur  M.  Lea  of  Hobart.  This  may  perhaps  be 
the  frog  recorded  as  ^^  Hyla  sp."  in  the  "  Fauna  of  King  Island," 
compiled  from  the  collections  obtained  by  Members  of  the  Field 
Naturalists'  Club  of  Victoria  in  1887  (Victorian  Naturalist,  iv. 
139);  otherwise  the  species  is  unrecorded  from  this  insular 
habitat. 


160 


SOME  NEW  OR    LESS  KNOWN   DESMIDS  FOUND   IN 
NEW  SOUTH  WALES. 

By  G.  I.  Playfaik. 

(Communicated  by  the  Secretary,) 
(Plates  ii.-v.) 

Only  two  contributions  to  a  knowledge  of  the  Desmidioi  of 
New  South  Wales  are  known  to  me.  Dr.  Otto  Nordstedt  in  his 
"Freshwater  Algseof  New  Zealand  and  Australia"  gives  a  list  of 
nine  species  collected  on  the  Blue  Mountains  hy  Dr.  S.  Berggren. 
And  Dr.  M.  Raciborski  in  "  Desmidya  zebrane  przez  Dr.  E. 
Ciastonia  "  accounts  for  seventy-seven  species  gathered  by  Dr. 
Ciastonia  in  the  Centennial  Park,  Sydney,  in  1891. 

During  the  past  fourteen  years  in  which  I  have  studied  the 
Desmids  of  New  South  Wales,  I  have  been  able  to  search  only 
three  districts,  viz.,  Collector  at  the  northern  end  of  Lake  George; 
Moura,  a  private  estate  near  Parkes;  and  some  of  the  suburbs  of 
Sydney  My  experience  harmonises  with  a  remark  of  Mr.  W.  B. 
Turner  in  his  "Freshwater  Algse  of  E.  India"  that  "From  results 
obtained  by  many  observers  it  appears  that  the  value  of  gather- 
ings is  often  in  inverse  ratio  to  the  extent  of  country  examined." 

The  number  of  species  from  New  South  Wales  figured  to  date 
staads  at  about  350,  a  very  fair  total  when  it  is  remembered  that 
only  412  forms  are  mentioned  by  Dr.  Cooke  in  his  'British 
Desmids.'  Of  these  350,  50  are  doubtful  or  require  farther 
investigation,  230  have  been  definitely  identified,  and  the  remain- 
ing 70  form  the  subject  of  this  paper.  After  most  careful  con- 
sideration, fifty  of  these  are  described  as  new,  and  also  twenty 
varieties  and  forms  of  species  previously  described  by  other 
observers.      About  one-third   of    these   stand    to  the  credit  of 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIR.  161 

Botany,   a   third    were   obtained   from   Collector,    and    all  other 
localities  together  account  for  the  remainder. 

It  should  be  mentioned  that  numerous  books  and  papers  have 
been  consulted  before  committing  these  notes  to  paper,  but  as  the 
publications  amount  to  nearly  ninety,  it  would  take  up  too  much 
space  to  record  my  indebtedness  to  individual  authors. 

Genus  D  o  c  i  d  i  u  m  Breb. 
Doc.   EXPANSJM,  n.sp.     (T.iii.  f.3). 

Doc.  minimum,  curtum,  crassum,  2J  plo.  longius  quam  latum, 
tumore  basali  lato,  depresso,  semicellulis  ad  apices  expansis, 
apicibus  rotundato-truncatis,  angulis  superioribus  lato-rotundatis 
dentibus  nullis,  membrana  levissime  punctata. 

Long.  72;  lat.  29/x. 

Botany. 

For  a  Docidium  this  form  is  quite  unique. 

Genus  Pleurotaenium  Niig. 
Pl.  mediolaeve,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.lO). 

PI.  magnum,  valde  elongatum,  rectum,  1  2-20  plo.  longius  quam 
latum;  basi  semicellulae  leviter  inflatae  et  supra,  inflatione 
mitiore  nonmtnquam  instructae;  apices  versus  sensim  sed  distincte 
attenuatae;  apicibus  truncatis,  rugisl.  denticulis  10-12(rarius  4-6) 
intra  marginem  semper  ornatis;  sutura  non  prosiliente;  membrana 
crassa;  usque  ad  medium  inflationum  basalium  dense  scrobiculata 
(non  granulata);  scrobiculae  trans  quemque  inflationem  in  serie 
densiore  ordinatae;  membrana  in  medio  frondis  laevi  (unde 
nomen). 

Long.  410,  504,  516,  528,  660,  684;  lat.  36,  30,  38,  33,  37,  31^. 

Auburn. 

PI.  mediolaeve  belongs  to  the  group  having  straight  sides,  and 
apices  furnished  only  with  rugre,  not  with  pronounced  tubercles, 
such  as  the  forms  of  PI.  Ehrenhergii  De  Bary,  PL  crenulatitm 
(Ehr.),  see  Roy  and  Bisset,  Jap.  Desm.  f.l9,  which  come  nearest 
in  size  and  appearance.  Others  are  PI.  Stuhlmanni  (Hieron.) 
13 


162       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

8jhm.;*  PL  (Doc.)  Wallichlanum  Turn.;t  PL  (Doc.)  ghriosum 
Turn.t 

Forma  gracilior,  n.f. 

Exacte  ut  in  forma  typica  sed  gracilior,  cellulae  20-30  plo. 
longiores  quam  latae. 

Long.  408,  444,  532;  lat.  18,  21,  18^. 

Auburn,  Botany. 

Pl.  NODOSUM  Bail.,y  DENTATUM  Arch.,  Q.J.  Micr.  Sci.  1872,  p. 194, 
forma  australica,  n.f. 

Forma  apice  modice  elongato,  vix  dilatato,  dentibus  10  magnis 
(fere  aculeis)  projicientibus.  Semicellulae  verticillis  4,  in  quoque 
verticillo  nodulis  6  prominentibus  obtusis,  fere  truncatis,  mem- 
brana  inter  verticil los  grosse  punctata. 

Long.  324;  lat.  h^fx. 

Botany. 

Pl.  baculoides  (Roy  &  Bisset),  Jap.  Desm.  p. 9,  f.l8. 

Apices  denticulis  1.  rugis  minutissimis  8-10  vix  visibilibus 
semper  praeditae.  Endochroma  in  taenias  longitudinales  4  dis- 
posita.  MeraVn-ana  subtilissime  punctata.  Cetera  ut  in  Jap. 
Desm. 

Long.  390,  400,  426,  428,  438;  lat.  14,  15,  14,  15,  15;z. 

Auburn,  Botany;  Rose's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

Roy  &  Bisset  (I.e.)  give  long,  semicell  265^,  lat.  15^,  but  the 
figures  tally  exactly.  The  minute  teeth  were  observed  in  every 
case,  but  they  are  easily  overlooked. 

Genus  Triploceras   Bailey. 

Trip,  serratum,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.2). 
Trip,   magnum,    rectum,    elongatum,    9-12  plo.    longius   quam 
latum,  (cum  dentibus),  basi  ad  apices  sensim  attenuatum,  apicibus 
aut  2  lobatis  spinis  geminatis  intervenientibus,  aut  4  lobatis  lobis 

*  Ost.  Afrik.  T.l,  f.2 1-22. 

t  Alg.  E.  Ind.  T.3,  f.2. 

+  I.e.  T.3,  f.5. 


BY  G.  I.  PLAYFAIR.  1  63 

iiiterdum  productis  bi-(rarius  tri-)deiitati8.  In  quaque  semiceilula 
verticilli  13-16,  dentibus  magnis,  validis,  patentibus  10  instructi; 
dentibus  verticilli  basalis  in  margine  inferiore  denticulis  sinsfulis 
ornatis. 

Long.c.  proc.  450,  480,  588;  lat.  c.  dent.  50,  57,  50/x. 

Botany. 

This  form  lies  between  Trip,  verticillatum  Bail.,*  superhmn 
(Mask.)  Nord.,  and  Trip,  gracilef  hidentatum  f.  intermedia  Nord. 
Looked  upon  as  an  immature  form,  it  could  develop  into  the 
former  by  the  teeth  becoming  bifid  verrucae,  or  into  the  latter 
by  their  lengthening  out  into  aculei.  No  tendency  of  the  sort 
has  been  noticed,  however,  in  any  of  the  specimens  that  I  have 
observed. 

Trip,  gracile  Bail.,  *bilobatum  Turn.,  Alg.  E.  India,  p.26, 1\2, 
f.4.  C/.'West  (Desm.  N.  Amer.  T.13,  f.  10-13)  especially  the 
end  views. 

The  specimens  noted  had  10  teeth  to  the  verticil  and  17 
verticils  to  the  semicell.  Also  the  apices  were  4-lobed,  each  lobe 
bidentate.  I  liave  noticed  in  other  varieties  of  Triploceras  the 
''two  intervening  spines"  mentioned  by  Turner,  I.e.,  in  bilobed 
apices.  It  seems  probable  that  such  a  form  is  immature,  and 
that  the  two  spines  on  each  side  develop  into  bidentate  lobes, 
thus  forming  a  4-lobed  apex.     {Cf.  T.ii.,f  15.) 

Long.  444,530;  lat  c.ac.  34,  33/x. 

Botany. 

Trip,  gracile  Bail.,  ^aculeatum  Nord.,  Fr.Alg.N.Z.,T.7,  f.13-14, 
forma  austkalica,  n.f.    (T.ii.  f.  14-15). 

A  forma  novizelandica  differt  cellulis  minoribus,  semicell uHs 
magis  attenuatis,  verticillis  8-11  in  quaque  semiceilula. 

Long.  cell.  276,  300,  430;  lat.c.ac  ad  bas.  24,  36,  50;  lat.s.ac. 
20,  18;  lat.  sub.  lob.  ap.  11,  11/x. 

Botany,  Centennial  Park. 

*Fr.  Alg.  N.  Z.  T.7,  f.3. 
•H.c.  T.7,  f.  17. 


164       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Trip,  denticulatum,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.ll). 

Trip,  mediocre,  gracilliuium,  elongatum,  16plo.  longius  quam 
latum.  Semicellulae  e  basi  ad  apices  leniter  attenuatae;  infla- 
tionibus  rofcundatis  11  ornatae;  inflationibus  seriebus  dentium 
minutorum  patentum  binis  praeditis;  apicibus  3  (2-4  1)  lobatis; 
lobis  dentibus  minutis  singulis  (vel  binis  '?)  instructis. 

Long.  371;  lat.  23/i. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

Most  like  Trip.  (Doc.)  occidentah  Turn.,*  which,  however,  has 
verticils  with  aculei  pointing  up  and  down  the  cell.  Compare 
also  WoUe  (Desm.  U.  S.,  Doc.  gracih,  T.IO,  f.3). 

Genus  Icthyocercus  West. 
Ic.  AUSTRALiENSis,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.8). 

Icth.  magnus,  gracilis,  circ.  15plo.  longior  quam  latus,  medio 
levissime  constrictus.  Semicellulae  paullulo  attenuatae,  lateribus 
rectis,  basi  leviter  inflatae,  apice  aegre  dilatatae  angulis  in  cornua 
minuta,  acuta,  productis.      Membrana  achroa,  glabra. 

Long  144;  lat.  10^. 

Botany. 

This  comes  very  near  to  Ic.  longisphms  (Borge),*  which  I 
cannot  consider  a  variety  of  Ic.  angolensis.  Ic.  anstraliensis  is 
half  as  long  again,  inflated  at  the  base,  and  with  tiny  horns 
instead  of  spines.  This  is,  as  far  as  I  know,  only  the  third 
record  of  the  genus.  It  is  known  also  from  Angola  and  Guiana. 
Cf.  /c.  angolensis  West  (in  Journ.  Bot.  xxxv.  T.  368,  f.26-3i). 

Genus  Closterium  Nitzsch. 

Cl.  Moukense,  n.sp.      CT.ii.  f.  1). 

Cl.  permagnum,  rectum,  fusiforme,  diametro  circ.  9  plo.  longius, 
utroque  polo  leniter  attenuatum,  ventre  in  medio  planum  apices 
versus  recurvatum,  dorso  leniter  arcuatum,  apicibus  subobtusis, 

""  'On  some  New  Desm.',  Journ  E.  Micr.  Soc.  (2)  v.  1885,  T.15,  f.25 
t  Trop.  u.  subtrop.  T.2,  f.51. 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIR.  165 

truncatis,  paullulo  recurvatis.  Membrana  achroa,  glabra,  striis 
nullis.     Sutura  iion  evidente. 

Long.  844-1140;  lat.  106-125^. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector;  Moura. 

CI.  libelliUa  Focke,  figured  by  Raciborski,*  is  the  nearest  in 
shape  to  this  species,  but  it  is  far  too  small,  and  punctate.  Cf. 
also  CI.  lunula  var.  maxirnum  Borge.f  I  have  no  note  as  to  the 
disposal  of  the  endochrome.  CI.  lunula,  lanneolalum  and  the 
stout  form  of  acerosum  are  members  of  this  group. 

Cl.  magnificum,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.3). 

CI.  permagnum,  elongatum  vix  arcuatum,diametro  circ.  9-12  plo. 
longius,  ventre  paullulo  concavum,  dorso  leniter  curvatum,  apici- 
bus  subobtusis,  truncatis,  paullulo  recurvatis.  Membrana  achroa, 
glabra,  striis  nullis.  Sutura  evidente.  Long.  800-809;  lat. 68-92; 
alt. (ad  dorsum)  110/x. 

Lara  Dam,  Moura. 

Most  like  Cl.  Wittrockianuyn  Turn.,|  from  which  it  differs  in 
its  greater  size,  absence  of  colour  and  striae,  the  slightly  recurved 
ends  and  visible  suture.  From  Cl.  lanceolatum  Kutz.,  it  differs 
in  its  larger  size,  concave  ventral  margin,  and  narrower  shape. 

Cl.  molle,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.l2). 

Cl.  permagnum,  arcuatum,  cylindricum,  elongatum,  diametro 
circ.  13-14plo  longius,  ventre  regulariter  concavum  non  tumidum, 
dorso  regulariter  convexum,  ad  apices  sensim  sensimque  attenu- 
atum,  apicibus  subobtusis,  rotuudatis,  incrassatis.  Membrana 
levissime  rufescente,  subtilissime  striata.  Sutura  evidente. 
Endochromaobscuro-viride,  in  laminis  longitudinalibus  disposita. 
Vesciculi  terminales  minimi. 

Long.  935-965;  lat.  70;  alt.  10(V. 

Auburn;  Moura. 


"  Desm.  Ciast.  T.l,  f.44. 
+  Alg.  Regnell.  T.l,  f.9. 
:  Alg.  E.  Iml.  T.l,f.25. 


1G6       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Gl.  molle  may  be  classed  with  CI.  decorum  Breb.  (see  Wolle, 
Besm.  U.  S.,  T.  7,  f.l),  CI.  Wallichii  Turii.,^*  and  CI.  dilatatum 
West.f  Ifc  is  a  perfectly  tubular  form,  with  beautifully  rounded 
ends,  which  are  not  flattened  or  turned  back. 

Cl.  calamus,  n.sp.      (T  ii.  f  4). 

CI.  permagnuni,  valde  elongatum,  gracillimum,  fere  rectum, 
30-35  plo.  longius  quam  latum,  paullulo  curvatum,  utroque  polo 
rapidissime  attenuatum,  lateri})us  paralleli.s,  apicibus  conicis, 
subacutis.  Membrana  subtilissime  striata.  Endochroma  in 
tnenias  4  (3  ?)  longitudinales  parietales  disposita;  vesiculo  central! 
magno,  terminalibus  minimis.  Nuclei  amylac^i  18  in  quaque 
semicellula. 

Long.  1000;  lat.  30;  alt.  60/z. 

Moura. 

This  species  differs  from  Cl.  acerosum  in  its  almost  parallel 
sides,  from  Cl.  praelongum  in  its  straight  ends  not  recurved  at 
all,  and  from  Cl.  lineatum  in  its  equal  curvature.  From  all 
these  also  it  differs  in  the  arrangement  of  its  endochrome  in 
the  parietal  taenia?.  Along  with  Cl.  Mourense  I  fancy  it  holds  the 
record  for  length. 

Cl.  cornutum,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.l 3). 

Cl.  parvum,  validum,  lunatum,  5-6  plo.  longius  quam  latum, 
uno  polo  ad  alterum  et  ventre  et  dorso  regulariter  arcuatum,  e 
sutura  ad  apices  rapide  attenuatum,  apicibus  subacutis.  Mem- 
brana glabra,  lutea.      Sutura  evidente. 

Long.  160;  lat.  30;  alt.  54^. 

Botany. 

Its  nearest  ally  is  Cl.  Lelbleinii  Kutz.,  which,  however,  is 
larger,  swollen  in  the  centre  and  more  curved,  but  cf.  Ralfs  (Br. 
Desm.,  T.28,  f.4)  and  Borgesen  (Cent.  Braz.,  T.2,  f.7).  I  have 
not  yet  come  across  Cl.  Leibleinii,  nor  did  Nordstedt  meet  with 
it  in  New  Zealand. 

The  semicell  is  almost  exactly  the  shape  of  a  rhinoceros  horn. 

*  Alg.  E.  Ind.  T.l,  f.l3. 
t  N.  Amer.  Desm.  1896,  T.13,  f.21. 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIR,  167 

Cl.  cingulum,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.7). 

CI.  parvum,  magis  curvatum,  filiforme,  diametro  circa  18  plo. 
loiigius,  lateribus  parallelis,  apiciV>us  subacutis. 

Long.  90;  lat.  5;  alt.  30fi. 

Moura,  in  running  water. 

In  outline  the  nearest  to  this  form  is  Cl.  Cynthia  var.  curva- 
tissimum  West,  (Scott,  plankt.,  T.  14,  f.3)  with  which  it  agrees 
in  length;  but  that  species  is  striolate  and  2.^  times  as  broad. 
Cl.  cingulum  might  be  arranged  with  Cl.  Jenneri  Ralfs,  and 
Cl.  calosporuin  Wittr.,  especially  var.  /3  Brasiliense  Burges., 
(Desm.  C.  Braz.,T.2,  f.5). 

Cl.  cancek,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.l6). 

Cl.  minimum,  canceriforme,  subcirculare  diametro  tantum  duplo 
longius;  dorso  maxims  convexum  fere  conicum;  ventre  concavum. 
Semicellulae  e  sutura  ad  apices  rapidissime  attenuatae,  apicibus 
acutis  pauUo  incurvis  et  in  rostra  brevia  setacea  porrectis. 
Membrana  laevis. 

Long.  46;  lat.  22;  alt.  48)u. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

I  know  of  no  other  species  with  which  this  form  can  be  classed, 
but  cf.  Cl.  cu. spiel atum  Bail.,  in  Ralfs,  T.35,  f.  11. 

?Cl   naviculoideum,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.9). 

Cl.  minutissimum,  rectum,  fusiforme,  diametro  circa  15  plo. 
longius,  apicibus  acutissimis  in  rostra  brevia  setacea  porrectis. 
Membrana  glabra. 

Long.  75-84;  lat.  5-6/x. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

There  is  some  doubt  in  my  mind  as  to  whether  this  is  not  the 
diatom  Nitzschia  acicularis  Smith,  in  Br.  Diats.  q.v.;  no  size 
given.  The  disposition  of  the  endochrome  with  a  central  clear 
space  makes  it  look  like  a  Closterium. 


168       SOME  NEW  OK  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALKS, 

Genus  P  e  n  i  u  m   Breb. 

P.   GRACILLIMUM,  11. sp.       (T.iii.  f.l). 

Pen.  angustum,  elongatum,  8-10 plo.  longius  quani  latum,  medio 
sinu  acuto  minuto  vix  constricbum,  apicem  versus  levissime 
attenuatum;  apicibus  truncatis;  lateribus  rectis,  parallelis.  Semi- 
cellulae  utroque  margine  denticulationibus  2  minutissimis  in 
partes  3  divisae,  denticulationibus  noii  semper  perfecte  regulariter 
dispositis.  Membrana  achroa,  longitudinaliter  punctato-striata; 
s-riis  8-10. 

Long  116-156;   lat.  15^. 

Coogee. 

A  near  neighbour  of  P.  margarltaceum  Ehr.,  see  Kalfs,  T.'25, 
f.le,  and  Wolle,  Desm.  U.  S.  T.5,  f.ll,  from  which  its  perfectly 
straight  and  parallel  sides,  colourless  membrane,  and  marginal 
denticulations  serve  to  distinguish  it. 

P.  PACHYDERMUM,  n.sp.     (T.ii.  f.6). 

Pen.  curtum,  crassum,  cylindraceum,  diametro  subduplo 
iongius,  medio  sinu  acuto  minuto  vix  constrictum.  Semicellulae 
subcouicae,  angulis  inferioribus  rectis,  lateribus  e  basi  verticali- 
bus,  adscendentibus,  tum  repente  ad  apicem  convergentibus, 
apicibus  late  rotuiidatis.     Membrana  achroa,  glabra,  crassa. 

Long.  84-;  lat.  37/i. 

Centennial  Park. 

The  congeners  of  this  species  belong  to  the  globose  group  of 
large  Peiiium  forms  such  as  P.  australe  Rac,  P.  lagenaroides 
Roy,*  P.  cucurbitinum  Biss.  jS  suhpolymorphum  Nord.f  The 
last-named  is  nearest  to  it  in  outline. 

P.  AUSTRALE  Rac,  Desui.  Ciast.  p. 7-8,  T.l,f.ll.     (T.ii.  f.5\ 

Long.  66,  66,  74,  75;  lat.  37,  43,  42,  48/i. 
Collector,  Auburn,  Centennial  Park. 


*  Desm.  Windermere,  T.5,  f.6. 
t  Fr.  Alg.  N.  Z.  T.7,  f:20. 


BY  G.   1.    PLAYFAIR.  169 

Omnia  speciinina  apices  versus  magis  atteiiuata  quaiii  forma  a 
cl.  Raciborski  delineata.  Endochroma  totae  cellulae  (ut  primo 
videtur)  in  lamina  quatbuor  lateralia  dispositaarea  vacua  centrali 
in  forma  crucis  reliquente,  vero  tamen  endochroma  in  taenias  6-8 
angustissimas  longitudinales  ex  axi  centrali  radiantes,  ordinata 
est.      Nuclei  amylacei  singuli  magni. 

Genus  T  e  t  m  e  m  o  R  u  s  Ralfs. 
Tet.  immanis,  n.sp.      (T.iii.  f.5). 

Tet.  permagnus,  6-8  plo.  longior  quam  latus,  a  fronte  visus 
oblongus,  in  medio  constricbus,  lateribus  fere  parallelis,  apices 
versus  pauUo  atbenuatus,  apicibus  robundato-bruncatis,  incisura 
profunda  lineari  exbremo  ampliato;  a  latere  visus  lateribus 
parallelis  sed  pauUo  rebusis,  apices  versus  rapide  abtenuatus, 
apicibus  obbuso-robuudabis.  Membranaachroa  puncbaba,  punctis 
in  lineis  longitudinalibus  dispositis. 

Long.  364-425;  lab.  50-58 /x. 

Botany. 

lb  oubline  somewhab  like  T.  Brebissonii,  bub  far  exceeding  it  in 
size.      Of.  also  I'et.  pe?iioides  Benn.,  in  Cooke,  Br.  Desm.  T.26,  f.2. 

Tet.  gracilis,  n.sp.     (T.iii.  f.4). 

Teb.  parvus,  6-plo.  longior  quam  labus,  medio  sinu  acubo  levi 
vix  consbricbus,  a  fronbe  visus  laberibus  fere  jiarallelis,  ad  apices 
versus  aegie  abbenuabus,  apicibus  rotundatis,  incisura  lineari 
exbremo  ampliabo;  a  labere  visus  laberibus  parallelis,  apicibus 
robundatis.  Membrana  achroa  puncbaba,  punctis  obscuris  in 
lineis  longibudinalibus  disposibis. 

Long.  102;  lab.  18/x, 

Coogee. 

This  form  may  perhaps  be  placed  near  Tet.  laevis,  from  which 
it  differs  in  its  evenly  cylindrical  shape.  Fronb  and  side  views 
are  both  like  the  fig.  of  Tet.  Brebissonii  in  Wolle,  T.20,  f.  L 


170       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN   N.  S.  WALES, 

Genus  Spirotaenia  Breb. 

Sp.  obscuka  Ralfs,  Brit.  Desin.,  p.l79,  T.:U,  f.2.     (T.iii.  f.2). 

Long.  134:  lat.  24;i. 

Coogee. 

The  endoehrouie  is  bright  green  and  apparently  diffused,  but 
on  carefully  focussing  the  surface  seven  darker  very  narrow  spiral 
bands  may  be  seen.  The  spirals  are  even  more  longitudinal  than 
those  figured  by  Ralfs,  and  are  decidedly  obscure.  Terminal 
yescicles  present,  but  very  small. 

Genus  E  u  a  s  t  r  u  m  Ehr. 
Eu.  ROTUNDUM,  n.sp.     (T.v.  f.20). 

Eu.  mediocre,  subduplo  longius  quam  latum,  profunde  con- 
strictum  sinu  lineari.  Semicellulae  obscure  trilobatae,  campanu- 
latae:  angulis  inferioribus  leviter  rotundatis;  lateribus  in  parte 
inferiore  convexis,  in  parte  superiore  concavis;  lobo  polare  nngusto, 
levissime  inflato,  apice  truncate;  angulis  superioribus  rotundatis. 
incisura  lineari.  iSeniicellulae  supra  isthmum  tumore  unico, 
paullo  supra  tumoribus  binis  et  inter  eos  scrobiculis  singulis 
instructae;  a  latere  visae,  ovatae,  crassae,  basi  lato  rotuiidato, 
apice  conico.      Membrana  achroa,  laevis  1.  subtilissime  punctata. 

Long.  59-68;  lat.  29-30;  crass.  21-24^. 

Botany. 

The  nearest  forms  seem  to  be  Eu.  suhhexahhum  West,*  Eu. 
porrectujn  Borge,t  Eu.  intf^rmedium  Cleve  var.  compactum  West, I 
and  Eu.  ansatuni  (Ehr.)  Schm  ,§  evidently  misnamed,  as  he  cites 
Ralfs,  T.14,  f.2. 

The  basal  tumour  can  only  be  seen  in  J  face  on  rolling  over. 
This  species  in  front  view  is  very  like  an  immature  form  of  Eu. 
campamilatum  mihi,  but  the  side  view  is  characteristic,  as  the 
semicell  is  remarkably  thick  for  its  size,  and  the  upper  tumours 

*  Some  Desni.  U.  S.  T.16.  f.7. 

t  Desm.  Regnell.  T.5,  f.S. 

t  Fr.  Alg.  Ceylon,  T.19,  f.  14-15. 

§  Schmidle,  Alp.  Alg.  T.17,  f.lO. 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIK.  171 

project  at  the  widest  part.  Besides,  Eu.  cavi^yannlatum  always 
shows  five  tumours,  with  careful  observation.  Cf.  also  Fii.  obesnm 
Josh.,"*^  which  has  no  central  inflations  or  scrohicula. 

Eu.  TRIANGULUM,  n.sp.     (T.iii.  f.7). 

Eu.  magnum,  diametro  subduplo  longius,  profunde  constrictum, 
sinu  lineari.  Semicellulae  obscure  trilobatae,  tiiaiigulares; 
angulis  inferioribus  obtusis;  lateribus  rectis  in  lobum  polarem 
rapidissime  converuentibus;  lobo  polari  producto,  angusto,  apice 
vix  dilatato;  angulis  superioribus  obtuse-rotundatis,  apice  trun- 
cate, incisura  lineari  extremo  ampliato  et  binis  verrucis  instructa. 
Semicellulae  tumoribus  3  basalibus,  2  medianis,  inter  lios  scrobi- 
culis  singulis  majoribus  et  (paullo  infra)  minoribus  binis;  a  latere 
visae  anguste-ovatae,  basi  late  rotundato,  apice  conico.  Mem- 
bra na  achroa  subtiliter  punctata. 

Long.  120,  126,  128,  132;  lat.  Q^,  72,  66,  77/x. 

Hose's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

The  two  outer  basal  tumours  have  a  mammillate  appearance, 
and  generally  they  alone  are  visible  in  front  view.  The  form 
nearest  to  this  is  Eu.  lati])es  Nord.,t  the  details  of  which,  how- 
ever, are  quite  different. 

Eu.    DIDELTOIDES  (Rac.) 

Efi.  quadriceps  Nord.,  \'rv  dideUoides  Rac,  Desm.  Ciastoni,  p.  19, 
T.2,  f.31. 

Nuclei  amylacei  6  in  quaque  semicellula. 

Long.  153,  160,  160,  170,  172,  176,  176;  lat.  75,  75,  78,  80,  82, 
80,  86;  crass.  48,  — ,  52,  — ,  — ,  — ,  54;  lat.  lob.  pol.  — ,  32,  27,  — , 
3(.),  — ,  30^. 

Botany,  Centennial  Park. 

Raciborski  (I.e.)  gives  long.  170,  lat.  82,  lat.  isth.  25,  lat.  lob. 
pol.  28/M.       Cf.  Eu.  quadriceps  Nord.|      It  seems  to  me  that  this 

*  Burmese  Desm.  T.33,  f.l9. 
t  Desm.  Cent.  Braz.  T.2,  f.9. 
t  Desm.  Cent.  Braz.  T.2,  f.o. 


172       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

form  should  not  have  been  placed  under  Eu.  quadriceps  Nord. 
The  only  similarity  between  them  is  the  general  outline  in  front 
view.  In  side  and  end  views  tliey  are  entirely  different,  as  well 
as  in  the  tumours  and  scrobiculae.  Especially  is  this  noticeable 
in  the  polar  lobe,  from  the  cruciate  form  of  which  Eu.  quadriceps 
takes  its  name.  The  specimens  heie  tigured  are  certainly 
Eu.  dideltoides  and  were  gathered  from  the  same  locality  as 
Raciborski's. 

Eu.  LONGicoLLE  Nord.  /3  AUSTRALicuM,  n.var.      (T.iii   f.6 

Semicellulae  basi  latiore,  diametro  tantum  subduplo  longiores, 
e  basi  magis  inflatae;  collo  minus  producto;  lobo  polari  paullo 
magis  inflato;  semicellulae  supra  isthmum  tumoribus  singulis, 
paullo  supra  tumoribus  4  instructae,  tumoribus  exterioribus  e 
margine  orientibus,  inter  interiores  scrobicula  unica  magna. 
Cetera  ut  in  forma  typica. 

Long.  cell.  140-147;  lat.  cell.  64-69;  lat.  lob.  pol.  32;  lat.  coll. 
U3-24;  crass.  36/a. 

Botany,  Centennial  Park. 

Cf.  No.dstedt,  Alg.  N.  Z  ,  p.33,  T.3,  f.5. 

This  form  is  a  member  of  a  well  defined  group  including  Eii. 
loiujicolle  Nord.  I.e.  var.  Himalyense  Turn.,  Alg.  E.  Ind.,  T.  "23, 
f.9,  var.  capitatuiu  West,  Fr.  Alg.  Ceylon,  T.  19,  f.24;  and  three 
described  herein,  viz.,  Eu.  deniinutu/ti,  Eu.  bullatum,  and  Eu. 
cainpanulatu7n,  the  last  of  which  connects  them  with  the  dnuosum 
group.  They  are  almost  altogether  Australasian  at  present, 
their  characteristics  being  a  well  defined  neck,  campanulate  base, 
and  strongly  dilated  head. 

Eu.  SINUOSUM  Lenor.  f.  germanica  Rac,  Desm.  Nowe,  p.31,  T.2, 
f.lO.     (T.iii.  f.9-10). 

Long.  64,  74,  77,  78;  lat.  36,  42,  43,  43;  lat.  lob.  pol.  18,  21,  21, 
20;  crass.  25,  — ,  21,  — /x. 

Botany. 

I  do  not  feel  quite  sure  that  all  the  specimens  included  above 
should  be  referred  to  this  species,  yet   they  all   come  from  the 


UV  G.   I.    PLAYFAIH.  173 

same  water  and  agree  remarkably  in  size  and  markings.  The 
four  scrobiculae  are  arranged  three  in  an  equilateral  triangle 
round  the  fourth.  By  careful  focussing,  the  tops  of  the  central 
basal  and  two  upper  tumours  appear  as  scrobiculae  also;  and  it 
will  then  be  seen  that  the  seven  are  arranged  quincuncially — 
six  at  equal  distances  in  a  circle  round  the  seventh.  It  is  a 
characteristic  feature  of  this  form. 

Eu.  SUBIMCISUM  Reinsch,  Desm.  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  f.  12. 
(T.iv.  f.l) 
Long.  29;  lat.  23y^. 
Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 
Reinsch  gives  long.  22|,  lat.  18/x. 

Eu.  DEMINUTUM,  n.sp.     (T  iii.  f.8). 

Eu.  magnum,  elongatum,  medio  sinu  lineari  constrictum,  4  plo. 
longius  quam  latum.  Semicellulae  suboblongae,  utroque  latere 
excavatae;  angulis  inferioribus  rectis;  lateribuse  basi  verticalibus 
tum  repente  convergentibus  et  in  colliim  longum,  angustum 
adscendentibus;  lobo  polari  valde  inflato,  latitudine  latitu- 
dinem  basis  fere  aequante,  lateribus  rotundatis,  apice  latissime 
rotundato,  incisura  lineari  extremo  verrucis  binis  instructa. 
Semicellulae  supra  basin  tumoribus  binis  et  inter  eos  scrobiculis 
singulis  praeditae;  a  latere  visae  oblongae,  basi  inflatae,  lateribus 
fere  rectis  et  parallelis,  apicibus  rotundato-truncatis;  a  vertice 
visae  subcirculares,  regulariter  6  undulatae.  Membrana  crassa 
precipue  supra  basin,  grosse  scrobiculato-punctata  praecipue  in 
lobo  polari. 

Long.  135-140;  lat.  40;  lat.  lob.  pol.  34-36;  lat.  coll.  22;  crass. 
33-34^. 
Botany. 

A  Eu.  Longicolli  proximo    difFert   basi  angustiore,  lobo  polaii 
magis  inflato,  tumoribus  paucioribus,  et  conspectu  a  vertice  visum. 
See  note  on  Eu.*jlongicolle,  supra. 


174       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Eu.  CUNEATUM  Jenii.  ,3  SOLUM  Nord.,  Alg.  N.  Z  ,  p.34,  T.3,  f.6. 

Long.  102-110;  lat.  36-38;  lat.  ap.  18-21;  crass.  23-27/i. 

Botany. 

Some  specimens  observed  diflfer  slightly  from  Nordstedt's  in 
side  view,  the  lower  ))art  being  semicircular,  protruding  a  little 
and  apparently  incrassate.  The  appearance  of  incrassation, 
however,  is  caused  by  the  folding  of  the  membrane  above  the 
isthmus.  The  basal  inflation  is  hardly  visible  on  rolling  over, 
and  not  at  all  otherwise. 

Eu.  CUN'HUTUM  Jenn.  y  basiventricosum,  n.var.      (T  iii.  f  11). 

8upra  isthmum  ventricosuui,  tumoribus  nullis;  a  latere  visae 
semicellulae  conicae,  apicibus  rotundatis,  basi  piano,  angulis 
brisalibus  rectis.  Membrana  punctata,  punctis  in  lineas  longi- 
tudinales  interdum  ordinatis.      Cetera  ut  in  forma  typica. 

Long.  106;  lat.  42;  lat.  ap.  21;  crass.  27/^t. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

A  vertice  semicellulam  non  vidi,  fortasse  undulationibus  4 
cruciatim  dispositis  ut  in  Eu.  ansatuin  Ehr. 

It  is  difficult  to  find  out  what  the  forma  tj'^pica  is  in  this  species. 
Ralfs,  in  Brit.  Desm.  p. 90,  says,  "I  have  not  detected  any  inflated 
protuberances;"  yet  in  T.33,  f.3,  he  gives  an  end  view  showing 
at  least  three  tumours.  Cooke,  in  Brit.  Desm.  p. 70,  observes 
"empty  frond  without  inflations,"  and  in  T.34,  f.6,  figures  an 
end  view  differing  from  Ralfs'  but  still  with  three  inflations. 
Lundell,  in  Desm.  Suec,  refers  to  Ralfs  without  comment.  Raci- 
borkski,  however,  in  Desm.  Nowe,  p. 30,  notes  the  "semicellulae 
e  basi  visae  late  ellipticae,  lateribus  (4  undulatis)  tumoribus  3 
humillimis,  vix  visibilibus  praeditae."  Of  ail  the  forms  I  have 
observed,  the  one  described  below  is  the  only  one  that  had  any 
tumours  at  all,  and  that  had  five,  three  basal  and  two  above;  and 
all,  as  Raciborski  says,  "  very  low,  scarcely  visible." 

Eu.  CUNEATUM  Jenn.  b  conicum,  n.var.     (T.iii.  f.  12). 

Gracilius  quam  forma  typica,  3plo.  plusve  longius  quam  latum. 
Semicellulae   magis    attenuatae,    angulis    inferioribus    superiori- 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIK.  175 

busque  magis  rotundatis,  lateribiis  pauUulo  retusis;  tumoribus 
humillimis  vix  visibilibus,  3  basalibus,  2  niedianis  instiuctae, 
inter  tumores  scrobiculis  parvis  4;  a  latere  visae  anguste 
elliptico-ovatae,  basi  late  rotundato  vel  rotundato  truncate. 
Membraiia  punctata,  punctis  in  lineis  longitudinales  nonnunquam 
dispositis. 

J.ong.  120-132;  lat.  40-42;  lat.  ap.  18-21;  crass.  27-28/x. 

Botany. 

The  scrobiculae  are  arranged,  three  in  an  equilateral  triangle 
round  the  fourth;  in  side  view  they  appear  as  a  very  shallow 
depression.  Sometimes  only  two  (one  above  the  other)  are  visible. 
The  tumours  are  very  low  and  obscure,  especially  the  two  top 
ones. 

Eu.  BULLATUM,  n  sj>.     (T  iii.  f.  13). 

Eu.  mediocre,  medio  sinu  lineari  constrictiim,  diametro  sub- 
duplo  longius.  Semicellulae  trilobatae,  supra  basin  ventricosae, 
angulis  inferioribus  obtusis,  lateribus  e  basi  lato  fere  vertical! ter 
adscendentibus  paullulo  retusis,  ad  medium  versus  .semicellulae 
repentissime  lateribus  in  coUum  curtissimum  crassum  confluenti- 
bus;  lobo  polari  valde  inflato,  lateribus  obtuso-rotundatis  apicibus 
leniter  arcuatis,  incisura  lineari  tuberculis  nullis;  semicellulae 
tumoribus  8  basalibus  et  supra  juxta  marginem  2  instructae; 
scrobiculis  nullis;  a  latere  visae  ovatae,  basi  rotundato-truncato. 
Membrana  grosse  punctata,  punctis  nonniimquam  (praecipue  lobo 
polari)  in  lineas  horizontales  vel  obscure  in  quincuncem  ordinatis. 

Long.  77-87;  lat.  39-42;  lat.  ap.  25-28;  lat.  coll.  18-1 9;  crass.28/.. 

Botany,  Centennial  Park. 

The  nearest  to  this  is  Eu.  Everettense  WoUe,  in  Desm.  U.  S. 
T.28,  f.5,  which  differs  from  it  in  side  and  end  views.  They  both 
seem  to  me  to  be  connected  with  the  lonyicolle  group  generally, 
but  not  with  any  member  in  particular.  See  note  on  lo7igicolle, 
supra. 

Eu.  siNUOSUM   Lenor.  var.  Ceylanicum  West,    Fr.   Alg.  Ceylon, 
T.19,  f.l6. 

Long.  70;  lat.  39jLt. 
Coogee  (rarissime). 


176       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Exact  shape  of  En.  circuJare  in  Ralfs,  T.  13,  £.5*^/,  but  a  little 
broader  across  the  middle  sinuatioii,  making  the  basal  portion 
more  quadrate.  Not  much  like  We-t's  fig,  (I.e.)  but  the  scrobi- 
culae  are  there.     West  gives  the  size  70  x  ;)2^. 

Eu.  CAMPANULATUM,  n..»p.     (T.iii.  f.l6). 

Eu.  mediocre,  medio  sinu  lineari  constrictum,  diametro  circ. 
subduplo  iongius.  Semicellulae  trilobntae,  campanulatae,  suj  ra 
bnsin  ventricosae,  sursum  in  collum  curtum  repente  constrictae; 
aiigulis  inferioribus  obtusis;  lateribus  in  parte  inferiore  convexis 
inflationibus  levibus  singulis,  in  parte  superiore  (coUo)  concavis; 
lobo  polari  paullulo  inflato;  angulis  superioribus  rotund atis; 
apicibus  truncatis;  incisura  lineari.  Semicellulae  tumoribus  3 
basalibus  et  supra  2  in  serie  horizontali  cum  inflationibus  latei- 
alibus  ordinatis,  praeditae;  inter  tumoies  scrobiculis  3.  A  latere 
visae  elliptico-ovatae,  ad  apices  attenuatae,  basi  rotundato- 
truncatae.     Membrana  subtilissime  punctata. 

Long.  cell.  92,  93,  93,  96,  97;  lat.  cell.  52,  42,  48,  44,  41;  lat.  ap. 
24,  18,  20,  19,  19;  lat.  coll.  22,  17,  18,  17,  18;  crass.  33,  24,  30,  22, 
24^. 

Collector,  Botany,  Centennial  Park. 

This  species  comes  to  maturity  in  three  stages,  all  of  which  are 
commonly  found  accompanying  one  another.  The  immature 
forms  ver}^  much  resemble  Eu.  ansatum  in  outline,  and  indeed 
that  is  the  case  with  several  other  species  of  Euastrum.  In  T.iii., 
figs.  14,  15,  16  show  the  mature  and  the  two  young  forms,  all 
found  in  the  same  water.  Other  transition  forms  were  noticed, 
and  sometimes  fronds  formed  of  two  different  semicells.  It  is  the 
connecting  link  between  the  siniiosum  and  lorigicolle  groups  of 
Euastrum. 

Forma  immatuia  No.l.     (T.iii.  f.  14). 
Forma  ad    Eu.  ansatum   accedens  basi  autem  latiore,  curtior 
quam  forma   typica,   aegre  ventricosa;  lateribus  sine  tumoribus 
lateralibus;  collo  non  producto;  lobo  polari  non  inflato;  scrobicula 
una  tantum. 


'  BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIR.  177 

Long.  cell.  70-72;  lat.  cell.  36-38;  lat.  ap.  16-17;  lat.  coll.  16-17; 
crass.  19^. 

Centennial  Park. 

Forma  immalura  No.2.     (T.iii,  f.l4,  right  hand  fig.). 

Forma  longior  quam  No.l,  fere  tam  lata  quam  forma  typica, 
magis  ventricosa,  tumoribus  lateralibus  incipientibus,  lobo  polari 
aegre  inflate,  collo  nondum  producto,  scrobiculis  minoribus 
carentibus. 

Long.  75-78;  lat.  36-42;  lat.  ap.  17-19;  lat.  coll.  17-19;   crass.22/z. 

Centennial  Park,  Botany. 

Eu.  coMPACTUM  Wolle,  Desm.U.S.p.l07,  T.27,  f.28-29.    (T.iv.  f.3). 

Long.  31-36;  lat.  24-25;  crass.  15-1 6;x. 
Collector. 

Eu.  UNDULATUM,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.2). 

Eu.  parvum,  oblongum,  paullo  longius  quam  latum,  medio  sinu 
lineari  constrictum.  Semicellulae  cuneatae,  truncatae;  lateribus 
levissime  convexis,  4-5  crenatis;  angulis  superioribus  in  cornua 
brevia  porrectis;  apicibus  truncatis  incrassatis;  incisura  acuta 
brevi  cuiieata.  Crenae  sunt  series  granulorum  6-8  transversales, 
granulis  obscuris  infra  marginem  2-3.  Semicellulae  tumore  unico 
parvo  obscuro  vix  visibile  supra  basin  instructae.  Membrana 
laevis. 

Long  36-44;  lat.  25-30;  lat.  ap.  14-18^. 

Collector. 

The  granules  in  the  marginal  series  are  difficult  to  make  out, 
so  also  the  basai  tumour,  which  cannot  be  seen  at  all  in  front 
view.  The  nearest  form  to  this  is  Eu.  denticulatihm  Kirch. 
/3  elongatum  Nord.,  in  Alg.  N.  Z.  p.79,  from  which  it  differs  in  its 
larger  size,  crenate  sides,  series  of  granules  and  basal  tumour. 
The  most  mature  form  observed  was  44  x  30/1.  Cf .  also  Eu.  dentic. 
/3  stictuni  Borges.,  in  C.  Braz.  T.3,  f.l8,  the  sides  of  which  are 
biundulate  only  and  the  granulations  scattered,  and  Eu.  spec.  1 
Eorge,  in  Sussw.  Chlor.  N.  Russ.  T.3,  f.39,  which  is  of  similar 
shape  and  same  size. 
14 


178       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Genus  Arthrodesmus  Ehr. 
Ar.  ellipticus,  11  sp.     (T.iv.  f.4-5). 

Ar.  magiius,  subcircularis,  medio  sinu  cuneato,  aperto,  intror- 
suin  rotundato,  constrictus.  Semicellulae  circ.  2^plo.  latiores 
quam  longae,  ellipticae  vel  subhexagonae;  angulis  lateralibus 
obtusis  in  aculeos  singulos  productis;  aculeis  brevibus  validis 
plus  minus  assurgentibus;  a  vertice  visae  late  ellipticae,  apicibus 
acumiiiatis  et  in  aculeos  singulos  protractis,  medio  utrinque  area 
incrassata.  Membrana  punctata,  crassa,  semper  in  medio  semi- 
cellularum  (sed  non  evidente)  interdum  ubique  (aculeis  etiam) 
valde,  incrassata. 

Long.  42,  44,  48,  48,  48,  52;  lat.  66,  65,  57,  60,  60,  70;  crass.  24, 
28,  2Q^. 

Ptose's  Lagoon,  Collector;  Botany. 

The  spines  are  relatively  short,  almost  dentate  in  young  forms, 
and  generally  form  a  continuation  of  the  dorsal  margin.  The 
large  iucrassate  spot  in  the  centre  of  the  semicells  distinguishes 
this  species  from  Ar.  convergent^,  to  some  forms  of  which  it  is 
similar  in  shape  and  size.  The  incrassation  of  the  membrane, 
including  the  spines,  in  old  specimens  is  quite  a  feature  of  this 
form.  Cf.  Xan.  tetracentrotuni  Wolle,  in  W.  &  G.  S.,  West  N. 
Am.  Desm.  T.  15,  f.24;  Ar.  incrassatus  Lager.,  Am.  Desm.  f.l8; 
Ar.  gibberulus  Josh.,  in  Journ.  Bot.  1885,  T.254,  f.6;  and  Ar. 
curvatus  Turn.,  Alg.  E.  Ind.  T.  1  2,  f.2. 

Genus  X  A  N  T  H  I  D  I  u  M   Ehr. 
X.  ocTONAKiuM  Nord.,  Alg.  N.  Z.  p.42,  T.4,  f.22. 

Long.  c.ac.  100,  112,  108,  104,  102;  lat.  c.ac.  85,  78,  90,  88,  82; 
long.  s.ac.  76,  82,  78,  78,  72;  lat.  s.ac.  60,  58,  56,  54,  56;  long.  acul. 
15,  15, 16,  17,  — ;  crass.  40,  37,  —  -,  — /x. 

6  +  66  +  77  +  7  6  +  6  6  +  7 
'  ^P"^^«  6T6  ^T7  7T7  6^  ^T7 

Botany. 

It  is  truly  remarkable  that  I  have  never  yet  come  across  a 
specimen  with  the  full  eight  pairs  of  spines  to  the  semicell.      All 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIR.  179 

the  above,  however,  were  clearly  Xan.  octonarium,  as  was  shown 
in  every  case  by  the  size  and  the  central  incrassation.  Nordstedt 
(I.e.)  gives  118  X  78/x  over  all  as  the  size  of  New  Zealand  speci- 
mens, spines  up  to  20;:^  long.  It  is  evident  that  the  number  of 
spines  is  not  to  be  relied  on  for  identification.  Where  I  noted 
the  end  view  it  has  been  perfectly  and  broadly  elliptic,  not  at  all 
hexagonal  or  with  truncate  apices — this  perhaps  on  account  of 
the  specimens  being  immature.  The  incrassation  is  on  the  inner 
side  of  the  membrane,  and  visible  in  front  view. 

Xan.  Coogeeanum,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.6-7). 

Xan.  magnum,  latum,  oblongum,  medio  sinu  linear!  exti'or.sum 
ampliato  constiictum.  Semicellulae  subhexagonae,  supra  l^asin 
rectangulares;  lateribus  levissime  retusis;  angulis  inferioribus 
fere  rectis;  lateribus  e  basi  lato  verticalibus,  a  medio  semicellulae 
ad  apicem  converijentibus;  apicibus  latis,  truncatis,  processibus 
8  concentrice  ordinatis,  instructis;  angulis  basalibus  et  medianis 
processibus  singulis  praeditis;  infra  marginem  semicellulae 
insuper,  processibus  biuis  et  denbibus  acutis  singulis,  supra 
isthmum  etiam  dente  unico,  ornatae;  processus  omnes  breves, 
validi  et  bitidi.  A  latere  visae  suboblongae,  basi  rotundato- 
truncatae;  a  vertice  late-ellipticae.  Membrana  dense  punctata 
interdum  crassa. 

Long.  69-84;  lat.  51-60;  lat  ap.  35-1:2;  long.  proc.  ad.  12;  crass. 
36-40/z. 

Coogee. 

This  species  belongs  to  a  small  Australian  group  in  which  the 
semicell  shows  a  tendency  to  be  three-lobed,  the  end  lobe  more 
or  less  drawn  out.  The  apex  is  furnished  with  processes 
arranged  in  a  circle,  and  the  lateral  lobes  with  processes  in  pairs 
extending  in  towards  the  centre  of  the  semicell.  Cf.  Xan.  bi/ur- 
catum  Borge,  in  Bailey,  Bot.  Bull,  xv.,  T.  1 4,  f.6;  Xan.  ( Eu. ) 
multigihherum  Nord.,  Fr.  Alg.  N.  Z.  T.3,f.2;  and  Xan.  pn/cherri- 
mum,  below. 


180       SOME  NEW  OK  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Xan.  bifurcatum  Borge,  in  Bailey,  Bob.  Bull,  xv.,  T.14,  f.6. 
(T.iv.  f.8,  9). 

Long.  c.  proc,  132-250;  lat.  c.  proc.  84-165;  lat.  coll.  33-60;  long, 
s.  proc.  93-220;  lat.  s.  proc.  50-125;  long,  proc.  15-22/z. 

Centennial  Park. 

The  specimen  figured  shows  one  semicell  undeveloped  (fig. 9) 
and  the  other  naature.  In  the  young  form  the  processes  are 
solitary,  not  in  pairs.  The  endochrome  is  arranged  in  6  parietal 
fillets. 

Xan.  pulcherrimum,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.lO). 

Xan.  magnum,  subduplo  longius  quam  latum,  medio  sinu 
cuneato  introrsum  acuto  non  lineari,  profunde  constrictum. 
Semicellulae  euneatae;  basi  lato;  lateribus  levissime  retusis; 
apicibus  truncatis  leviter  retusis;  angulis  inferioribus  in  pro- 
cessus geminatos  productis  et  infra  marginem  insuper  processibus 
singulis;  apice  processibus  6  concentrice  ordinatis,  ornato,  pro- 
cessubus  4-fidis  omnibus.  Semicellulae  in  centre  nudae;  a  latere 
visae  ovatae,  apicibus  processibus  munitis;  a  vertice  late  ellipticae, 
paullo  in  medio  utrinque  inflatae;  apicibus  processibus  3  instructis. 
Membrana  subtilissime  punctata.  Endochroma  in  taenias  6  longi- 
tudinaliter  disposita. 

Long,  c  proc.  257;  sine  proc.  224;  long.  proc.  ad  22;  lat.  c.  proc. 
156;  sine  proc.  116  :  crass.  82jm. 

Lara  Dam,  Moura. 

I  had  at  first  thought  that  this  species  might  be  the  immature 
form  of  X.  bifurcatum,  to  which  class  of  Xan.  it  belongs.  The 
young  semicell  of  that  species,  however,  as  shown  in  T.iv.  f.9,  has 
the  same  3-lobed  outline  as  the  mature  form,  whereas  in  X.  pul- 
cherr'imum  the  semicell  is  decidedly  cuneate,  and  also  there  are 
no  processes  at  all  in  the  centre 

Xan.  hexagonum,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.ll). 

Xan.  mediocre,  subrectangulare,  circ.  tam  longum  quam  latum, 
medio  sinu  lineari  extremo  ampliato  profunde  constrictum. 
Semicellulae  oblongae,  subhexagonae;  angulis  inferioribus  fere 
rectis;  lateribus  levissime  retusis,  e   basi   lato   verticalibus  turn 


BY  G.   I.    PLAYFAIR.  181 

repentead  apices  convergentibus;  apicibus  latis  truncatis;  arigulis 
basalibus  medianis  apicalibusque  dentibus  singulis  munitis.  In 
centro  semicellulae  tumore  glabro,  rotundato.  A  vertice  semi- 
cellulae  oblongae,  crassae,  regulariter  hexagonae;  apicibus  latis 
truncatis,  angulis  in  dentes  minutos  singulos  productis;  utrinque 
in  medio  tumore  rotundato  instructae.  Membrana  punctata 
paullo  incrassata. 

Long.  54;  lat.  45;  crass.  33fi. 

Rose's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

Most  like  X.  Chahibinskii  Eich.  &  Rac,  Nowe  Gatt.  Ziel  T.3, 
f.28. 

Compare  JT.  fasciculatiun  var.  perornatuin  Nord.,  Alg.  N.  Z. 
T.4,  f.23,  with  which  the  above  coincides  in  size  and  somewhat 
resembles  in  outline.  It  differs,  however,  in  the  end  view  most 
of  all,  which  in  X.  hexagonurti  is  very  broad  and  regularly  hex- 
agonal with  dentate  angles.  The  tumour  is  different  also,  and 
the  spines  wanting.  Tiie  one  cell  seen  was  probably  mature, 
since  the  membrane  was  incrassate.  Cf.  also  X.  trilobum  Nord., 
in  C.  Braz.  T.3,  £35,  and  X.  suhtrilohum  West,  in  Journ.  Bot. 
XXXV.,  T.368,  f.l4. 

Xan.  decemdenticulatum,  n.sp.     (T.iii.  f.l2). 

Xan.  mediocre,  subcirculare,  paullo  longius  quam  latum,  medio 
sinu  cuneato  profunde  constrictum.  Semicellulae  subreniformes, 
angulis  inferioribus  rotundatis,  lateribus  convexis  apices  versus 
levissime  retusis,  apicibus  angustis  truncatis;  semicellulae  utroque 
latere  denticulis  geminatis  5  munitae,  denticulis  adscendentibus 
paullo  curvatis  in  centro  tumore  verrucoso  ornatae;  a  latere  visae 
circulares;  a  vertice  ellipticae,  apicibus  rotundatis,  utrinque 
tumore  praeditae.      Membrana  punctata. 

Long.  81;  lat.  76;  crass.  40,  long.  dent.  circ.  3yL. 

Ewenmar,  Trangie. 

Very  similar  to  X.  fasciculaturn  ^  ornatum  Nord.,  in  Desm. 
Greenland,  f.lO,  but  larger,  and  the  six  pairs  of  subulate  spines 
or  straight  aculei  in  the  semicell  are  replaced  in  this  form  by  ten 
pairs  of  small  very  sharp-pointed  teeth,  which,  with  the  exception 


182       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

of  the  apical  ones,  are  curved  in  towards  the  apex  of  the  cell. 
This  large  number  of  teeth,  greater  even  than  in  X.  octonarium,  and 
their  entirely  different  shape,  seem  to  me  to  distinguish  this 
species  from  all  forms  of  X.  fasciculatum.  The  specimen  was 
surrounded  by  a  gelatinous  sheath  200/n  in  diameter.  Cf.  also 
X.  superbum  Elf  v.  forma  Borge,  in  Bail.,  Bot.  Bull,  xv.,  T.14,  f.l. 

Xan.  Botanicum,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.l 3). 

Xan.  minimum,  oblongum,  tam  latum  quam  longum,  medio 
sinu  cuneato  profundissime  constrictum,  isthmo  angustissimo. 
Semicellulae  subhexagonae,  lateribus  brevibus  levissime  retusis. 
apicibus  latis  truncatis,  angulis  in  aculeos  singulos  longos.  infe- 
rioribus  horizontaliter,  superioribus  radiatim,  productis;  in  centro 
tumore  rotundato  conico  ornatae.  A  vertice  ellipticae  utroque 
latere  tumore  parvo  conico  instructae  apicibus  acuminatis  in 
aculeos  singulos  protractis.      Membrana  subtiliter  punctata. 

Long.  c.ac.  40;  long.  s.ac.  27;  long.  ac.  ad.  12  :  lat.  c.ac.  43;  lat. 
s.ac.  24;  lat.  isth.  6  :  crass.  12/i. 

Botany. 

The  nearest  forms  to  this  seem  to  be  X.  simplicius  Xord.,  Alg. 
N.  Z.  T.4,  f.2t),  and  Ar.  octocornis  Ehr.,  cf.  Cooke,  Brit.  Desm. 
T.47,  f.2;  also  Ar.  longispinus  Borge,  Desm.  Braz.  T.3,  f.35,  which 
has  no  tumour,  and  X.  controversum  var.  pla7ictonicum  West, 
Scott.  Plankt.  T.16,  f.2-3,  which  is  twice  the  size,  with  the  tumour 
scrobiculate. 

Genus  Staurastrum  Meyen. 

St.  forcipatum,  n.sp.     (T.v.  f.l). 

St.  parvum,  subcirculare,  ad  latera  profunde  excavatum,  sinu 
nullo,  isthmo  angustissimo,  paullo  latius  quam  longura.  Semi- 
cellulae subellipticae,  dorso  convexo,  depress© ;  angulis  lateralibus 
subacutis  in  aculeos  breves  singulos  productis,  aculeis  assurgenti- 
bus;  a  vertice  triangulares,  lateribus  concavis,  angulis  acutis 
leviter  inflatis,  aculeis  singulis  munitis.     Meml^rana  glabra. 

Long.  32;  lat.  39;  lat.  isth.  8fi. 

Botany. 


BY  G.   I.    PLAYFAIR.  183 

Very  like  certain  forms  of  St.  Dickiei  and  St.  dejectum.  See 
St.  Dickiei  in  Wolle,  T.40,  f.5,  var.  circnlare  Turn.,  Alg.  E.  Ind. 
T.16,  f.5,  forma  Borgesen  C.  Braz.  T.4,  f.42,  St.  dejectum  var. 
converyens  Wolle,  T.40,  f.21,  and  Ar.  hiatus  Turn.,  I.e.  T.ll,  f.34. 

St.  okbicularr  Elir.  (i  denticulatum  Nord.,  Desm.  Cent.  Braz. 
T.4,  f.42.      (T.iv.  f.l4). 

Forma  lateribus  ad  basin  retractis,  angulis  basalibus  interdum 
denticulis  singulis  instructis.  Membrana  valde  incrassata  prae- 
cipue  ad  angulos  et  ad  apicem,  den.se  punctata.  A  vertice  angulis 
rotundatis,  papillis  latis  singulis  praeditis. 

Long.  50-54;  lat.  42-50;^. 

Botany. 

Cf.  St.  orh.ii  verruco  sum  Wille,  Norges  Fersk.  p. 40,  T.2,  f. 26, 
which  is  about  half  the  size.  The  above  form  is  not  exactly  like 
either  of  the  two  cited,  but  is  like  a  cross  between  them.  St. 
denticalatum  has  no  papillae  at  the  angles  in  end  view,  and  St. 
verrucosum  does  not  show  the  strongly  incrassate  angles  viewed 
from  the  front.  The  tooth  from  which  the  Brazilian  form  takes 
its  name  is  not  always  present  in  Australian  specimens  either. 
Nordstedt's  fig.  (I.e.)  works  out  at  50  x  42/n. 

St.  pseudobiretum,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.l5). 

St.  mediocre,  fere  tam  longum  quam  latum,  medio  sinu  brevi 
lineari  constrictum,  isthmo  lato.  Semicellulae  trapezoideae,  dorso 
dimidioquam  basi  latiores;  angulis  inferioribus  obtusis;  lateribus 
rectis  e  basi  divergentibus;  angulis  superioribus  acuto-rotundatis; 
dorso  levissime  arcuato.  Anguli  superiores  granulis  obscuris  in 
seriebus  obliquis  transversalibus  5  ornati;  apicibus  denticulis 
binis  interdum  munitis.  Semicellulae  a  vertice  triangulares, 
angulis  acutis  leviter  inflatis,  seriebus  5  transversalibus  granu- 
lorum  ornatis. 

Long.  50-54;  lat.  dors.  52-GO;  lat.  bas.  30-40/z. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

The  first  view  reminds  one  of  Cos.  hiretum.,  of  which  a  var. 
trlquetruiii  with  tln-ee  rounded  angles  in  end    view  is  recorded 


184       SOME  NEW  OH  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALKS, 

from  Europe.  That  species,  however,  is  larger,  the  granules  are 
not  confined  to  the  upper  angles,  nor  are  the  angles  ever  biden- 
ticulate  at  the  ends.  Moreover  the  var.  triquetrum  has  "  sides 
deepl}^  sinuous  "  in  end  view  (Cooke,  Br.  Desm.  p.  109). 

aS'^.  varians  Rac,  Desm.  Polon.  T.12,  f.l;  St.  Kjelhnanni  Wille, 
Cooke,  I.e.,  T.54,  f.9;  and  St.  pygmaeiun  Breb.,  in  Boldt.  Desm. 
fr.  Gronl.  T.2,  f.42,  are  nearest  in  form  to  this  species,  but  its 
end  view  alone  sufficiently  marks  it  off  from  them  all  except  the 
last,  which  is  much  smaller. 

St.  tiara,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.l6). 

St.  mediocre,  ellipticum,  paullo  longius  quam  latum,  medio 
sinu  aperto  cuneato  constrictum,  isthmo  lato.  Semicellulae  sub- 
cuneatae,  tiaraformes,  dorso  altissime  convexae  et  verrucosae, 
apices  versus  fere  acuminatae;  angulis  lateralibus  acuto-rotun- 
datis  granulis  in  seriebus  3-4  transversalibus  ornatis.  Semi- 
cellulae a  vertice  quadratae;  lateribus  aequalibus,  levissime 
concavis,  angulis  acutis. 

Long.  60;  lat.  54/z. 

Ewenmar  Station,  near  Trangie. 

Compare  St.  Pringlei  Wolle,  T.50,  f.25,  and  St.  validum  West, 
Desm.  N.  Amer.  1896,  T.16,f.36. 

St.  cruciforme,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.l7). 

St.  magnum,  oblongum,  tam  longura  quam  latum,  medio  sinu 
brevi  acutangulo  constrictum,  isthmo  angustissimo.  Semicellulae 
subcuneatae,  lateribus  supra  basin  paullo  inflatis,  dorso  truncatae 
verrucis  truncatis  emarginatis  4  instructae;  angulis  superioribus 
in  processus  binos,  unum  horizontaliter,  alterum  radiatim,  pro- 
ductis;  processibus  5-denticulatis  3-4-fidis.  Semicellulae  apud 
angulum  sub  processu  inferiore  granulis  singulis  et  verrucis 
emarginatis  singulis  instructae;  a  vertice  triangulares,  lateribus 
rectis  intra  quemque  marginem  serie  verrucis  lunatis  4  et  granulis 
binis  apud  angulos  ornatae;  angulis  in  processus  binos  protractis. 

Long.c  proc.  90;  long.s.proc.  60;  lat. c.proc.  90-102;  lat.s.proc. 
54/i. 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIR.  liSo 

Collector. 

The  only  species  really  resembling  this  is  St.  Rosei  mihi;  but 
compare  also  St.  gracile  Ralfs,  ^  curtum  Nord.,  C.  Braz,  T.  14,  f.53, 
which  has  no  superior  processes;  and  St.  hihrachiatuin  Rein.  vai-. 
cymatium  West,  Alg.  Madag.  T.8,  f.28,  which  is  only  biradiate. 

St.  cuniculosum,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.l8). 

St.  mediocre,  ellipticum,  latius  (cum  processibus)  quam  longum, 
medio  sinu  acutangulo  levissimeconstrictum.  Semicellulae  cam- 
panulatae,  basi  angustissimo,  lateribus  usque  ad  medium  semi- 
cellulae verticalibus,  parte  superiore  semicellulae  utrinque  in 
processum  producto,  dorso  late-rotundato  leviter  verrucoso  (vel 
denticulato),  processibus  assurgentibus.  Semicellulae  lateribus 
glabris,  margine  processuum  inferiore  glabro,  superiore  autem 
denticulato;  a  vertice  triangulares,  lateribus  glabris  valde  con- 
cavis,  in  era  quemque  marginem  serie  unica  denticulationum, 
apicibus  3-4-fidis. 

Lonjif.  48;  lat.  c.  proc.  ^bfx. 

Botany. 

Somewhat  like  .S'^.  cytocerum  Breb.,  in  Ralfs,  T,22,  f.lO,  in 
which,  however,  the  rays  are  twisted;  and  also  like  St.  cerastes 
Lund,  Desm.  Suec.  p.69,  T.4,  f.6,  but  not  nearly  so  verrucose. 
In  end  view  the  sides  are  quite  smooth,  and  there  are  only  den- 
ticulations  down  the  processes.  The  apices  of  the  piocesses  also 
have  the  usual  3-4  teeth.  I  have  seen  no  four-rayed  form.  This 
is  not  the  same  as  St.  approximatum  West,  Fr.  Alg.  Ceylon,  T.22, 
f.5,  a  more  slender  form  which  also  occurs  here. 

St.  sexangulare  (Bulnh.)  Lund,  Desm.  Suec.  p.Tl,  T.4,  f.9. 

Forma  5-radiata.  Marginibus  radiorum  inferiorum  3-4  denti- 
culatis.  Omnia  specimina  a  me  visa  immatura  fuerunt  radiis 
superioribus  nondum  formatis. 

Long.  s.  rad.  34,  36,40,  51,  60;  lat.  c  rad.  72,80,  81,96, 100/x. 

Collector;   Botany. 

Forma  5-radiata  immatura,  n.f.      (Tab. v.  f.  II). 

{St.  stellinum  Turn.,  Alg.  E.  Ind.  p.  11 9,  T.15,  f.6). 


186       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS    KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Forma  a  vertice  visa  5-angulata,  angulis  in  radios  longos  rectos 
attenuatos  singulos  productis;  apicibus  radiorum  2-3  aculeis, 
magnis  conspicuis  munitis ;  radiorum  parte  interiore  glabra 
exteriore  obscure  3-denticulata.  Membrana  tenue  apicibus 
radiorum  vulgo  exceptis. 

Lat.  c.  rad.  7b-\'20fx. 

Collector. 

Forma  6-radiata  Lund.,  I.e. 

Marginibus  omnium  radiorum  3-4  denticulatis. 

Long.  c.  rad.  63,  67,  — ,  72,  — ,  — ,  — ;  long.  s.  rad.  48,  50,52,60, 
— ,  — ,  — ;  lat.  c.  rad.  9  3,  94,  93, 105,  102, 108,  123,.. 

Collector,  Botany,  Centennial  Park. 
Forma  7-radiata  Lund.,  I.e. 

Unam  tantum  cellulam  vidi;  rara. 

Lat.  c.  rad    102yn. 

Collector. 

Forma  6-radiata,  parte  interiore  glabra  processuum  puncta- 
graniilis  in  series  trans versalibus  binis  dispositis  ornata. 

Long.  s.  rad.  52;  lat.  c.  rad.  93/m. 

Forma  marginibus  processuum  superiorum  perfecte  glabris. 

Curiously  enougli,  none  of  the  specimens  answered  to  /3  p7'o- 
ducium  Nord.,  Alg.  N.Z.  p.35,  T.4,  f.l,  q.v.;  for  although  a  few 
of  the  5-rayed  forms  did  show  a  truncate  produced  apex,  and 
were  about  the  size  required,  yet  being  immature  (the  upper  rays 
only  just  started)  it  would  not  have  been  safe  to  have  referred 
them  to  that  variety  when  all  the  rest  belonged  undoubtedly  to 
the  typical  form.  The  immature  5-rayed  form  here  figured  was 
found  as  complementary  semicell  to  a  more  mature  semicell 
showing  both  upper  and  lower  lays.  I  have  never  seen  the 
corresponding  6-rayed  form. 

St.  S0NTHA.LIANDM  Turn.,  Alg.  E.  Ind.  p.l24,  T.14,  f.27. 
(T.v.  f.2). 
Long.  40;  lat.  55-56/li. 
Botany;  Rose's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

Almost  exactly  corresponding  in  shape  and  size  with  Turner's 
figure:  cf.  also  I.e.  T.16,  f.36.      The  ends  of  the  processes  in  Aus- 


BY  G.   I.    PLAYFAIR.  187 

traliaii  specimens  are  suddenly  turned   inwards  a  little,  and   the 
sinus  (if  sinus  it  can  truly  be  called)  is  rounded  within. 

8t.  excavatum  West,  Alg.  Madag.  p. 7 8,  T.8,  f.42.     (T.v.  f.3). 

Long.  19;  lat.  45/Lt. 
Centennial  Park. 

St.  coralloideum,  n.sp.     (T.v.  f.4). 

St.  mediocre,  paullo  latius  quam  longum,  ad  latera  profunde  et 
late  excav^ata,  medio  sinu  brevissimo  acuto  constrictum,  isthmo 
angustissimo.  Semicellulae  supra  basin  leviter  tumidae,  dorso 
leviter  convexae,  parte  superiore  in  processus  rectos,  longos,  validos 
productae;  processibus  utrinque,  verrucis  (vel  spinis  coralloideis) 
in  seriebus  transversalibus  5  ordinatis,  asperrimis;  apicibus  4-fidis 
spinis  coralloideis.  Inflatione  basali  seriebus  transversalibus 
binis  granulorum  ornata.  A  vertice  semicellulae  triangulares, 
angulis  protractis  4-tidis,  lateribus  concavis  -verrucis  vel  spinis 
circa  16  asperrimis,  intra  niMrgines  verrucis  in  seriebus  singulis 
ordinntis. 

Long.  42-48;  lat.  50-68/x. 

Botany,  Centennial  Park,  Mosman. 

This  species  belongs  to  that  group  of  rayed  Staurastra  which 
have  spines  or  verrucae  along  the  sides  in  end  view.  It  includes 
St.  vesfAtum  Ralfs  (?);  St.  aculeatumCKhw),  see  Ralfs,  T.23,  f.1-2; 
St.  S'ihaldl  Rein.,  Mittelfr.,  T.l,  f.ll;  St.  pseudosebaldi  Wille, 
Norges  Desm.  T.2,  f.30;  St.  concinjiimi  West,  Desm.  U.  S.  1898, 
T.18,  f.7;  and  *S'^.  Manfeldtii  Delp.,  Subalp.  T.13,  f.8-10,  the  last 
being  the  nearest.  Cf.  ?dso  St.  Heimerlianum  var.  spinidosum 
Lutk.,  Desm.  Oberoster.  'J\2,  f.l7. 

St.  volans  West  /3  elegans,  n.var.     (T.v.  f.5). 

]Ma.jor  quam  forma  typica,  basi  inierdum  globoso  (sursuni 
inflata)  serie  unica  minutoruni  granulorum  ornato:  a|>icibus 
iiiterdum  truncatis;  processibus  8-1 1  undulatis  2--l-fidis;  dentibus 
vulgo  minoribus.      A  vertice  visa  et  cetera  ut  in  forma  typica. 

Long.  s.  proc.  24-27;  lat.  c.  proc.  52-67/x. 


188       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  POUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Auburn,  Sydney  Botanical  Gardens,  Mosman. 
A  triradiate  form  is  believed  to  have  been  noticed.     Cf.  West, 
Alj^.  Madag.  p.79,  T  9,  f.lO-ll. 

St.  Rosei,  n.sp.     (T.v.  f.6). 

St.  mediocre,  medio  vix  constrictum.  Semicellulae  ohlongae, 
dimidio  latiores  (sine  proc.)  quam  longae,  dorso  levissirae  concavae 
fere  planae;  lateribus  e  basi  baud  diveigentibus,  angulis  superi- 
oribus  fissis  et  in  processus  binos,  inferiores  horizontales,  superi- 
ores  fere  verticales  productis;  processibus  longis  (diametro  semi- 
cellulae aequa  libus)  gracilibus,  glabris,  denticulationibus  medianis 
magnis  singulis  (utroque  latere)  ornatis;  apicibus  bi-aculeatis.  A 
vertice  visae  triangulares,  angulis  in  processus  longos  glabros 
(denticulationibus  nuUis)  singulos  protractis,  apicibus  bi-aculeatis, 
apud  quemque  angulum  proce.^su  altero.     Membrana  laevi. 

Long.  c.  proc.  50;  lat.  c.  proc  62;  long.  s.  proc.  20;  lat.  s.  proc. 
15^. 

Rose's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

It  is  curious  that  the  denticulation  on  the  side  of  the  processes 
should  be  visible  in  front  view  only;  in  end  view  the  processes 
are  quite  smooth.  The  nearest  species  to  this  seems  to  be  St. 
cruciforme  mihi,  T.iv.  f.l7.  Cf.  also  St.  hihracMaUnn  Reinsch, 
var.  cyathiforme  West,  Alg.  Madag.  T.8,  f.28a.  That,  hovyever, 
is  only  a  biradiate  form. 

St.  moniliferum,  n.sp.     (T.v.  f.7). 

St.  parvum,  paullo  longius  quam  latum,  medio  sinu  minuto  vix 
constrictum.  Semicellulae  ohlongae,  parte  inferiore  glabro; 
lateribus  e  basi  verticalibus,  rectis;  sursum  dilatatae,  ellipticae, 
dorso  late  rotundatae ;  angulis  lateralibus  obtuse-rotundatis 
seriebus  4  transversal ibus  granulorum  ornatis,  sine  aculeis  vel 
granulis  apicalibus,  supra  isthmum  series  granulorum  unica.  A 
vertice  semicellulae  triangulares,  lateribus  leviter  concavis, 
angulis  obtusis,  seriebus  4J  transversalihus  granulorum  ornatis. 

Long.  34-36;  lat.  27-29;  lat.  has.  11/x. 

Botany. 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIR.  189 

This  is  not  a  variety  of  St.  dllatatum,  for  in  that  species,  if  the 
underside  of  the  semicell  be  focussed,  13  vertical  rows  of  granules 
can  always  be  counted;  the  form  above  has  only  nine.  Nor  can 
it  be  a  form  of  St.  fricorne^  which  has  four  granules  close  together 
in  a  square  at  the  extreme  end  of  the  lateral  angle  and  which 
appear  plainly  as  minute  teeth  in  front  and  end  views.  Including 
the  apical  four,  that  also  has  13  vertical  series.  In  the  mature 
form  of  any  species  the  little  details  of  ornamentation  (such  as 
number  and  arrangement  of  granules,  verrucae,  etc.)  are  remark- 
ably constant  and  afford  the  best  clue  to  identification  in  some 
eases.     See  note  to  St.  campanulatum,,  below. 

St.  campanulatum,  n  sp.     (T.v.  f.8).  > 

St.  minutum,  tarn  longum  quara  latum,  medio  sinu  minimo 
constrictum.  Semicellulae  campanulatae,  supra  basin  levissime 
inflatae;  lateribus  pauUo  sinuatis;  dorso  piano;  angulis  superi- 
oribus  in  processus  singulos  horizon taliter  productis,  processibus 
brevibus  apicibus  rotundatis  interdum  denticulis  binis  minutis 
praeilitis.  A  vertice  visae  triangulares  lateribus  concavis,  angulis 
subacutis,  apicibus  rotundatis,  granulis  minimis  in  seriebus  trans- 
versalibus  6  ornatis. 

Long.  =  la t.  27-32/x. 

Rose's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

This  form  is  to  be  classed  with  St.  striolatum  Nag.,  Einz.  Alg. 
T.8,  f.A3;  and  St.  dilatattim  Ehr.  var.  i7isigne  Kac,  Desm.  Ciast. 
T.2,  f.  13,  both  of  which  are  also  known  here. 

St.  patens  Turn.,  Alg.  E.  Ind.  p.l08,  T  14,  f.21,  forma  australica, 
n.f.     (T.v.  f.9). 

Forma  minor,  a  fronte  visa  ut  a  Turner  I.e.  delineate,  aculeis 
autem  plerumque  ternis.  A  vertice  visa  triangularis,  lateribus 
levissime  concavis  fere  rectis,  angulo  quoque  repente  constricto  et 
in  tubulum  brevem,  truncatum  triaculeatum  producto;  area 
central!  granulis  geminatis  in  seriebus  3  concentrice  ordinatis  et 
angulos  versus  granulis  binis  ornata.  Semicellulae  interdum 
alternantes. 


190       SOME  NEW  OR  LKSS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Long.  30-5+;  lat.  40-60^. 

Rose's  Lagoon,  Collector;  Botany;  Mosman. 

All  specimens  seen  had  the  angles  constricted  and  drawn  out 
into  a  short  tube.  The  biaculeate  form  with  inflated  angles  in 
end  view  is  probably  immature.  The  granules  in  end  ^iew  are 
roughly  indicated  in  Turner's  figure;  they  mark  the  corners  of 
the  truncate  end,  and  the  inflated  portion  of  the  processes. 

St.  TRIDENTULUM,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.20). 

St.  parvum,  pauUo  latius  quam  longum,  medio  sinu  acutangulo 
constrictum,  isthmo  angustissimo.  Semicellulae  subcuneatae, 
supra  basin  leviter  inflatae,  dorso  planae,  angulis  superioribus 
aculeis  geminatis  et  supra  spinis  longioribus  singulis  radiatini, 
instructis.  A  vertice  visae  triangulares,  lateribus  levissime  con- 
cavis.  angulis  acutis  in  aculeos  singulos  productos.  Membrana 
glabra.  Endochroma  laminis  geminatis  3  radiantibus  disposita. 
Nuclei  amylacei  singuli. 

Long.  24;  lat.  30/li. 

Botany. 

(Jf.  -S'^.  Liheltii  Rac,  Desm.  Nowe,  p. 28-29,  T.3,  f.l2;  St.  avicula 
Breb.,  in  Ralfs,  T.23,  f.  11;  and  St.  suhcruciatum  C.  tk  W.,  in 
Cooke,  T.51,  f.3. 

St.  aggeratum,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.21). 

St.  parvum,  suboctagonum,  paullo  latius  quam  longum,  medio 
sinu  angustissimo  (vel  lineari  *?)  profunde  constrictum,  isthmo 
angustissimo.  Semicellulae  subhexagonae,  supra  basin  leviter 
tumidae;  dorso  altissime  convexae;  apicibus  truncatis;  lateribus 
sursum  fere  rectis  denticulationibus  ternis  ornatis;  angulis  later- 
alibus  denticulis  brevibus  singulis  munitis,  denticulis  parallelis 
(interdum  convergentibus).  A  vertice  visae  triangulares,  lateribus 
leviter  concavis,  anyulis  inflatis  acutis  in  deuticulos  singulos  pro- 
ductis  et  granulis  obscuris  in  seriebus  transversalibus  2-3  ornatis. 
In  area  centrali  granulis  6  concentrice  dispositis.  Membrana 
glabra. 

Long.  28;  lat.  30/^i. 

Botany. 


BV  G.    1.    I'LAYKAlli.  191 

Compare  St.  furcatum  Breb.  var.  aculeatum  Sclim.,  Hedw.  34, 
1895,  f.l9;  St.  ReinscUi  Roy,  in  Cooke,  T.51,  f.4;  St.  Jorjicida- 
tum  Lund.,  Desm.  Suec.  T.4,  f.5;  and  St.  podlachicum  Eich.  k 
Gutw.,  Alg.  Nov.  T.2,  f.49. 

St.  Botanense,  n.sp.     (T.iv.  f.  19). 

St.  parvum,  tarn  longum  quam  latum,  medio  sinu  acutangulo 
profunde  constrictum.  Semicellulae  subcuneatae  vel  crateri- 
formes,  dorso  planae,  ventre  inflato  fere  semicirculare,  angulis 
superioribus  tissis  et  in  aculeos  binos,  inferiores  horizontales, 
superiores  divergentes,  protractis.  A  vertice  visae  triangulares, 
lateribus  perfecte  rectis,  angulis  acutissimis  aculeis  brevibus 
singulis  praeditis.      Membrana  glabra. 

Long.  =  lat.  30;i. 

Botany.  > 

The  most  closely  related  form  is  St.  tridentulum  mihij  see  note 

above. 

St.  Auburnense,  n.sp.     (T.v.  f.lO). 

St.  minutum,  paullo  latius  quam  longum,  medio  sinu  amplo 
profunde  constrictum.  Semicellulae  subcuneatae  vel  crateri- 
formes,  dorso  levissime  convexae  fere  planae,  ventre  alte  convexae; 
lateribus  aegre  curvatis  fere  rectis  ;  angulis  superioribus  in 
tubulos  singulos  radiatim  productis,  tubulis  minimis,  brevissimis. 
A  vertice  visae  triangulares,  lateribus  medio  retusis  interdum 
distincte  denticulato-asperis,  angulis  levissime  inflatis  et  in 
tubulos  singulos  productis  granulis  minutissimis  in  seriebus 
tiansversalibus  4  ornatis. 

Long.  18-20;  lat.  23-24/x. 

Auburn;  Rose's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

Forma  minor,  n.f. 

Exacte  ut  in  forma  typica  sed  minor.     An  granuli  nuUi '? 

Long.  12;  lat.  16ju. 

Botany. 

Of  similar  shape  is  St.  liexacerum  Wittv-  var.  aversum  West, 
Desm.  U.  S.  1898,  T.18,  f.l3,  but  that  is  granulate  irregularly. 
Compare  also  St.  tunguscamcm  Boldt.,  Siber.  Chlor.  T.5,  f  22,  and 


192       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

St.  apiculatu7n  Breb.,  in  Cooke,  T.49,  f.2,  which  have  spines 
instead  of  processes;  the  latter  also  lacks  the  lines  of  minute 
puncta-granules. 

St.  assurgens  Nord.,  Alg.  N.  Z.  p.37,  T.4,  f.8. 

Long.  44,  50,  50,  52;  lat  84,  87,  92,  80;  crass.  20,  — ,  16,  21^. 

Botany,  Centennial  Park. 

Formae  immaturae.     (T.v.  f.31).     (See  note  below). 

Long.  36,  40,  42,  42,  42;  lat.  50,  50,  50,  52,  70;  crass.  18,  — ,  — , 
15,-;.. 

Botany,  Centennial  Park. 

All  the  Australian  specimens  noted  differ  a  little  from  Nord- 
stedt's  figure,  I.e.,  in  the  spines  at  the  apex  of  the  rays,  which, 
together  with  the  central  swelling  in  end  view,  are,  as  he  says, 
characteristic  of  the  species,  even  in  its  young  forms.  The  spines 
are  not  sharp-pointed,  but  blunt  and  rounded  at  the  tip;  the 
lower  (for  there  are  only  two  prominent)  always  continues  the 
lower  edge  of  the  ray,  while  the  upper  widely  diverges  upwards 
and  outwards.  The  upper  edge  of  the  ray  is  just  a  little  retuse 
behind  the  spines,  giving  a  recurved  appearance  to  the  end.  If 
the  cell  be  tilted  a  little,  eight  verrucae  come  into  view,  some- 
times tipped  with  long  spines.  A  curved  row  of  five  granules 
may  be  seen  in  front  view  running  round  the  base  of  the  central 
tumour  and  some  way  down  each  ray.  Neither  these  nor  the 
verrucae  are  conspicuous  in  the  youngest  forms.  In  end  view  a 
minute  spine  can  be  seen  at  the  base  of  the  terminal  spine,  on 
each  side;  in  front  they  are  only  visible  as  granules.  The  youngest 
forms  are  sometimes  very  convex  on  the  back,  more  so  than  in 
the  figure,  the  rugae  smoothed  down,  and  the  basal  portion  of 
the  semicells  more  or  less  globose. 

I  consider  St.  indentatum  West,  Fr.  Alg.  Ceylon,  T.22,  f.  10-12, 
to  be  an  immature  form  of  assurgeiis.  He  gives  size  34-39  x  52-76, 
crass.  17/x,  which  tallies  exactly  with  the  size  of  our  immature 
forms  given  above.  The  same  applies  to  St.  hicorne  Haupt.,  in 
Rac,  Desm.  Ciast.  (from  the  Centennial  Park)  T.2,  f.8;  size 
42  X  72/x. 


HY  G.  I.   PLAYPAIR.  193 

Genus  Cosmarium  Corda. 
Cos.  cveLOPBUM,  n.sp.     (T.v.  f.l2). 

Cos.  parvura,  subcirculare,  paullo  longius  quam  latum,  medio 
sinu  linear!  profunda  constrictum.  Semicellulae  subpentagonae, 
lateribus  e  basi  lato,  divergentil)us,  dorso  alte  convexae  regulariter 
arcuatae,  angulis  lateralibus  obtusis,  apud  apices  intra  marginem 
granulis  singulis  vix  visibilibus  praeditae.  A  vertice  lato-ellip- 
ticae,  in  medio  granulis  geminatis  ornatae,  apicibus  obtuse- 
rotundatis.     Membrana  punctata. 

Long.  30-36;  lat.  27-32;  crass.  18/x. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

The  nearest  form  is  Oos.  pseudoprotiiherans  Kirclin.,  in  Wille, 
Norges  T.  1,  f.  18,  which  has  no  apical  granule.  Cf.  also  Cos. 
Elfingii  (3  Rac,  Desm.  Nowe,  T.l,  f.  14,  and  Cos.  higemma  Rac, 
I.e.  T.l,  f.lO. 

Cos.   INCRASSATUM,   n.sp.       (T.V.  f.l5). 

Cos.  mediocre,  suboblongum,  paullo  longius  quam  latum,  medio 
sinu  cuneato  profunde  constrictum.  Semicellulae  regulariter 
latissime-ellipticae,  lateribus  late-rotundatis,  dorso  rotundatae 
paullulo  deplauatae,  in  medio  area  incrassata  ornatae.  A  vertice 
visae  ut  a  fronte,  lateribus  in  medio  area  incrassata  luteola 
utrinque  praeditis.      A  latere  circulares.      Membrana  glabra. 

Long.  42-50;  lat.  36-42;  crass.  21-25/x. 

Botany,  Centennial  Park. 

Like  a  large  edition  of  Cos.  ellipsoideum  Elfv.  (see  Rac,  Desm. 
Polon.  T.IO,  f.9).  Cf.  also  Cos.  {phaseoJus  Breb. -y)  aehondrum 
Boldt.,  Sibir.  Chlor.,  T.5,  f.7. 

Cos.  QUADRIGEMME,   n.Sp.       (T.V.   f.l3). 

Cos.  parvum,  subquadratum,  tam  longum  quam  latum,  medio 
sinu  lineari  profunde  constrictum.  Semicellulae  subreniformes; 
basi  lato,  piano;  dorso  deplanato-rotundato;  angulis  inferioribus 
fere  rectis;  lateribus  interdum  paullo  divergentibus,  angulis 
superioribus  late-rotundatis,  ad  apices  intra  marginem  g»anulis  4 
(medianis  validioribus,  exterioribus  minoribus  et  obscuris)  in 
15 


194       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALfilS, 

serie  horizontali  paullulo  arcuato  ordiiiabis,  ornatae.  A  vertice 
visae  ellipticae  graiiulis  gemiiiatis  ubriiique  instrucbae.  Mem- 
brana  minube  puncbaba. 

Long.  22-24;  lab.  22-25;  crass.  12-15/.. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collecbor. 

GtC OS. pseudofaxicliondrum  Nord.  var.  Africcnu(m^e^t,Jo\x\\\. 
Bob.  XXXV.,  T.367,  f.l4;  and  C.  heterochondrum  Nord.,  De  Alg. 
Babav.  T.l,  f.3. 

Cos.  viCENiSTRiATUM,  n.sp.      (T.v.  f.l6). 

Cos.  parvum,  subquadrabum,  circa  bam  longum  quam  labum, 
medio  sinu  lineari  profunde  consbricbum.  Semicellulae  subreni- 
formes,  basi  labo,  piano;  dorso  bruncabae,  angulis  inferioribus 
obtusis;  laberibus  labe  robundabis;  angulis  superioribus  obbusis; 
granulis  circa  20  in  seriebus  radianbibus  uljique  brans  marginem 
ordinabis  ornabae;  granulis  2-3  inbra  marginem;  supra  isbhmum 
leviter  inflabae.  A  verbice  visae  ellipbicae,  in  medio  ubrinque 
inflabae,  apicibus  labe  robundabis.      Nuclei  amylacei  singuli. 

Long.  21-27:  lab.  18-27;  crass.  15;^.. 

Rose's  Lagoon,  Collecbor;  Bobany. 

Young  forms  have  blie  sides  of  bhe  semicells  converging  bo  bhe 
broad  bruncabe  apex,  nob  broadly  rounded,  and  fewer  lines  of 
granules  across  the  mai-gin.  Cf.  G.  striatum  and  C.  jenisejense 
Boldb.,  Sibil-.  Chlor.  T.5,  f.9  and  13;  also  C.  polonicum  Rac.  var. 
alpinum  Schm.,  Alp.  Alg.  T.  15,  f.21. 

Cos.   FLUVIATILB,   n.sp.       (T.V.   f.  18). 

Cos.  parvum,  subov^ale,  paullo  longius  quam  labuni,  medio  sinu 
lineari  exbremo  ampliabo  profunde  consbricbum.  Semicellulae 
subreniformes  a  basi  labo  ad  apicem  abbenuabae;  angulis  inferi- 
oribus obbusis;  laberibus  leviber  convexis  convergenbibus  sub 
apicem  paullo  rebusis;  apicibus  angusbis,  bruncabis;  granulis 
obscuris  in  seriebus  3  brans  margines  laberales  ordinabis,  granulis 
inbra  marginem  2;  supra  isbhmum  granulis  validioribus  geminatis 
ornabae.  A  verbice  visae  ellipbicae  ubrinque  in  medio  granulis 
geminabis  praedibae;  apicibus  obbusis,  granulis  in  seriebus  3-4 
bransversalibus  ornabis.     Membrana  subbilissirae  puncbaba. 


BY  G.  I.   PLAYFAIR.  195 

Long.  33;  lat.  27/^. 

Auburn. 

A  few  somewhat  similar  are  Cos.  hivertex  Rac,  Desm.  Nowe, 
T.  1,  f.20;  Cos.  isthmocliondrum  var.  hrasiliense  Borge,  Desm. 
Regnell.  T.2,  f.21;  G.  limnopldlum  Schm.,  Alp.  Alg.  T.15,  f.20. 
The  nearest  approach  is  C.  Pilgeri  Schm.,  Aus.  Braz.  T.4,  £.13. 
which  curiously  enough  is  exactly  the  same  size.  It  has,  how- 
ever, five  strongly  marked  granules  on  each  side;  and  Schmidle 
expressly  says  "  seen  from  above  elliptical  and  not  tumid."  The 
above  has  three  rows  of  almost  invisible  minute  granules  across 
the  edges,  just  sutticient  to  cause  three  slight  denticulations  on 
the  margin.      'J'he  two  large  granules  are  conspicuous  in  end  view. 

Cos.  JKNISE.TENSE  Boldt.  /ij  AUSTRALE,  n.var.      (T.v.  f.l4). 

Forma  dorso  depressa  fere  plana;  angulis  inferioribus  obtusis 
fere  rectis;  lateribus  verticalibus  leniter  convexis;  angulis  superi- 
oribus  late  rotundatis;  puncta-granulis  in  series  et  verticales 
circ.  10  (granulis  circ  7)  et  oblique  trans versales  ordinatis,  ornata; 
in  centro  tumore  humili  granulis  9  majoribus  in  series  3  verticales 
ordinatis,  instructa.  A  vertice  visa  elliptica  utrinque  in  medio 
tumore  parvo  3-granulato  praedita,  apicibus  late  rotundatis. 

Long.  35;  lat.  26-29;  crass.  18/x 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

Cf.  Boldt.,  Siber   Chlor.  T.5,  f.l3. 

Cos.  ORTHOPUNCTULATUM  Schui.,  Alp.  Alg.  T.15,  f.l5. 
(T.v.  f.27-28). 
Forma  semicellulis  a  f route  visis  perfecte  ellipticis. 
Long.  30-34;  lat.  34;  crass.  15-17:  zygo.  s.  ac.  15;  c.  ac.  30/a. 
Coogee. 

Cos.  MuRRAYi,  n.sp.     (T.v.  f..l9). 

Cos.  parvum,  suboblongum,  clepsydraforme,  paullo  longius 
quam  latum,  medio  sinu  breve  lineato  constrictum.  Semicellulae 
subpyriformes,  ad  apices  versus  inflatae;  dorso  lato  truncato 
paullulo  producto;  lateribus  e  basi  angusto  divergentibus,  sursum 
convexis.  A  vertice  visae  regulariter  ovales,  apicibus  late 
rotundatis.      Membrana  achroa  glabra. 


196       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  POUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Long.  27;  lat.  23;  crass,  lifx. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

Cf.  Cos.  pyrlforme  Nord.,  Cent.  Braz.,  frontispiece,  which  in 
general  outline  it  very  niuch  resembles.  That  species  is,  however, 
very  much  larger,  long.  =  63/i. 

Cos.   COLLECTORENSE,  n.sp.       (T.V.   f.  17). 

Cos.  parvum,  oblongum,  dimidio  longius  quam  latum,  medio 
sinu  linoari  extremo  aiiipliato  piofunde  constrictum.  Semi- 
cellulae  perfecte  quadratae;  angulis  acute-rotundatis;  lateribus 
3-crenatis;  dorso  truncatae.  A  vertice  ellipticae  utrinque  in 
medio  inflatione  parva  instructae,  apicibus  rotundatis.  A  latere 
ovatae,  basi  angusto,  apice  rotundato,  lateribus  fere  rectis  e  basi 
divergentibus.     Membrana  glabra. 

Long.  32;  lat.  22;  crass.  Ibfi. 

Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

The  nearest  is  Cos.  tetragonum  Niig.,  Einz.  Alg.  T.7,  f.A5, 
especially  f.  polonica  Eich.  ife  Gutw.,  Alg.  Nov.  T.5,  f.28. 

Cos.   LATEREPROTR ACTUM,   n.sp.       (T.V.   f.23). 

Cos.  minimum,  subquadratum,  paullo  latius  quam  longum, 
medio  sinu  lineari  extremo  ampliato  profunde  constrictum. 
Semicellulae  late  subreniformes,  depressatae,  supra  basin  inilatae, 
ad  apices  attenuatae;  dorso  lato  truncato.  A  vertice  visae 
angustae,  elongato-ellipticae;  lateribus  fere  parallelis:  apicibus 
subacute-rotundatis.      Membrana  glabra. 

Long.  14;  lat.  20;  crass  6/^. 

Rose's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

The  only  one  at  all  like  the  above  is  Cos.  subdejyressum  West, 
N.  Amer.  T.15,  f.l5,  which  is  reniform  and  minutely  granular. 

Cos.  QUADRIFARIUM   Lund.  fomia  HEXASTICHA  (Lund.)  Nord.,  in 
Alg.  N.  Z.  p.49. 
Forma  major  Nord.,  I.e. 
Long.  57-62;  lat.  41-46;^. 

Forma  rosacea,  n.f. 
Forma  paullo  major,  margine  verrucis  emarginatis  24  instructo; 
tumore  majore  verrucis  28  (14+  10  +  4)  ornata. 


BY  G.  I.  PLAYFAIR.  197 

Long.  74;  lat.  57/u. 
Botany. 

Forma  octasticha  Nord.,  I.e. 
Long.  56;  lat.  iSfx. 
Coogee. 

Cos.  PSEUDOPACHYDERMUM  Nord.,  Alg.  N.  Z.  p.53,  T,5,  f,20. 
(T.v.  f.21). 

Long.  110-116;  lat.  72;x. 
Murray's  Lagoon,  Collector. 

Formae  immaturae.      (T.v.  f,22). 

(=^Cos.  ad  ohsoletiim  accedens,  Nord.,  I.e.  i.'221). 

Long  75,  78,  80,  84,  90,  90,  90,  102;  lat.  66,  ^^^,  ^^,  72,  62,  66 
Qd>,  72/M. 

Nuclei  amylacei  bini. 

Collector;  Auburn. 

None  of  the  immature  forms  observed  showed  any  signs  of 
teeth  at  the  basal  angles.  On  the  other  hand  most,  if  not  all, 
had  a  strongly  incrassate  yellow  membrane  with  the  characteristic 
incrassate  ])apilla  within  the  apex.  One  at  least  was  noticed 
with  the  angular  outline  on  the  back,  familiar  in  G.  ohsoletiim 
and  C.  perforatum.  The  end  view  of  these  forms,  however,  is 
not  a  sharp-pointed  ellipse,  but  oblong  with  broadly  rounded 
ends.  I  think  it  highly  probable  that  the  two  doubtful  forms  of 
Cos.  pyramidatiom,  in  Borge,  Desm.  Braz.  p. 94,  T.3,  f.8-9  ,  are 
really  Cos.  pseudopachydermum  and  one  of  the  above  immature 
forms. 

Cos.  VENUSTUM  Breb.  /3  induratam  Nord.,  Alg.N  Z.  p.57,  T.3,  f.l3. 

(T.v.  f.24). 
Long.  30,  31,32,  33;  lat.  21,  19,22,21;  crass.  11,  — ,  — ,  11^. 
Collector. 

Forma  incognita:  forma  immatura  No.l.     (T.v.  f.25). 
Long.  18;  lat.  V^^x.      Nuclei  amylacei  singiili. 
Collector. 


198       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Forma  trilohata  :  Forma  immatura  No.2.      (T.v.  f.26). 

Nonne  Cos.  trilohulatam,  Reinsch  (1). 

Long.  27,  24,27;  lat.  16,  17,  18;  crass.—,  9,  —  ;ti. 

Collector. 

Forma  incognita  is  certainly  a  3'oung  form  of  f.  trilobata,  as  a 
semicell  of  each  was  found  forming  one  frond.  Also  an  inter- 
mediate form  was  noted  between  f.  trilobata  and  C.  indiiratuni 
t3'^picuin.  Nordstedt's  fig.  of  C.  irilohiilatum  l3  hasichondnim 
looks,  it  seems  to  me,  a  good  deal  more  like  this  species  than 
that  of  Reinsch.  Cf.  Nordstedt,  I.e.  T.6,  f.  1 1;  and  Reinsch,  Spec. 
Gen.  T.3,  f.A2.  May  not  f.  trilobata  be  the  same  as  Cos.  frilo- 
hulafum  Reinsch  (?).  Lundell  says,  in  Desm.  Suec.  p.  42, 
**Membrana  in  centro  semicellulae  paullura  incrassata";  and  the 
size  is  about  the  same. 

Cos.  suBSPECiosuM  Nord.,  Desm.  Arctoae  T.6,  f.l3. 

Long.  48;  lat.  34;  crass,  22/li. 

Coogee;  rarissime. 

The  few  specimens  seen  were,  as  to  shape  and  size,  exactly  like 
the  type,  save  that  there  were  incrassate  ridges  connecting  the 
granules  of  the  tumour.  In  one  with  eiidochrome  the  pyrenoid 
was  single,  I  fancied,  but  it  was  somewhat  doubtful. 

Cos.  SUBSPECIOSUM  ^  VALiDius  Nord.,  Fr.  Alg.  N.  Z.  T.5,  f.  10. 

Long  60,  62,  63,  70,  72,  72,  75,  76,  85;  lat.  53,  49,  48,  48,  50,  55, 
50,  59,  56;  crass.  — ,  — ,  — ,  — ,  26,  — ,  — ,  — ,  — ju. 

Collector,  Moura,  Centennial  Park,  Coogee. 

Nuclei  amylacei  certissime  bini. 

In  no  specimen  have  I  ever  seen  nine  vertical  rows  of  basal 
granules  as  in  Nordstedt's  fig.,  I.e.  The  most  that  could  be  seen 
were  five-six.  These  did  not  till  up  the  breadth  of  the  isthmus, 
however,  and  in  the  largest  single  semicells,  when  tilted,  I  was 
just  able  to  discern  nine  granules  across  the  isthmus,  but  nothing 
more. 

Forma  fontensis,  n.f.      (T.v.  f.29). 

Forma  pauUo  minor  quam  forma  typica;  tumore  basali  granulis 
in  series  distinctas,   verticales   5  et   horizontales  5-6  dispositis, 


BY  G.    I.   PLAYFAIR.  199 

orriato.  Grariulis  tumoris  plus  minus  qua(]ratis,  hasa]i})us  validi- 
oribus  Ob  ernai-<,Miiatis.      Nucl(ii  aniylacei  cortissinu;  bini. 

Lon.L?.  oG,  GO,  G3,  04,  G4;  lat.  45,  50,  50,  48,  50;  crass.  —,_,_, 
34,  30;x. 

Fountain  in  tlio  Sydney  Botanical  Gatdcns. 

This  form  bears  tlie  same  relation  to  ji  validhis  that  h'oinia 
Borfije,  Desm.  liegnell.  T.3,  f.32,  does  to  sn/jspficiosmn  typicum. 
The  size  of  the  Brazilian  form  is  46  x  35  x  22^,  loc.  cit.  p.  101. 

Genus  S  t  a  u  r  o  p  ii  a  n  u  m  Turn. 

Fresliw.  Alg.  E.  India,  1892,  p.  1  95,  (Genus  Dicholomiim  West, 
189G,  Trans    Linn.  Soc.  2nd  Ser.  F>ot.  v.  p. 270). 

St.  ciiUCiATUM  (Wall.)  Tui-n.  [i  elegans(  West)  f.  Svdnkyknsis,  n.f, 

(T.v.  f.30). 

Cf.  Turner,  I.e.,  T.20,  f.20,  21  {Dlch.  ehujann  West,  I.e.,  T.IG, 
f.3;}). 

F(jrma  corpore  paullo  longiore  et  latiore,  sine  constrictione, 
lol)is  ter  dichotoinis,  apicilms  non  furcatis. 

Lonii.c.proc.  =lat.c.  proc.  =  40;  lonj^.  s.  proo.  18;   lat.  s.  proc.  1  5/i. 

Fountain  in  the  Sydney  Botanical  (hardens. 

There  can  l)e  no  doubt  at  all,  T  think,  of  the  identity  of  the.se 
two  <5enera  and  s{)ecies.  Turner  says  long  =  lat.  —  48-54/j.  West 
giN'es  long.  s.  proc.  15;  c.  proc.  42;  lat.  s.  proc.  12;  c.  proc.  42/li. 
Turner  has  the  right  of  priority. 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES  IL-V. 
Pl.nie  ii. 
Fig.   L— CV.  Mourtiue,  n.sp.  (  x  720). 
Fig.  2. — Trip,  serratmn,  n.sp.  (  x  720). 
Fig.   3. — CI.  marpiijinim,  n..sp.        ,, 
Fig.  4. — CI.  calamufi,  n  sp.  ,, 

Fig.  ri.  —  Pni.  austra/e  Hac.  ,, 

Fig.   ti. — Pen.  pachydermuni,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 
Fig.   7. — CI.  rinyulum,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.   S.—Iclh.  auslraliensis,  n.np.  ,, 

Fig.  9. — CI.  navictUoideuvi,  n.sp.  (?)     ,, 


200       SOME  NEW  OR  LESS  KNOWN  DESMIDS  FOUND  IN  N.  S.  WALES, 

Fig.  10. — PL  mediolaeve,  n.sp.  (  x  720). 

Fig.  11. — Tri}^.  denticulat^nn,  n.sp.    ,, 

Fig.  12. — CZ.  woZ/e,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.  13. — CI.  cornutum,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.  14.  — !rn^.  firacih  Bail.  /3  ctculeatnm  Nord.,  f.  ausfralica  (  x  360) 

Fig.15.—    „         „  ,,  ,,  end  of  another  ( X  720) 

Fig.  16.— C/.  cancer,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Plate  iii. 
Fig.    I, —Pen.  gracUlimnm,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 
Fig.  2.—Spir.  ohscura  Ralfs  (  x  360) 
Fig.  3. — Doc.  expansum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 
Fig.  4. — Tetm.  gracilis,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.  5,— Tetm.  immanis,  n.sp.  (  x  360) 

Fig,  6. — Eti.  longicolle  Nord.  /3  australicum,  n.var.  (  x  720;  side  x  265) 
Fig.  7. — Eu.  triangulum,  n.sp.  ,,  ,, 

Fig.  8. — Eu.  deminutum,  n.sp.  ,,  ,, 

Fig,  9, — Eu.  sinuosum  Lenor.  f.  gennanica  Rac.  (  x  720) 

Fig.lO. ,,  j>         another  form  ,, 

Y'xg.\\.—En  cnneatnm  Jenn.  y  ham^entrkomm,  n.var.  (  x  720) 

Fig.  12. ,,  y>      ^  conicum,  n.var.  ,, 

Fig.  1.3.  —En.  hullatum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Fig.H.— ^?t.  campannlatum,  n.sp.,  f.  immatura  (No.  1)  (  x  720) 

Fig.  14  (right  hand    fig.)— Eu.    camjxmulatimi,   n.sp.,   f.    immatura  (No. 2) 

(  X  720). 
Fig.  16. — Eu.  cam2^anulatum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Plate  iv. 
Fig.   1.  -Eu.  suhincimm  Reinsch  (  x  720) 
Fig.  2. — Eu.  undulatum,  n.sp.  ,. 

Fig.  3.  —  Eu.  compactuni  Wolle  ,, 

Fig.  4.—Ar.  ellij)ticus,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.  5.—  ,,  older  form     ,, 

Fig.  6. — Xa7i.  Coogeanum,  n.sp.       ,, 
Fig.  7. —  )>  younger  form  (  X  720) 

Fig.  8.— Xan.  hifurcaHun  Bovge  ,, 

Fig.  9.—  ,,  younger  form         ,, 

Fig.lO. — Xan.  pidcherrimum,  n.sp.  (  x  360) 
Fig.  11.     Xan.  hexagonum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 
Fig.  12. — Xan.  decemdenticidatum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 
Fig.  13. — Xan.  Botanicum,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.  14^,— St.  orbiculare  Ehr.  /3  denticulatum  Nord.,  forma  (  x  720;  end  x  265) 
Fig.15.— 6^^  pseudohiret2i7n,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 
Fig.l6.— 5«.  imm,  n.sp.  „       (end  x  265) 


BY  G.   I.   PLAYFAIK.  201 

Fig.  17. — St.  cruciforme,  n.sp.  (  x  720). 

Fig.  18. — St.  ciuiicnloHum,  n.si^.      ,,       (endx2G5) 

Fig.  19.  — "S^.  Botamuse,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig. 20. — St.  tridentidam,  n.sp.        ,, 

Fig. 21. — St.  aygeratum,  n.sp.         ,, 

Plate  V, 

Fig.  l.—St.  forciimtum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Fig.  2.— 5'^.  Sonthalianum  Turn.  (  x  720) 

Fig.  3. — St.  excavatumVfe^i  ,, 

Fig.  4. — St.  coralloideum,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.  5. — St.  volans  West.  /3  elegans,  n.var.  (  x  720) 

Fig.  6.— St.  Bosn,  n.sp.  (  x  360) 

Fig.  7.  —  S'^.  monilifernm,  n.sp.  (x72C) 

Fig.  8. — St.  campamdatum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Fig.  9. — St.  patem  Turn.  f.  australira.  n.f.  (x720) 

Fig.lO.— 5'/.  Auhurneme,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Fig.ll. — St.  sexangulare  Bulnh.,  f.  immatura  (  x  360) 

Fig.  12. — Cos.  cydopeum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Fig.13.  — Cos.  qitcbdrigemme,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Fig.  14. — Cos.  jenisejense  Boldt.  /3  australe,  n.var.  (  x  720) 

Fig.  15 — Cos.  incrassatiwi,  n.sp.  (  x  720;  end  and  side  x  265) 
Fig.  16. — Cos.  viceimtriatum,  n.sp.  (  x  720) 

Fig.  17. — Con.  Collector euse,  n.si^.         ,, 

Fig.  18.  — Cos.  Jluviatile,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.  19. — Cos.  Murrayi,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig  20. — Eu.  rotundum,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig. 21. — Co-».  2)seu(lopachydermum  Nord.  (  x  720) 

Fig. 22.—  ,,  formae     ,, 

Fig.23.  —  Cos.  latej-eprotractum,  n.sp.  ,, 

Fig.24. — Cos.  uenuHiLm  Breb.  ^  induratuni  Nord.  (  x  720) 

Fig.25.  —  ,,  ,,  ,,  i.  incognita,  n.i.  {x  720) 

Fig  26.—  ,,  ,,  ,,  t  trilohata,  n.L 

Fig. 27. — Cos.  orthopun.rjidatnm  Schm.  (  x  720) 

Fig.28.—  ,,  zygospores  (a)  young,  (b)  mature  (  x  360) 

Fig. 29.  —Cos.  suhspeciosum  (i  validius  Nord.,  t  fontensi-s,  n.f.  (  x  720) 

Fig. 30. — Stanrophanuvi  cruciatum /3  elegans{V^ e?,i) i.  Sydney ensis,\i.i. (  x  720) 

Fig. 31. — St.  assurgens  Nord.,  immature  forms  (  x  720). 


20: 


LIST  OF  FUNGI 

Exhibited  by  E.  Cheel  (See  p.  159). 

AGARICACE^. 

Lepiota  dolichaida  Berk,  k  Br. —  Centennial  Park  (on  sandy 
soil;  E.  Cheel;  November,  1901;  No.  8).  Previously  only  recorded 
from  Queensland. 

Laccaria  laccata  Berk. — Belmore  (on  the  ground;  E.  Cheel; 
July,  1906;  No.9). 

Lentinus  stihnudihs  Fr. — Penshurst  (on  the  ground;  E.  Cheel; 
Ma}',  1901;  No.  12).  Previously  recorded  from  South  Australia, 
Victoria,  and  Queensland. 

Lentinus  strigosus  Fr. — Peakhurst  (on  dead  wood;  E.  Cheel; 
September,  1902;  No.U). 

Pleurotus  Cheelii  Massee,  Kew  Bull.  1907,  p.  122. — Eden,  near 
Twofold  Bay  (on  dead  branches;  E.  Cheel;  December,  1903;  No.7). 

Xerotes  nigrita  Led. — Peakhurst  (on  dead  wood;  E.  Cheel; 
October,  1901;   No.22).     Not  previously  recorded  for  Australia. 

Schizophyllum  commune  Fr.  —  Centennial  Park  (on  trunks  of 
various  trees;  E.  Cheel;  August,  1900;  Nos.  13  and  42)  :  Leura 
Falls,  Katoomba  (A.  A.  Hamilton;  December,  1902)  :  Smoky 
Cape  near  Trial  Bay  (F.  W.  Baffills;  October,  1905). 

LYCOPERDACE.ff:. 

Geaster  jJ^icatns  Berk. — Centennial  Park  (on  sandy  soil;  E. 
Cheel;  December,  1900). 

Geaster  vittatus  Kalch. — Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney  (on  the 
ground;  E.  Cheel;  December,  1902). 

Geast>ir  saccatus  Fr. — Woy  Woy  (on  the  ground;  Miss  M. 
Flockton;  April,  1907). 

Lycoperdon  australe  Berk.,  forma  major  Massee. — Centennial 
Park  (on  sandy  soil;  E.  Cheel;  March,  1901;  No.ll).  Not  pre- 
viously recorded. 


BY    E.    CHE  EL.  203 

Lycoperdon  lUaciiuim  Berk. — Pensliur.st  (on  tlie  ground:  E. 
Cheel;   August,  1906). 

POLY  FOR  ACE ^. 

Polyporus  eucalyptorum  Fr. — Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney  (E. 
Cheel;  October,  1904).  Previously  recorded  from  Gerogery  (thf^se 
Proceedings,  1899,  p.447). 

Fomes  annosiis  Fi\ — Smoky  Cape  near  Trial  Bay  (F.  W. 
Rartills;  October,  1905;  No. 38).  Previously  recorded  only  from 
Queensland. 

Foiues  australis  Fr. —Centennial  Park  (on  decaying  stump; 
E.  Clieel;  September,  1901):  Smoky  Cape  near  Trial  Bay  (F.  W. 
Raffills;  October,  1905;  No.39). 

Poiystictas  sanguineus  Mey. — Glenorie  (on  dead  branches  of 
Melaleuca;  E.  Cheel;  June,  1903) :  also  Belmore  :  Smoky  Cape 
near  Trial  Bay  (F.  W.  Raffills;  October,  1905;  No.  6). 

Trameles  lactlnea  Berk.  —  Kahibah  near  Newcastle  (on  fence 
rails;   E,  Cheel;  September,  1904;  No. 2). 

Hexagonia  tenuis  Fr.  —  Peakhurst  (on  trunk  of  tree;  E.  Cheel; 

July,  1901;   No.20).       Not  previously   recorded    for   New   South 

Wale.s. 

H  YDNACE^. 

Hydnuin  alutaceum  Fr. — Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney  (on  dead 

branches;  E.  Cheel;  July,  1906;  No.2T).     Previously  only  recorded 

from  Victoria. 

THELEPHORACE^. 

Tkelephora  2^&dicellata  Schwein. — Carlton  (on  the  ground;  A. 
Green;  December,  1902)  :  Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney  (E.  Cheel; 
April.  1903;  No. 33).  Not  previously  recorded  for  New  South 
Wale^ 

Thelepkora  Archeri  Fr. — Centennial  Park  (en  sandy  swampy 
land;  E.  Clieel;  December,  1900;  No.30).  Not  previously  recorded 
for  New  South  Wales. 

Stereuni  lobatum  Fr. — Galston  (on  trunks  of  trees;  E.  Cheel; 
June,  1903;  :  Bulli  Pass  (E.  Cheel;  iMarcli,  1907). 

Cyphella  austi'alieyisis  Cke. — Centennial  Park  (on  dead  branches 
of  jasmine;  E.  Cheel;  July,  1901;  No. 21).  Previously  only 
recorded  for  Victoria. 


204  LIST    OP    FUNGI, 

TREMELLACE^. 

Hirneola  polytrlcha  Mont. — Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney;  on 
decaying  branches  of  various  trees;  E.  Cheel;  March,  1903)  : 
AVoy  Woy  (Miss  M.  Flockton;  April,  1907;  No.l5). 

Guepiriia  spathularia  Fr. — Penshurst  (on  decaying  log;  E. 
Cheel;  October,  1904,  No.34). 

PH  ALLOIDE  ACE-E. 

Aserije  rubra  Labill. — Penshurst  (on  the  ground;  E.  Cheel  ; 
April,  1907). 

Lysurus  australlensis  Cooke  k,  Massee. — Penshurst  (on  the 
ground;  E.  Cheel;  October,  1906).  For  the  only  other  New  South 
Wales  record  known  to  me,  see  Hawkesbury  Agric.  Coll  Journal, 
ii.,  pp.  26,  119. 

NIDULARIACE^. 

Gyathus  fimelarius  DC. — Toongabbie  (on  cow  dung  ;  J.  G. 
Fletcher;  August,  1904;  No.5)  :  Penshurst  (E.  Cheel;  March, 
1905):  Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney  (E.  Cheel;  March,  1907).  Pre- 
viously only  recorded  for  Queensland. 

UREDI  NACEiE. 

Puccinia  malvacearum  Mont.  —  Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney,  and 
Centennial  Park  (on  Hollyhock  leaves;  E.  Cheel;  No.  10). 

Puccinia  chrysanthemi  Roze. — Penshurst  ion  Chrysanthemum 
leaves;  E.  Cheel;  1901;  No.48). 

Puccinia  helianthi  Schw.  —  Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney  (on  Sun- 
flower leaves;   E.  Cheel). 

HYP0CREACE.5:. 
Cordyceps  Robertsii  Hook. — Auckland,  N.Z.  (on  a  caterpillar; 
W.  Gardner;  November,  1901). 

Sphaerostilbe  cinnabarina  Ful. — Centennial  Park  and  Botanic 
Gardens,  Sydney  (on  dead  branches  of  Pittosporam  undalatuni, 
Ficus  rubiginosa,  and  Aesculus  rubicunda;  E.  Cheel;  May,  1900; 
No.49). 

XYLARIACE.a:. 
Poronia  oedipus  Mont. — Penshurst  (on  horse  dung;   E.  Cheel; 
December,  1900;  No. 18), 

[Printed  off  June  18th,  1907.] 


P.L.S.N.S.W.    1907. 


FIGS.    1,    la.    lb        ERIPHIA    NORFOLCENSIS,    SP.    N.  FIGS.    2.    2a      PACHYCHELES    LIFUENSIS    BORR 


BY    E.    CHEKL.  205 

PEZIZACE^. 
Huniaria  cp'anulosa  Seh. — Kahibah  near  Newcastle  (on  horse 
dung;  E.  Cbeel;  September,  1904;  No.3). 

STICTACE^. 
Stictis  anmdata  Cke. — Centennial  Park  (on  dead  branches;  K. 
Cheel;  February,  1901;  No.:37). 

PHYSARACE^. 
Phi/sarum  leuco phaeinn  Fr. — Centennial  Park,  Penshurst,  and 
Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney  (on  leaves,  etc.;  E.  Cheel;  May,  1900). 

STEMONIT  ACE^. 
StenwnifAs  fp/rrnginea  Ehrh. — Leura  Falls,  Katoomba(on  rotten 
fence  rail:  A.  A.   Hamilton;   December,  1902)  :    Botanic  Gardens, 
Sydney  (1^].   Cheel;  April,  1907).       Previously  only  recorded  for 
Queensland  and  New  Zealand. 

For  the    determination  of  the  species  bearing  numbers,  I  am 
indebted  to  Mr.  G.  Massee.  of  Kew,  London. 


16 


206 


A  REVISION    OF    THE  THYNNIB.E  OF  AUSTRALIA 

\lIymeyio]')tera.'\ 

Part  I. 

By  Rowland  E.  Turner,  E.E.S. 

The  difficulty  of  procuring  reliable  information  as  to  the  sexes 
of  the  ThynnidcB^  as  well  as  their  comparatively  restricted  range, 
lias  caused  the  group  to  be  much  neglected.  As  Australia  is  the 
headquarters  of  the  family  and  many  of  the  species  are  both  con- 
spicuous and  numerous  as  to  individuals,  it  might  have  been 
expected  that  Australian  entomologists  would  ha^e  done  much 
work  on  the  group.  They  have  probably  been  deterred  b}'  the 
difficulties  encountered  at  the  outset  in  the  identification  of  the 
species,  many  of  the  old  descriptions,  especially  Smith's,  being 
insufficient  without  reference  to  the  types,  most  of  which  are  in 
the  British  Museum  or  in  the  Hope  Collection  at  Oxford.  These 
have  been  consulted  for  the  purpose  of  the  present  work.  Like 
most  of  the  groups  specially  characteristic  of  Australia,  it  is 
most  strongl}^  represented  in  the  south,  especiall}'  in  the  south- 
western part  of  the  continent,  comparatively  few  species,  and 
those  mostly  of  small  size,  being  found  within  the  tropics. 
Beyond  the  limits  of  Australia  they  occur,  though  apparently 
sparingly,  in  New  Guinea  and  the  adjacent  islands  as  far  as 
Celebes;  also  in  Fiji  and  New  Zealand.  Further  ofi'  the}'  are 
well  represented  in  the  Southern  States  of  South  America, 
especially  in  Chili,  a  few  species  spreading  as  far  as  California, 
and  other  North  American  States.  In  Europe  and  Asia  they 
are  represented  only  by  a  few  species  of  Meihoca  and  Isivara, 
neither  of  which  is  at  all  nearly  related  to  our  Australian  forms; 
the  latter  indeed  can  only  be  assigned  to  the  family  with  con- 
siderable hesitation.      From  Africa  rather  more  species  are  known. 


BY   ROWLAND   K.  TURNEK.  207 

at  present  mostly  belonging  to  Methoca,  but  Tullgren*  has 
recently  described  a  new  genus  Aehtroldes  from  a  female  some- 
what resembling  those  of  Aelurus;  and  it  is  probable  that  further 
collecting  will  reveal  the  existence  of  other  forms.  We  can  see 
from  its  range  that  the  group  is  one  of  southern  origin,  affording 
an  example  of  relationship  between  the  Australian  and  South 
American  fauna  in  a  group  of  by  no  means  world-wide  range. 

A  wide  field  is  open  to  entomologists  in  revealing  the  life- 
history  of  these  insects,  of  which  practically  nothing  is  known 
as  yet.  Bakewell  reared  a  specimen  from  a  subterranean  pupa 
of  a  moth;  but  one  or  two  of  the  males  of  small  Queensland 
species  may  be  taken  flying  with  species  of  Bemh^^x  around  their 
nests;  and  Mr.  C.  French  has  bred  a  large  Victorian  specimen 
allied  to  Thynny.s  rihfiventris  Guer.,  from  a  cocoon  closely  resem- 
bling th-^t  formed  in  rotten  wood  by  the  large  fossorial  wasp, 
Salius  aiistralasicH  Sm.  These  facts  point  to  the  probability  that 
many  species  will  be  found  to  be  parasitical  on  other  Aculeate 
Hymenoptera  as  are  the  MntillidcH. 

The  females  of  most  of  the  species  are  probably  very  short- 
lived, their  mouths  being  in  such  a  rudimentary  state  that  it  is 
hardly  likely  that  they  make  any  use  of  them  for  feeding. 
Although  the  female  is  often  carried  by  the  male  to  l)lossoms,  she 
does  not  seem  to  join  him  in  feeding.  The  female  seems  to  be 
seized  by  the  male  immediately  on  emergence  in  many  cases. 

The  large  number  of  species  and  the  great  diversity  of  form 
existing  among  them  render  a  considerable  difference  in  their 
life-histories  probable;  nor  is  it  likely  that  in  a  group  in  which 
individuals  are  so  numerous,  the  species  should  be  at  all  narrowly 
limited  in  their  selection  of  a  host. 

The  extreme  variation  in  the  form  of  the  hypopygium  renders 
any  observation  on  the  uses  to  which  that  p^rt  is  put  valuable. 
It  does  not  seem  to  be  necessarily  connected  with  any  modifica- 
tion of  the   copulatory   armature,   nor   to  be   co-related   to  the 


Arkiv  Zool.  i.  1904. 


208  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

pygidium  of  the  female.  During  coupling  the  female  is  carried 
by  the  male,  apparently  for  the  greater  part  of  the  day.  When 
restin*^  or  moving  on  a  leaf  or  flower  the  female  is  extended 
behind  the  male,  both  with  the  under  surface  against  the  leaf. 
During  flight  the  female  hangs  below  the  male  in  a  doubled-up 
position;  the  mandibles  being  applied  to  the  basal  part  of  the 
hypopygium,  which  is  held  depressed  at  right  angles  to  the 
abdomen  of  the  male  and  the  aculeus,  or  sometimes  the  carnia 
beneath  the  hypopygium,  inserted  between  the  maxill?e  of  the 
female.  Thus  it  is  possible  that  there  may  be  a  connection 
between  the  structure  of  the  hypopygium  of  the  male  and  the 
mouth-parts  of  the  female.  The  male  of  Diaiama  does  not  carry 
the  female,  the  former  being  much  the  smaller;  and  in  this  group 
the  hypopygium  is  unarmed  and  the  female  mouth-parts  fully 
developed.  In  other  genera  in  which  the  hypopygium  is  unarmed 
the  female  does  not  seem  to  be  taken  with  the  male  as  often  as 
in  other  species,  though  some  species  of  Eirone  seem  to  form  an 
exception. 

The  classification  of  the  group  is  difficult;  Guerin  and  West- 
wood  founded  a  number  of  genera,  using   the  mouth-parts  more 
especially.      Some  of  these  genera  will  certainly  stand,  and  all, 
being  founded  on  careful  dissections,  are  worthy  of  consideration 
and  should  not  be  sunk   hastily.      Saussure  uses  the  hypopygium 
as  a  basis  for  his  classification,  but  only  forms  one  new  genus; 
whereas  Klug  used  the  mouth-parts  and  avoided  subdivision  as 
much   as   possible.      Smith,  unlike  previous  authors,  paid  very 
little  attention   to  classification,  practically  confining  himself  to 
the  description   of  new  species.       Of   late  years    Ash  mead    has 
attempted  a  more  detailed  classification  of  the  group,  taking  the 
hypopygium  of  the  male  and  the  pygidium  of  the  female  as  the 
basis.     This  basis  is  open  to  criticism,  for,  as  has  been  pointed 
out  above,  these  parts  do  not  appear  to  be  co-related,  so  that  we 
cannot  expect  the  two  sexes  to  fall  into  parallel  lines  if  this  basis 
is  used.     There  should  be  some  connection  between  the  form  of 
the  pygidium  in  the  female  and  the  claspers  in  the  male,  but  the 
study  of  the  latter  organs  will  require  much  more  material  than 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  209 

is  at  present  available.  Ashmead's  classification  therefore  is  not 
likely  to  be  accepted  as  to  the  groundwork,  though  worthy  of 
careful  attention.  As  to  detail,  however,  he  is  often  inaccurate, 
giving  the  wrong  number  of  joints  in  the  maxillary  palpi  of  the 
male  Anthohosca  and  in  the  labial  palpi  of  the  male  ElapJiroptera, 
although  Guerin  in  his  description  of  the  genera  is  quite  correct 
on  these  points.  His  identification  of  the  species  which  he  takes 
a>;  the  types  of  his  genera  is  also  very  faulty,  the  true  species 
often  difiering  much  from  the  characters  given  by  him  for  the 
genus  of  which  he  makes  it  the  type.  This  is  extreme  careless- 
ness, and  renders  it  impossible  to  use  some  of  his  new  genera, 
even  were  the  characteristics  sufficiently  good  to  stand,  as  we 
cannot  tell  what  the  t3'pe-species  reall}?-  is.  The  extreme  multi- 
plication of  genera  which  is  a  characteristic  of  most  of  Ashmead's 
work  is  probably  much  more  inconvenience  than  assistance  to 
other  workers,  but  on  this  point  opinions  may  differ.  In  the 
genera  dealt  with  in  the  present  paper  Ashmead  has  made  little 
alteration.  I  am  unable  to  accept  his  subfamirly  RhagiyasteriiKP,, 
vv^hich  1  regret,  as  in  many  points  it  would  form  a  convenient 
and  natural  group.  My  reason  for  rejecting  it  is  the  difficulty 
of  placing  the  genus  Entele.s,  the  males  of  which  have  ahvay>s 
been  classed  with  Rliagig aster]  whilst  the  female,  except  in  the 
six-jointed  maxillary  palpi,  is  nearer  to  Ashmead's  ThynnincF. 

Until  really  large  collections,  accurately  paired,  can  be  obtained 
from  Western  Australia,  it  seems  inadvisable  to  found  large 
numbers  of  new  genera,  though  it  is  not  desirable  to  sink  old 
genera  where  it  can  be  avoided.  Dalla  Torre  in  his  great 
Catalogue  has  added  a  number  of  unnecessary  synonyms  by 
sinking  all  the  genera,  except  Diamma,  in  Thynnus. 

This  paper,  it  is  hoped,  will  be  the  first  of  a  series  of  three  or 
four  completing  a  revision  of  the  known  Australian  species, 
amounting,  with  new  species  available,  to  nearly  four  hundred. 
It  seems  hardly  necessary  to  publish  full  descriptions  of  all 
Smith's  species,  his  works  being  easily  accessible;  supplementary 
notes  onl}'-  are  therefore  given,  and  full  descriptions  onl}^  in  cases 
in  which  the  original  description  is  worthless. 


I'lO  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

Many  species  have  been  received  from  Mr.  C.  French,  of  Mel- 
bourne, also  from  Mr.  G.  A.  Waterhouse  and  others.  Every 
facility  has  been  given  by  the  authorities  of  the  British  Museum 
and  the  Oxford  University  Museum  for  the  examination  of  their 
extensive  collections  and  libraries.  Most  of  the  >.'ortli  Queens- 
land species  are  from  the  collection  of  the  late  Gilbert  Turner. 
My  thanks  are  particularly  due  to  Mr.  W.  W.  Froggatt  for  the 
loan  of  his  large  collection  from  all  parts  of  Australia,  containing 
a  large  number  of  carefully  sexed  specimens  taken  in  the  field. 
It  was  originally  proposed,  when  we  placed  our  collections  together, 
that  this  should  be  a  joint  monograph  of  the  Thynnid<x,  but 
pressure  of  private  and  official  work  compelled  him  to  withdraw 
from  active  participation. 

Key  to  the  Gla-Hsification  of  the  Genera  treated  of  in  this  pajwr. 

i.  Male  smaller  than  the  female. 

J".  Mandibles   tridentate.       Maxillary  palpi    six-jointed;    labial 

palpi  four-jointed. 

Labrum   transverse.      First  and  second  recurrent  nervures 

received  by  the  second  cubital  cell  close  together.      First 

cubital  cell  not  divided.     Hypopygium  unarmed. 

$ .  Mandibles  quadridentate.      Mouth-parts  perfect    and  larger 

than  in  the  male.  Subfamily  i.  D  i  a  ai  m  i  x  /E. 

Genus  Diamma. 
ii.  Male  larger  than  the  female. 

(^ .  Mandibles  bidentate.  First  and  second  recurrent  nervures 
received  by  the  second  and  third  cubital  cells,  the  second 
very  rarely  interstitial  with  the  second  transverse  cubital 
nervure.  Division  of  the  first  cubital  cell  marked  either 
by  a  scar  or  by  a  more  or  less  complete  nervure. 

2 .  Mouth-parts  smaller  than  in  the  males,  the  maxillary  palpi 
more  or  less  rudimentary,  mandibles  simple,  rarely 
bidentate.  Subfamily  ii.   T  h  y  x  n  i  x  .v,. 

A.  ^ .  Second  recurrent  nervure  interstitial  with  the  second  trans- 

verse cubital  nervure.     Hypopygium  broadly  and  deeply 
emarginate,  without  a  central  spine.  Genus  1.   Oncorhinus. 

B.  J".  Second  recurrent  nervure  received  near  the  base  of  the 

third  cubital  cell.      Hypopygium  with  a  long  recurved 
aculeus.     Abdomen  elongate. 
2  .  The  maxillary  palpi  never  less  than  four- jointed. 


BY  HOWLAXD   K.   TURNER.  211 

a.  ^ .  Epipygiuni  narrow  at  the  apex. 

$ .  Head  quadrilateral,  flat.      Second  abdominal  segment 

without  striaj. 
a'^.  $ .  Clypeus  with  a  raised  A-shaped  carina.     Front  with 
a  transverse  carina. 
% .  With  a  sulca  on  each  side  of  the  head  from  the  eye 
to    the     occiput.       Maxillary    palpi     six-jointed. 
Mandibles  usually  bidentate.  Genus  2.   Rhagigastei: 

/)■-.  ^ .  The  frontal  carina  absent  or  very  faint. 

5 .  Without  lateral  sulcre  on  the  head.  Mandibles 
simple.  Maxillary  palpi  four-jointed.  Tarsal 
ungues  simple.  Genus  3.  Rhytidogastek. 

i).  ^.  Epipygium  truncate  or  broadly  rounded  at  the  apex. 
$ .  Head    small,    slightly  convex,    rounded    posteriorly. 
Maxillary    palpi    six-jointed,    mandibles     falcate; 
second   abdominal    segment   transversely    striated. 
Pygidium  vertically  truncate,  striated.      Genus  4.   Enteles. 

C.  ^.  Hypopygium  normal,  unarmed. 

$ .  Head    quadrilateral,    flat,    maxillary   palpi    four-jointed. 

Abdomen  cylindrical. 
a.  (^.  Three  apical   joints  of  maxillary  palpi  elongate.     An- 
tennte  rather  long, 
a'-.  (J.  Third    cubital   cell    not    narrow   along    the   radial 

nervure.  Genus  5.  Aelurus. 

h^.  ^.  Third   cubital   cell    very   narrow    along   the   radial 

nervure.  Subgenus  Lepteironc. 

A.  J .  Three    apical    joints    of    maxillary   palpi    moderately 

lengthened.     Antenna  short.  Subgenus  Eirone, 

D.  (^ .  Abdomen  short,  subpetiolate.    Hypopygium  armed.    Three 

apical  joints  of  the  maxillary  palpi  elongate. 
$  .  Without  striae  on  the  second  abdominal  segment, 
a.  $ .  Hypopygium  tridentate.     Labium  and  behind  palpi 
smooth. 
$  .  Head  quadrilateral,  flat,  very  broad.     Maxillary  palpi 

six-jointed.  Genus  6.  Ariphkox. 

h.  $ .  Hypopygium  variable.  Head  concave  beneath,  the 
sides  with  a  long  curled  beard.  Labium  and  palpi 
with  long  hairs  at  the  apex. 
2  .  Strongly  rugose  or  punctured.  Head  slightly  convex, 
rounded  posteriorly;  maxillary  palpi  rudimentary, 
Pygidium  simple.  Genus  7.  Tachyxomyia. 


212  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

Subfamily  DIAMMIN^. 

Males.  —  First  and  second  recurrent  nervures  received  by  the 
second  cubital  cell  almost  together;  the  division  of  the  first  cubital 
cell  unmarked. 

Mandibles  tridentate,  maxillary  palpi  six-jointed,  labial  four- 
jointed.  Labrum  transverse,  very  short.  Hypopygium  unarmed, 
claspers  short  and  small. 

Females. — Much  larger  than  the  male,  the  mouth-parts  fully 
developed  and  larger  than  in  the  male,  mandibles  stout,  quadri- 
dentate;  palpi  as  in  the  male,  but  larger.  Second  abdominal 
segment  smooth,  without  carin?e;  pygidium  simple 

Genus  D  I  A  M  m  a. 

Diamma  Westw.,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Loudon,  iii.  p. 53,  1835(9). 

TachijpterusGuei:,  Voy.  Coq.  Zool.  ii.  2,  p.213,(1830)l839((J). 

Psaminatha  ^huckard,  Trans. Ent. Soc. London, ii.l, p. 68, 1837((^). 

Trachypterus  D.  Torre,  Cat.  Hyni.  viii.  119,  1897  (nee.  Guer., 
Voy.  Coq  ii.  2). 

Diamma  Ashm.,  Canad.  Ent.  xxxv.,  1903. 

Ash  mead  points  out  that  Guerin's  paper  in  the  Voyage  de  la 
Coquille  was  not  i)ublished  until  1839,  though  the  date  on  the 
title  page  is  1830.  Westwood's  name  therefore  has  priority. 
Characters  as  in  the  subfamily.  The  antennaj  of  the  male  are 
stout  and  rather  short.      The  ocelli  are  present  in  the  female. 

D.  iiicOLOR  Westw. 

Diamma  bicolor  West.,  Proc.Zool.Soc.London,iii.p.53, 1835(9). 

Psammatha  chalybea  Shuckard,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  London,  ii.  1, 
p.69,  1837((J).  ' 

Tachypterus  fasciaius  Guer.,  Vo3^  Coq.  ii.  2,  p. 2  17  (1830)  1839 
(^);  Guer.,  Mag.  de  Zool.  xii.  1842((J). 

Tachypterus  ay stralis  ^auss. ,  Keisr  d.Nov.  Zool.ii.  1,  Hym.p.l09 
n.l,T.2,f.27,  1867((J). 

Tachy Icterus  albojnctus  Sm.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  London,  1868, 
p.237((J). 


HY   ROWLAND  E.  TURNER.  '213 

The  colour  of  the  legs  in  the  males  is  veiy  variable;  the  varia- 
tions in  this  respect  may  prove  to  be  local,  but  as  I  can  detect 
no  differences  in  females  from  different  localities,  I  prefer  to  sink 
all  into  one  species,  I  cannot  agree  with  Saussure's  remarks  on 
the  differences  of  shape  in  the  thorax  and  abdomen  of  the  males. 
I  follow  other  authors  in  putting  the  sexes  together,  having  had 
no  personal  acquaintance  with  the  species.  The  large  size  and 
brilliant  blue  colour  of  the  female  cause  it  to  be  well  known  to 
all  collectors. 

Hah. — ISydne}^,  N.  8.W.;  Melbourne,  Vic;  Adelaide,  S.A.; 
Tasmania 

This  is  the  only  species  of  the  subfamily  in  Australia,  but  one 
or  two  males  have  been  described  from  Argentina  which  will 
probably  prove  to  belong  to  it. 

Subfamily  THYNNINJE. 

Genus  Oncorhinus  Shuckard. 

O'ficorhimts  Shuckard,  in  Grey's  Journ.  of  two  Expeditions  to 
N.W.  and  W.  Australia,  ii.  p.471,  1S41. 

,^.  Glypeus  very  large,  tumid,  broadly  emarginate  at  the  apex. 
Labrum  much  narrowed  posteriorly,  rounded  at  the  apex. 
Mandibles  bidentale.  Maxillary  palpi  six-,  labial  four-jointed. 
Bead  broader  than  prothorax;  antennae  long,  about  equal  in 
length  to  the  abdomen,  stout  and  of  about  even  thickness  through- 
out. Prothorax  rather  short,  median  segment  vety  short  and 
obliquely  truncate  from  the  base.  Abdomen  of  moderate  length, 
a  little  broader  at  the  third  and  fourth  segments  than  elsewhere, 
first  segment  narrowed  to  the  base.  P]pipygium  broadly  truncate 
at  the  apex,  with  a  triangular,  longitudinally  striated  prominence 
at  the  base.  Hypopy^ium  widely  and  de^eply  emarginnte  at  the 
apex,  leaving  a  spine  on  each  side,  but  without  a  central  apical 
spine.  The  second  recurrent  nervure  is  interstitial  with  the 
second  transverse  cubital  nervure. 

Saussure,  with  doubt,  followed  by  Ashmead,  gives,  the  man- 
dibles as  tridentate.     This  is  incorrect.      I  am  very  doubtful  as 


214  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

to  the  correct  position  of  this  genus,  which  in  some  respects 
shows  a  relationship  to  typical  Thynnus.  But  until  the  female 
is  known  it  cannot  be  located  with  any  certainty. 

0.  XANTHOSPiLUS  Sliuckard. 

Oncorhinus  xaathospilus  Shuckard,  in  Grey's  Journ.  of  two 
Expeditions  to  N.W.  and  W.  Australia,  ii.  p. 471,  n.34,  1841(^). 

rj.  Black;  the  clypeus,  mandibles,  a  narrowly  interrupted  line 
on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax,  the  tegulse,  the  tibiae  and 
tarsi,  the  femora  at  the  apex  and  a  spot  on  each  side  of  each  of  the 
abdominal  segments,  except  the  epipygium,  yellow.  The  whole 
insect  closely  and  finely  punctured.  Wings  hyaline,  nervures 
black.      A  small  yellow  spot  on  tlie  mesopleurse.      Length  28mm. 

Hah. — Albany,  >S\van  River,  W.A. 

A  specimen  marked  "  from  Shuckard's  collection,  almost 
certainly  the  type,"  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

The  female  is  unknown,  but  it  may  possibly  prove  that  Thynnus 
gravidus  Westw. ,  will  be  found  to  belong  to  this  species,  both 
showing  a  want  of  close  affinity  to  other  species,  and  both  being 
of  rather  unusual  size.  T.  gravidus  does  not  seem  to  be  the 
female  of  2^.  klugii  Westw.,  as  Westwood  suggests. 

Genus  H  h  a  g  i  g  a  s  t  e  r  Guer. 

Rhagigaster  Guer.,  Voy.Coq.Zool.ii  p.2l:3,(1830)  1839;  Westw., 
Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  p. 105,  1844;  Sauss.,  Reise  d.  Nov.  Zool.  ii.  1,  Hym. 
p.111,1867. 

^.  Clypeus  with  a  A-shaped  carina.  A  transverse  carina 
between  the  eyes.  Maxillary  palpi  six-jointed,  the  basal  joint 
short,  the  others  subequal,the  labial  palpi  four-jointed,  the  labrum 
transverse,  sliort,  sharply  narrowed  but  not  truncate  posteriorly. 
Epipygium  usually  narrow,  hvpopygium  ending  in  a  long  recurved 
aculeus,  with  or  without  a  spine  on  each  side  near  the  base 
Mandibles  bidentate. 

^.  Head  lectangular,  with  a  sulca  en  each  side  from  the  eye 
to  the  occiput.       Maxillary  palpi  small  but  perfect,  six-jointed, 


HY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNER.  215 

labial  palpi  four-jointed.  Mandibles  bidentate  or  simple.  Pygi- 
dium  usually  simple,  but  sometimes  the  epipygium  is  narrowly 
produced  at  the  apex,  with  two  parallel  longitudinal  carinfe  on 
the  disc.     T^^pe,  K.  itiiicolor  Guer. 

Key  to  the  Species  of  Rhagi(/af<ter, 
J"  (^ .  i.  Head  transverse,  not  large. 

A.  Hypopygium  tridentate. 

a.  Apical   aculeus   produced   very   much   beyond  the   lateral 
spines,  which  are  very  short. 
«•-.  With  a  shining  triangular  space  on  the  clypeus.     Entirely 
black. 
a^.  Angles  of  the  prothorax  not  prominent. 

a*.  The   shining   space   on   the   clypeus   very   sparsely 

punctured.  i?.  unicolor  Guer. 

6*.  The   shining   space   on   the   clypeus   more  strongly 

punctured.  E.  unicolor  st.  mandilndaris  Westw. 

h^.  Angles  of  the  prothorax  prominent. 

R.  unicolor  st.  ephi2)X)iger  Guer. 
h.  Lateral  spines  of  the  hypopygium  long, 
a-.  Abdomen    shallowly    and    sparsely   punctured.       Wings 
fusco-violaceous. 
ft^.  Second  recurrent  nervure  received  by  the  third  cubital 
cell  close  to  the  base, 
a*.  Median  segment  truncate,  sparsely  punctured. 

R.  auriceps,  u.sp. 
h^.  Median  segment  subtruncate,  strongly  punctured. 

R.  fuscipenni'^,  Sm. 
h^.  Second  recurrent  nervure  received  at  some  distance 
from  the  base  of  the  third  cubital  cell. 

R.  appjroximatiLs,  n.sp. 
hr..  Abdomen  closely  and  finely  punctured.     Wings  subhyaline. 

R.  crassipunctatus,  n.sp. 

B.  Hypopygium  without  lateral  spines. 

a.  Scutellum  truncate  at  the  apex, 
ft'-.  Wings  fulvo-hyaline.     Robust.  R.  fiilripennis,  n.s]}. 

h'-.  Wings  hyaline.     Slender,  R.  e/ongafm,  n.sp. 

/>.  Scutellum  subacute  at  the  apex. 
a^.  Wings  fusco-hyaline.  R.  gracilior,  n.sp. 

ii.  Head  large. 

A.  Prothorax  produced  at  the  anterior  angles. 

ft.  Head  not  produced  behind  the  eyes.     Epipygium  broadly 

rounded.  /,*.  obtiisvs  Sm. 


216  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

h.  Head  produced  behind  the  eyes,   very  large.  Epipygium 

narrowly  rounded.  R.  rejlexus  Sm. 

B.  Prothorax  not  produced  at  the  lateral  angles.  Smooth  and 
shining. 

a.  Hypopygium  without  lateral  spines.  R.  ker'fyafus  Sm. 

b.  Hypopygium  strongly  tridentate.  /*.  neptmms,  n.sp. 

$  2  .  i.  Head  nearly  square,  with  a  very  narrow  sulca  on  each  side, 
reaching  from  the  eye  to  the  occiput. 

A.  Thorax  and  median  segment  without  lateral  depressions. 

a.  Median  segment  not  concavely  hollowed. 

a-.  Epipygium  broad  at  the  base,  shortly  and  bluntly  pro- 
duced to  the  apex,  with  a  slight  median  sulca  at  the 
apex, 
a^.  Black,  head   with  two  large  ochreous  macula?  on  the 

front.  R.  unicolor  Guer. 

h-^.  Black,  head  with  two  large  ferruginous  macula?  on  the 
front,  mesothorax  and  median  segment  ferruginous. 

R.  unicolor  st.  mandibularU  Westw. 
'•"^  Black,  the  metathorax  and  median  segment  ferruginous. 

R.  unicolor  st.  ephippiger  Guer. 
b'^.  Epipygium  narrowly  produced,  with  two  subparallel  longi- 
tudinal carina?  on  the  disc. 
a^.  First  abdominal  segment  short,  vertically  truncate  at  the 

base.     Thorax  black.  R.  fuscipennis  Sm. 

b^.  First  abdominal  'segment  longer,  narrowed  to  the  base, 
where  it  is  concavely  truncate.     Thorax  red. 

R.  auric( ps,  n.sp. 
C-.  Epipygium  gradually  narrowed  to  the  apex. 
a'-^.  First   abdominal  segment  produced  above  at  the  base 

over  the  apex  of  the  median  segment.  R.  grncilior,  n.sp. 

b.  Median  segment  concavely  depressed  from  near  the  base. 

a'~.  The  depression  of  the  median  segment  very  slightly  concave. 

a*.  Prothorax  fairly  long.  R.  fulvipennis,  n.sp. 

b'^.  The  depression  of  the  median  segment  strongly  concave. 

a^.  Prothorax  very  short.  R.  approximatns,  n.sp. 

B.  Thorax  or  median  segment  with  a  depression  on  each  side. 

a.  Median  segment  with  a  very  shallow  depression  on  each  side. 
a~.  Epipygium    narrowly    produced,    with    two    subparallel 

carina?  on  the  disc.  R   crasslpunctafu^,  n.sp. 

/>■-.  Prothorax  with  a  deep  depression  on  each  side  near  the 

posterior  margin.  R.  cmalis  Westw. 

ii.  The  sulca?  on  the  head  enlarged  into  broad,  shallow  depressions. 
A.  Thorax  without  depressions. 

a.  Pygidium  simple.  R.  ktrigatus  Sm. 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNEH.  217 

Rhagigastek  unicolor  Guer. 

A^  unicolor  Guer.,  Voy.  Coq.  Zool.  ii.  2,  p.214,  1830(1839),^. 

R.  hinotatus  Westsv.,  Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  p. 105,  1844,(9). 

R,  binotatitsSa,uHS.,  Reised.Nov.Zool.ii.  1 , Hym. p. 111,1807, ((J9)- 

This  is  the  Sydney  form  of  this  widely  ranging  species.  The 
male  has  the  prothorax  narrowed  in  front,  the  anterior  lateral 
angles  not  at  all  pi  ominent.  Tlie  carina  at  tlie  base  of  the  clypeus 
is  well  developed  and  branches  near  the  base,  the  branches  not 
quite  reaching  the  anterior  margin.  Tlie  clypeus  between  the 
branches  is  shining,  sj)arsely  punctured.  The  wings  are  more 
strongly  suffused  with  violet  than  in  the  southern  forms. 

The  female  has  the  head  longer  than  wide,  slightly  rounded  at 
the  posterior  angles,  and  the  median  segment  is  rather  long  and 
not  very  strongly  broadened  from  the  base  to  tlie  apex.  The 
whole  insect  is  black,  except  two  large  luteous  spots  on  r,he  front, 
which  are  often  confluent.      Sometimes  the  legs  are  fuscous. 

Hah. — Sydney. 

R.  UNICOLOR  Guer.  st.  mandibularis  Westw. 

RJiayigasler  mandibularis  Westw.,  Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  p.105,  1844 
((J9);  Sauss.,  Reise   d.  Nov.  Zool.  ii.  1,  Hym.  p.lll((J). 

The  male  differs  very  slightly  from  the  typical^.  unicGlor,  but 
has  the  anterior  mat  gin  of  the  prothorax  more  raised  and  the 
lateral  angles  slightly  prominent.  The  shining  space  on  the 
clypeus,  between  the  carin?e,  is  more  strongly  punctured. 

The  female  has  the  head  as  broad  as  long,  the  posterior  margin 
almost  straight,  the  median  segment  strongly  broadened  from  the 
base  to  the  apex,  and  the  spots  on  the  front  ai'e  ferruginous-red, 
as  are  also  the  mesothorax,  median  segment,  and  coxse. 

Hah. — Liverpool,  Shoalhaven,  Mittagong,  N.  S.W.;  Gippsland, 
Vic. 

Saussure  gives  Sydney  as  a  locality,  but  I  think  he  is  probably 
mistaken,  thousrh  the  form  occurs  a  little  to  the  w^est. 


218  KEVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.«  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

R.  UNICOLOR  Guer.  st.  ephippiger  Guer. 

Diamma  epJiippiger  Guer.,  Voy.  Coq.  Zool.  ii  2,  p. 235,  Ib'SO 
OS39)9. 

Rhagigaster  aethiops  Sm.,  Descr.  ii.sp.H\'ni.i).175,ii.l,  1879((J). 

Thynnus  ilberhorstii  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  117,  1897((J). 

The  mrtle  has  the  anterior  lateral  angles  o£  the  j.rothorax 
strongly  developed,  the  carin^e  on  the  elypeiis  mucli  less  pro- 
minent than  in  the  typical  unicohr,  and  tlie  mesothorax  and 
scutellum  more  strongl}'  punctured.  The  wings  are  hyaline  or 
very  slightly  tinged  with  violet. 

The  female  has  the  head  as  bi  oad  as  long,  as  in  mandihularis, 
but  it  is  narrower  on  the  posterior  margin.  The  mesothorax  is 
slightly  broader  than  in  maiidibnfaris  and  the  median  segment 
shorter  and  rather  wider  at  the  base.  The  spots  on  ti)e  head  are 
almost  or  quite  absent,  and  the  mesothorax,  median  segment  and 
the  whole  of  the  legs  are  ferruijinous-red. 

Hab. — Melbourne,  Yic.  ;  Kangaroo  Island,  Adelaide,  S.A.  ; 
Albany,  VV.A. 

I  do  not  consider  these  forms  sufficiently  distinct  to  watrant 
full  specitic  i-ank,  and  so  have  retained  them  only  as  geopraphical 
races. 

R.  FUSCIPENNIS  Sm 

Rhagigaster  fuscipenuis  Sm,,  Descr.  n.sp.  Hym.  p.l7o,  n.2, 
1S79((J). 

(J.  Clypeus  tinely  punctured,  with  a  median  carina  branching 
before  the  centre,  the  branches  reaching  the  anterior  margin.  A 
carina  rounded  at  the  apex  between  the  antennae,  and  another, 
transverse  and  undulating  between  the  eyes,  below  the  anterior 
ocellus.  Head  nan-owed  posteriorly,  strongly  punctured.  Thorax 
and  scutellum  coarsely  punctured,  the  prothorax  narrowed 
anteriorl}^  the  anterior  margin  slightly  raised;  the  scutellum 
narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  strongly  punc- 
tured at  the  base,  depressed  and  more  finely  punctured  at  the 
apex.  Abdomen  sparsely  punctured  above;  segments  2-5  with 
an  impressed  transverse  line  near  the  base  and  a  slightly  raised 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TUKNEK.  219 

SQiooth  space  on  the  sides  just  before  the  apical  margin,  the  base 
of  the  segments  very  finely  punctured.  Abdomen  ))eneath 
strongly  punctured.  Epipygium  rugulose,  smooth  and  with  a 
median  carina  and  recurved  margins  at  the  extreme  apex,  which 
is  narrowl}'-  rounded.  Hypopygium  tridentate,  carinate  beneath. 
Entirely  black,  wings  fusco-violaceous. 

5.  Head  nearly  rectangular,  longer  than  broad,  rounded  at  the 
posterior  angles,  with  scattered  shallow  punctures,  and  a  short 
median  frontal  sulca;  a  narrow  space  above  the  base  of  the 
antennae  longitudinally  rugulose,  a  strong  lateral  sulca  almost 
touching  the  inner  margin  of  the  eye  and  extending  thence  almost 
to  the  posterior  margin  of  the  head.  A  few  scattered  ferruginous 
hairs,  especially  near  the  posterior  angles.  Thorax  with  a  few 
shallow  punctures,  prothorax  slightly  narrowed  anteriorly;  median 
segment  obliquely  truncate,  as  broad  at  the  apex  as  long.  First 
abdominal  segment  vertically  truncate  anteriorl}-,  short,  sparsely 
punctu>ed,  second  segment  slightly  constricted  near  the  base,  tlie 
punctures  on  segments  3-5  closer  and  more  elongate;  p^'gidium 
rugulose  at  the  base,  sharply  narrowed  posteriorly  into  a  very 
narrow  process  slightly  widened  at  the  apex,  the  surface  of  the 
process  smooth  with  recurved  margins  or  marginal  cariree  A 
row  of  golden  hairs  projecting  from  the  sides  of  the  narrow 
process.  Shining  black,  antennae  with  basal  joints  ferruginous, 
the  apical  joints  piceous,  a  luteous  mark  on  the  front  on  each 
.side  extending  from  the  inner  margin  of  the  eye  to  above  the 
base  of  the  antennas,  legs  dull  ferruginous,  apical  margins  of 
abdominal  segments  3-5,  and  the  apex  of  the  pygidinni  testaceous 
Length  9  mm. 

Hah — ^^Mackay,  Q.((J9  i"  cop.). 

R.   APPKOXIMATUS,   U.sp. 

^.  Clypeus  with  a  median  carina  from  the  l)ase,  branching  at 
the  centre,  the  branches  reaching  the  anterior  margin.  A  V-shaped 
carina  between  the  antennae,  and  another  broadly  arched  between 
the  eyes.  Head,  thorax,  and  scutellum  punctured,  prothorax 
narrowed   anteriorly,    with  the  anterior  margin  slightly  raised; 


220  RKVISION  OF  THE  THVXNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,    I., 

the  scutellum  triangular,  very  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex. 
Median  segment  strongly  punctured  at  the  base,  truncate  and 
verv  tinely  punctured- rngulose  at  the  apex.  Abdomen  rather 
sparsely  punctured,  with  an  impressed  transverse  line  near  the 
base,  and  a  curved  elevation  strongly  emarginate  in  the  costa 
close  to  apical  margin  of  segments  2-5.  Epipygium  rugose, 
smooth  and  with  a  median  carina  and  recurved  margins  at  the 
extreme  apex,  which  is  narrowly  rounded.  Hypopygium  tri- 
dent ate,  carinate  beneath,  wincjs  fusco-violaceous.  The  second 
recurrent  nervure  is  received  by  the  third  cubital  cell  at  about 
one-third  of  the  distance  from  the  base  to  the  apex,  not  quite 
close  to  the  base  as  in  other  species  of  the  genus.      Length  13mm. 

Q.  Head  subquadrate,  slightly  rounded  at  the  posterior  angle>^, 
very  sparsely  punctured,  a  short  median  sulca  between  the 
antenna?,  the  space  above  the  base  of  the  antenna?  densely 
punctured,  and  thinly  clothed  with  fulvous  pubescence.  An 
almost  straight  sulca  on  each  side  from  the  inner  margin  of  the 
eve  to  the  occiput;  and  a  shallow  depressed  mark  on  each  side  of 
the  vertex,  very  nai-rowly  separated.  Thorax  and  abdomen 
sparsely  punctured  ;  the  thorax  short,  the  medinn  segment 
obliquely  truncated  from  the  base,  the  surface  ot  the  truncation 
very  strongly  concave.  First  abdominal  segment  vertically  trun- 
cate anteriorly;  epipygium  elongate,  produced  near  the  base  at 
the  sides  into  strong  angles,  thence  narrowed  and  produced,  the 
disc  narrow,  raised  at  the  margins  into  very  slight  subparallel 
carin^e;  a  tuft  of  golden  hairs  on  each  side  at  the  apex.  Black; 
the  legs  and  antenme  fuscous.      Length  9  mm 

Hab. — Cairns,  Q.((J9  in  cop.). 

The  male  is  very  near  R.  jusci'penyvs^  and  I  should  have 
hesitated  to  describe  it  had  it  been  taken  without  the  female, 
which  is  quite  different,  especially  in  the  median  segment. 

11.  AURICEPS,  n.sp. 

^.  Clypeus  with  a  carina  from  the  base  to  the  middle,  thence 
bi  anching,  the  branches  reaching  the  anterior  margin,  the  enclosed 
triangular  space  narrow  and  rugose,  the  sides  of  the  clj^peus  very 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNER.  221 

finely  jAinctured.  Head  6ne]y  rugulose  on  the  front,  shallowly 
punctured  on  the  occiput,  a  transverse  slightly  arched  carina 
between  the  eyes,  and  a  carina  broadly  rounded  at  the  apex 
between  the  antennae.  Thorax  strongly  punctured,  most  sparsely 
on  the  disc  of  the  mesonotum.  Scutellum  broadly  rounded  at 
the  apex.  Median  segment  truncate  posteriorly,  rather  sparsel}^ 
punctured  on  the  basal  portion,  with  a  small,  smooth,  shining 
mark  at  the  extreme  base,  densely  and  tinel}''  punctured  at  the 
apex,  Abdomen  sparsel}'-  and  shallowl}'-  punctured,  a  transverse 
row  of  very  fine  punctures,  emarginate  in  the  middle,  near  the 
apex  of  each  segment.  Epipygium  rugose,  the  extreme  apex 
smooth  with  a  median  carina,  not  reaching  tlie  apical  margin. 
Hypopygium  strongly  tridentate,  carinate  beneath.  Entirely 
shining  black,  the  pubescence  on  the  sides  of  the  clypeus  grey, 
on  the  centre  of  the  ci3'peus  and  head  golden.  Wings  dark 
violet-blue,  fusco-hyaline  at  the  apex,  the  nervures  black. 
Length  1-1  mm. 

9.  Head  subquadrate,  slightly  longer  than  broad,  rounded  at 
the  posterior  angles,  but  not  so  much  produced  posteriorly  as  in 
R.  fuscipennis',  head  i)unctiired,  densely  just  above  the  base  of 
the  antennae,  sparsely  elsewhere.  A  short  median  sulca  on  the 
front  between  the  antennae.  The  lateral  suktie  on  the  head 
reaching  from  the  eye  to  the  occiput  converge  more  closely  on 
the  occiput  than  in  R.  fascipennis.  Thorax  and  median  segment 
shining,  sparsely  punctured.  Abdomen  shining,  finely  punctured, 
the  first  segment  concavely  truncate  anteriorly,  and  with  a 
minute  tubercle  at  the  base  beneath.  Epi[)ygium  with  a  narrow 
shining  median  elevation,  the  margins  of  which  form  raised 
carinas,  the  sides  of  which  near  the  apex  are  clothed  with  a  few 
long  pale  fulvous  hairs.  Shining  black,  the  mandibles  fusco- 
ferruginous;  thorax,  median  segment  and  legs  bright  ferruginous- 
red,  the  apex  of  the  pygidium  testaceous.     Length  9  mm. 

Hah. — Cairns,  Q.(cJ2  in  cop.). 

Very  near  R.  fascipennis,  from  which  it  differs  most  markedly 
in  the  shape  of  the  median  segment  in  the  male  and  of  the  first 
abdominal  segment  in  the  female. 
17 


222  RKVISION  OF  THE  TH^NNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,  I., 

R.   CRASSIPUNCTATUS,   11. sp. 

(J,  Clypeus  with  a  median  carina  from  the  base  to  beyond  the 
centre,  finely  punctured  and  covered  with  cinereous  pubescence. 
A  broadly  rounded  carina  between  the  base  of  the  antennae  and 
a  transverse  one,  less  distinct  than  in  R.  fuscipennis,  between 
the  eyes.  Head  densely  punctured,  more  shall owl}^  and  sparsely 
on  the  occiput  than  on  the  front.  Thorax  and  median  segment 
densely  punctured;  the  anterior  margin  of  the  pro  thorax  \ery 
slightly  raised,  the  median  segment  narrowly  truncate  at  the 
extreme  apex.  Abdomen  finely  and  densely  punctured,  the 
punctures  at  the  base  of  the  segments  very  minute.  An  im- 
pressed transverse  line  near  the  base,  and  a  raised  smooth  mark 
on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin  of  segments  2-5.  Epipygium 
rugose.  Hypopygium  tridentate.  Abdomen  beneath  more 
sparsely  punctured  than  above.  Entirely  black,  the  pubescence 
cinereous.  Wings  hyaline  faintly  tinted  w4th  fuscous,  nervures 
fuscous.     Length  14  mm. 

9.  Head  large,  rectangular,  somewhat  broader  than  long, 
hardly  rounded  at  all  at  the  posterior  angles,  a  short  median 
frontal  sulca,  the  space  between  the  sulca  and  the  eyes  longi- 
tudinally rugulose.  The  long  sulcje  from  the  inner  margin  of  the 
eye  to  the  occiput  approach  each  other  as  in  R.  auriceps.  The 
vertex  is  smooth  and  the  clypeus  is  narrowly  emarginate  at  the 
apex.  Thorax  smooth,  the  truncation  of  the  median  segment 
finely  and  densely  punctured.  Median  segment  broadened  from 
the  base  to  the  apex,  with  shallow  depressions  on  tiie  sides, 
leaving  a  slightly  raised  central  subtriangular  space.  Abdomen 
sparsely  punctured,  the  punctures  elongate:  the  first  segment 
short  and  broad,  vertically  truncate  anteriorly,  with  a  minute 
tubercle  at  the  base  beneath  and  an  oblique  triangular  trunca- 
tion at  the  apex.  The  epipygium  is  narrowed  before  the  apex, 
and  has  a  narrow,  smooth,  median  elevation,  the  margins  of  which 
are  raised,  forming  longitudinal,  slightly  diverging  carinse. 
Length  1 1  mm. 

Ilab. — Mackay,  Q.((J9  ^^  cop.). 


BY  ROAVLAND  E.   TURNER.  223 

Allied  to  R.  fuscijjennis  Sm.,  from  which  it  maybe  distin- 
guished by  the  densely  punctured  abdomen  of  the  male,  and  the 
shape  of  the  head  and  sculpture  of  the  median  segment  in  the 

female. 

R.  GRACILIOR,  n.sp. 

^.  Clypeus  longitudinally  carinate  at  the  base,  the  carina 
branching  in  the  centre,  the  branches  enclosing  a  triangular  space 
reaching  to  the  apical  margin,  which  is  emarginate  at  the  apex, 
A  broadly  V-shaped  carina  between  the  antennae,  and  a  transverse 
frontal  carina  reaching  to  the  eyes.  Clypeus  punctured,  covered 
with  grey  pubescence,  fulvous  between  the  carinse.  The  space 
between  the  frontal  carinas  rugulose;  occiput  shining,  with  large 
shallow  punctures.  Thorax  shining,  sparsely  covered  with 
shallow  punctures.  Scutellum  subacute  at  the  apex.  Median 
segment  rounded,  densely  and  finely  punctured  at  the  base, 
delicately  reticulate  towards  the  apex,  with  white  pubescence  on 
the  sides.  Abdomen  sparsely  punctured,  the  punctures  large  and 
shallow,  the  base  of  the  segments  Yevy  delicately  punctured, 
beneath  more  densely  punctured;  segments  2-6  above  with  a 
depressed  transverse  line  near  the  base,  and  a  raised  space  at  the 
sides  near  the  apical  margin.  Epipygium  rugose,  rather  broadly 
rounded  at  the  apex.  Hj'-popygium  without  lateral  spines,  aculeus 
with  a  blunt  tooth  on  the  upper  surface.  Black,  the  mandibles 
at  the  apex,  and  the  legs,  excepting  the  cox£e,  obscure  fuscous. 
Wings  fusco-hyaline,  in  some  specimens  almost  hyaline.  Length 
14  mm. 

5.  Head  longer  than  wide,  rounded  at  the  posterior  angles. 
Clypeus  rugulose;  front  above  the  antenna?  with  fine  golden 
pubescence,  densely  punctured  and  with  a  m^^dian  sulca.  A 
narrow  lateral  sulca  reaching  from  the  inner  margin  of  the  eye 
to  the  occiput  in  an  almost  straight  line,  the  sulcai  not  convergent. 
Thorax  sparsely  punctured,  median  segment  only  slightly 
broadened  posteriorly.  Abdomen  sparse!}^  punctured,  the  first 
segment  longer  above  than  beneath,  narrowed  from  the  apex  to 
the  base,  produced  at  the  base  above,  overlapping  the  oblique 
truncation  of  the  median  segment,  which  is  clothed  with  golden 


224  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.?:  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

pubescence.  Epipygium  without  carinse,  with  a  small  tuft  of 
golden  hairs  on  each  side  near  the  apex.     Length  1 1  mm. 

Shining  black,  the  mandibles,  except  at  the  apex,  the  antennae 
and  legs,  ferruginous. 

Ilab. — Mackay,  Q.((J9  in  cop.). 

R.   FULVIPENNIS,  n.sp. 

^.  Clypeus  tumid  at  the  base,  with  a  longitudinal  carina  from 
the  base  to  the  centre,  densely  clothed  with  vvhite  pubescence, 
the  pubescence  on  the  middle  of  the  anterior  margin  fulvous; 
front  coarsely,  occiput  finely  rugulose.  A  transverse  carina 
between,  but  not  touching  the  eyes,  and  another  rounded  at  the 
apex  between  the  antennae.  Thorax  densely  punctured,  scutellum 
narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex;  median  segment  subtruncate, 
punctured  at  the  base,  finely  rugulose  at  the  apex.  Pubescence 
on  head  and  thorax  fulvous  above,  grey  beneath.  Abdominal 
segments  coarsely  punctured,  more  finely  at  the  base  of  tlie 
segments.  The  segments  beneath  thinly  fringed  with  long  gre}^ 
pubescence  at  the  apex.  H3^popygium  without  lateral  spines. 
Black,  the  mandibles  at  the  apex,  scape  of  the  antennae  and  legs, 
except  the  coxae,  ferruginous.  Tegulae  testaceous.  Wings  flavo- 
hyaline,  nei  vnres  ferruginous.      Length  16  mm. 

9-  Head  subrectangular,  as  broad  in  front  as  long,  slightly 
produced  posteriorly,  smooth  and  shining,  with  scattered  shallow 
punctures  and  a  short  median  frontal  suture,  a  narrow  space 
above  the  base  of  the  antennae  longitudinally  rugose,  a  strong- 
lateral  sulca  on  each  side  from  near  the  inner  margin  of  the  eye 
to  the  occiput,  the  sulcae  moderately  straight  as  in  R.  fascifetinix. 
Prothorax  gradually  narrowed  to  the  anterior  margin,  which  is 
strongly  depressed,  finely  punctured  on  the  depressed  portion, 
then  a  narrow  rugulose  space,  then  smooth  with  a  few  scattered 
punctures  to  the  posterior  margin.  Median  segment  short, 
oblique  truncate  posteriorly,  the  truncation  covered  with  very 
fine  punctures.  Abdomen  shining,  with  scattered  punctures, 
first  segment  short  and  truncate  at  the  base.  Pygidium  simple, 
pointed    at    the    apex.      Black;  mandibles,    clypeus,  antennae,   a 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  225 

spot   at    the    anterior    angles    of     the    head    on    each    side    and 
the  whole  of  the  legs  ferruginous.     Length  S  mm. 
Hab. — Cape  York,  Q.((J9  in  cop.). 

R.   ELONGATUS,   n.Sp. 

(J.  Entirely  shining  black,  with  thin,  short  grey  pubescence; 
femora,  tibiae  and  tarsi  dark  fuscous.  Very  slender.  Clypeus 
with  a  longitudinal  carina  from  the  base  to  the  centre,  where  it 
branches  widely,  densely  clothed  with  pubescence.  Front  punc- 
tured-rugulose,  a  very  faint  transverse  carina  below  the  anterior 
ocellus  and  another  rather  more  distinct  and  arched  a  little  below 
it.  The  interantennal  carina  very  indistinct  and  broadl)^  rounded 
at  the  apex;  the  occiput  sparsely  and  shallowly  punctured.  Pro- 
thorax  punctured,  the  anterior  margin  slightly  raised;  mesothorax 
and  scutellum  sparsely  punctured,  the  scutellum  rather  broadly 
subtruncate  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  and  abdomen  sparsely 
punctured,  the  median  segment  rounded  and  narrowed  at  the 
apex.  Abdominal  segments* slightly  constricted  at  the  base. 
Epipygium  rugose,  depressed,  subtriangular,  narrowly  rounded 
at  the  apex.  Aculeus  projecting  shortly  beyond  the  epipygium. 
Wings  hyaline,  the  fore  wings  washed  with  fuscous,  hind  wings 
iridescent.     Length  11  mm. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hab. — Queensland. 

Type  in  Oxford  University  Museum,  ex  Coll.  Saunders. 

R.  ANALis  Westw. 

Rhagigaster  analis  Westw.,  Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  p.  105,  n.8,  1844(9). 

R.  nitidus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hjm.  B.M.  vii.  p.63,  n.l6,  1859(9). 

Thynnus  demattioi  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  104,  1897(9). 

Thynnus  exneri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  106,  1897(9). 

9.  Head  much  longer  than  broad;  front  between  antennae 
strongly  emarginate,  with  a  short  median  sulca;  above  the  base 
of  the  antenna3  finely  and  densely  punctured;  the  remainder  of 
the  head  sparsely  punctured.  Tlie  lateral  sulca  from  the  eye  does 
not  reach  the  occiput,  and  is  straight  and  shorter  than  in  other 
species  of  the  genus.     Thorax  sparsely  punctured,  the  prothorax 


•226  REVISION  OF  THE  THVNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

with  a  deep  depression  on  each  side  close  to  the  posterior  margin; 
median  segment  only  slightly  widened  from  the  base  to  the  apex. 
Abdomen  subcylindrical,  shining,  finely  punctured,  the  first 
segment  vertically  truncate  at  the  base,  without  a  tubercle  at  the 
base  beneath.  Pygidium  elongate,  arcuate,  simple,  without 
carinas  and  rounded  at  the  apex.  Shining  black;  the  mandibles, 
antennae,  clypeus,  a  spot  on  each  side  between  the  eye  and  the 
base  of  the  antennae,  and  the  legs,  ferruginous;  the  pygidium 
bright  ferruginous-red.     Length  11  ram. 

Smith  mentions  a  shallow  depression  on  each  side  of  the  median 
segment,  which  is  scarcely  visible  though  the  segment  is  slightly 
higher  in  the  middle. 

Bab. — Western  Australia. 

R.  REFLEXUS  Sm. 

Rliagiyaster  reflexus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p. 62,  n.l2,  1851'. 

(J.  Head  very  large,  clypeus  with  a  short  A-shaped  carina. 
Lateral  angles  of  the  prothorax  prominent.  Epip3'o;ium  strongly 
rugulose,  narrowh^  rounded  at  the  apex.  The  second  recurrent 
nervure  is  interstitial  with  the  second  transverse  cubital  nervure. 
Antennae  short  and  stout. 

9-  Unknown. 

Hab. — Swan  River,  \Y.A. 

R.  OBTUSUS  Sm. 

Rhagigaster  obtusus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p.62,  n.ll. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  short  A-shaped  carina  at  the  base,  a  trans- 
verse carina  in  front  of  the  anterior  ocellus,  the  piominenee 
between  the  antennae  rounded  at  the  apex.  Epipygiura  broarlly 
rounded  at  the  apex. 

9.  Uuknown. 

Hab. — A^delaide,  S.A. 

R.  LiEVIGATUS  Sm. 
A'Aaf/i^ai'i!e/'^reiu"^a<:?t6'Sm.,Descr.n.sp.Hym.p.l76,n.4, 1879((J9). 
(j".  The  cl3-peus  is  carinated,  the  carina  branching  just  below 
the  base    into   two,   enclosing  a   triangular   space,    transversely 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  227 

rugulose.  There  is  a  deep  depression  at  the  base  of  the  antennae, 
and  a  median  sulca  on  the  prominence  between  the  antennae. 
The  head  is  punctured,  not  narrowed  posteriorly.  The  thorax  is 
smooth  with  a  very  few  fine  and  scattered  punctures;  the  prothorax 
as  wide  as  the  head;  the  scutellum  very  prominent,  its  sides  and 
the  postscutellum  finely  ])unctured  and  pubescent.  Median 
segment  smooth,  vertically  truncate  posteriorly.  Abdomen 
shining,  with  large  shallow  punctures,  very  sparse  on  the  basal 
segments.  First  segment  truncate  at  the  base,  subtubercular 
above  the  truncation.  Second  segment  with  a  tubercle  at  the 
base  beneath.  Epipygium  coarsely  punctured,  carinated  in  the 
middle  on  the  apical  portion,  depressed  and  slightly  produced  at 
the  apical  margin,  with  sparse  fulvous  pubescence.  Shining 
black;  tarsi  fuscous,  spines  and  ungues  ferruginous.  Wings 
fuscous,  lighter  at  apex,  brilliantly  glossed  with  purple.  Length 
25  mm. 

^.  Instead  of  the  sulca?  from  the  eye  to  the  occiput  usual  in 
the  genus  there  is  a  broad  longitudinal  depression.  The  clypeus 
has  a  median  carina. 

Bab.—  ls.W.  Australia  (Smith);  Townsville,  Q.  (Dodd). 

I  his  seems  to  be  a  rare  species. 

R.  NEPTUNUS,  n.sp. 

^.  Head  shining,  sparsely  punctured,  more  densely  above  the 
base  of  the  antennae;  a  median  frontal  sulca  from  just  below  the 
anterior  ocellus  to  the  base  of  the  clypeus;  clypeus  narrow,  sub- 
triangular,  broadly  emarginate  anteriorl}^  Antennee  very  short. 
Thorax  highly  polished  with  a  few  scattered  punctures,  the  pro- 
thorax  as  broad  as  the  head,  emarginate  in  the  middle  anteriorly; 
the  impressed  longitudinal  lines  on  the  sides  of  the  mesothorax 
shallow  as  in  R.  Jcevigatus  Sm.;  the  scutellum  raised,  subtri- 
angular,  without  punctures;  median  segment  short,  vertically 
truncate,  with  a  few  scattered  punctures.  First  abdominal  seg- 
ment obliquely  truncate  anteriorly.  All  the  segments  sparsely 
punctured,  except  the  epipygium,  which  is  deeply  and  coarsely 
punctured.     Segments  2-6  with  a  depressed  transverse  line  neai- 


228  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

the  base,  the  basal  area  without  punctures.  Hypopygiuiu  broad 
at  the  base  witli  a  central  recurved  aculeus  and  two  long  lateral 
spines.  A  deep  notch  beneath  between  the  first  and  second 
segments,  the  tubercle  at  the  base  of  the  first  segment  very 
slightly  developed,  and  no  tubercle  on  the  basal  margin  of  the 
second  segment :  the  segments  beneath  more  strongly  punctured 
than  above,  the  two  apical  segments  more  finely  and  densely  than 
the  others.  Entirely  shining  black,  the  wings  fuscous  flushed 
with  violet,  the  uervures  black.     Length  16  mm. 

Hah.  —  Port  Essington. 

Type  in  Oxford  University  Museum,  ex  Coll.  Shuckard. 

Near  R.  kevigatus  Sm.,  but  differs  by  the  tridentate  hypopy- 
oinm,  the  absence  of  a  tubercle  at  the  base  of  the  second 
abdominal  segment  beneath,  the  narrower  clypeus  and  more 
triangular  scutellum. 

From  beyond  Australia  one  true  Rhagigaster  has  been  described. 

Rhagigastkr  novar.e  Sauss. 
Rhagigaster  novaroi  Sauss..  Raised.  No^ .  Zool.  ii.  l,Hym.p.  112, 
1867. 

Thynnus  heiJeri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym,  viii.  108,  1897. 

Hah.  —  New  Zealand. 

Apparently  allied  to  R.  unicolor  Guer. 

Other  species  which  have  been  assigned  to  Rhagigaster^  but 
which  I  do  not  place  either  in  Rhagigaster  or  in  the  allied  genera 
Rhytidogaster  or  Enteles  are  : — 

R.  iUustris  Kirby  (Horn  Exped.  Pt.l,  1898)  g. 

i?./avi//-oHsSm.(Trans.Ent.Soc.London(3),ii.5,p.390,1865)9. 

R.  clypQatus  Sm.  (Descr.n.sp.  Hym.  177,  1S79)  [$']  identical 
with  Thynnus  coelehs  Sauss.  ($),  and  with  Thynnus  clypearis 
Sauss.((JO). 

Bethylus  apterus  Fab.  (Syst.  Piez.  p.238,2)  is  placed-  by  West- 
wood  in  this  genus;  but  I  do  not  think  "  abdomen  pilosum  " 
could  be  applied  to  any  Rhagigaster. 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TUKNEK.  229 

Genus  R  H  y  t  i  d  o  g  a  s  t  e  r,  n.g. 

^.  Very  near  Rhagigastey\  from  which  it  may  be  distinguished 
by  the  absence  of  the  well  defined  frontal  carina  between  the 
eyes  and  by  the  absence  of  the  long  A-shaped  carina  on  the 
clj^peus.      Hypopygiura  without  lateral  spines. 

9.  Head  without  lateral  sulcse,  mandibles  never  bidentate, 
maxillary  palpi  imperfect,  four-jointed.  Pygidium  simple. 
Tarsal  ungues  simple,  not  bifid.  Abdomen  usualh^  cylindrical. 
Corresponds  to  Saussure's  Rhagigaster  Sections  B  and  C.  The 
difference  between  the  females  and  those  of  the  true  Eliagigaster 
seems  sufticient  to  justify  their  separation,  though  the  malt^s  are 
very  near. 

Type  Rhagigaster  aculeatus  Sauss. 

Key  to  the  Species  of  Rhytidou aster. 
cJ  J',  i.  Median  segment  rounded. 
A.  Prothorax  produced  at  the  anterior  angles. 

ft.  Wholly  black,     Clypeus  without  a  prominent  tubercle, 
a^,  Epipygium  rounded  at  apex, 
a^.  Apical  margins  of  epipygium  reflexed.  R.  alexins,  n.sp. 

b'^.  Apical  margins  of  epipygium  not  retlexed.  R.  trisfis  Sm. 

//-.  Epipygium  truncate  at  the  apex. 
a^.  Epipygium  very  narrowly  truncate,   with   a   spine  on 

each  side  near  the  base.  i?.  denticulatus,  n.sp. 

6^.  Epipygium    more    broadly    truncate,    without    lateral 

spines.  i?.  bidens  Sauss. 

h.  Clypeus  with  an  acute  prominent  tubercle  near  base. 
a'^.  Wholly  black.  R.  cornntns,  n.sp. 

c.  'I'wo  apical  abdominal  segments  red. 

a-.  Clypeus  with  a  smooth  subtriangular  space  at  the  apex 

enclosed  by  a  carina.  R.  iracuudus,  n.sp. 

//•^.  Clypeus  with  a  triangular  oblique  truncation  at  the  apex. 

a=^.  Tibige  and  tarsi  ferruginous-red.  R.  com2jaratus  Sm. 

b^.  Legs  entirely  black.  R.  tumidus,  n.sp. 

d.  Mesopleurps  red.  R.  pugionatm  Sauss. 
f'..  Abdomen  ferruginous,  sometimes  marked  with  black  on  the 

disc  of  the  segments.  R.  aculeatus  Sauss. 

ii.  Median  segment  obliquely  truncate. 

A.  Prothorax  produced  at  the  anterior  angles. 
a.  Prothorax  strongly  emarginate  anteriorly, 
a'-.  Wholly  black.  R.  consangaineus,  n.sp. 


230  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNXID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

b.  Prothorax  not  emarginate. 
a'~.  Two  apical  segments  red.  •  i?.  ijinguiculus,  n.sp. 

B.  Prothorax  not  produced  at  the  anterior  angles. 
a.  Prothorax  truncate  anteriorly. 
a"2.  Black,  prothorax  and  mesopleurse  red.  R.  pvothoraciciis,  n.&p, 

6'2.  Black,  abdomen  except  basal  segment  ferruginous. 

R.  hrermsciihis,  n.sp. 

$  $  .  i.  With  a  depression  on  each  side  of  the  prothorax  near  the 
posterior  margin. 

A.  Median  segment  without  a  carina. 

a.  Median  segment  trapezoidal,  much  broadened  to  the  apex. 
a^.  Black;  the  mesothorax,  median  segment,  legs  and  pygi- 

dium  ferruginous.  R.  piigionafus  Sauss. 

b'^.  Wholly  castaneous.  R.  acuhaius  Sauss. 

b.  Median  segment  subcylindrical,  very  little  broadened  to  the 

apex. 
a2.  Black,  the  legs  and  margins  of  the  abdominal  segments 

testaceous-brown.  R.  tiimidus,  n.sp. 

B.  Median  segment  carinated. 

a.  The  carina  very  slightly  developed. 

a"2.  The  depression  on  the  prothorax  slight  and  only  on  the 

posterior  margin.  R.  dmticniatus,  n.sp. 

b'^.  The  depressions  large,  almost  reaching  anterior  margin. 

R.  prothoracicus,  n.sp. 

b.  Carina  very  prominent. 

a'~.  Prothorax  rounded  anteriorly.  R.  brevinsculus,  n.sp. 

b".  Prothorax  with  the  anterior  angles  prominent  and  toothed 

R.  alexins,  n.sp. 
ii.  Without  depressions  on  the  prothorax. 

A.  Head  narrow,  much  longer  than  wide. 

a.  Wholly  castaneous.  R.  bkhn-s  Sauss. 

B.  Head  subquadrate,  slightly  longer  than  wide. 
ft.  Shining,  abdomen  finely  punctured. 

a2.  Light  ferruginous  ;    head,   mesothorax    and  disc  of  ab- 
dominal segments  black.  R.  consangiiinens,  n.sp. 

b.  Opaque,  abdomen  longitudinally  rugulose. 

a^.  Antennae,  legs  and  two  apical  abdominal  segments  ferru- 
ginous. R.  comparafus  Sm. 

c.  The  truncation  of  the  median  segment  concave. 

ft2.  Wholly  castaneous,  R.  ca-^tanetis  Sm. 

R.   ALEXIUS,  n.sp. 
^.  Clypeus  densely  clothed  with  white  pubescence;  head  punc- 
tured,   a  carina  between  the  antenna?   broadly   rounded  at  the 


BY   ROAVLAXD  E.   TURNER.  231 

apex.  The  anterior  margin  of  thepronotum  raised  with  a  groove 
behind  the  elevation,  broadly  emarginate.  The  thorax  punctured, 
the  mesothorax  and  scutellum  most  coarsely.  Median  segment 
punctured,  rounded  to  the  apex.  Abdominal  segments  shallowi y 
punctured;  a  transverse  impressed  line,  with  a  row  of  fine  punc- 
tures on  the  basal  side  of  it,  near  the  base,  and  a  raised  mark  on 
each  side  near  the  apical  margin  of  segments  2-6.  Epipygium 
deeply  punctured,  the  apical  margins  strongly  recurved.  Entirely 
black,  with  white  pubescence.  Wings  hyaline,  primaries  faintl}' 
fusco-hyaline  on  the  apical  third,  secondaries  iridescent.  Length 
(S-IO  mm. 

9.  Head  quadrate,  as  broad  as  long,  slightl}^  rounded  at  the 
posterior  angles,  densely  and  finely  punctured,  with  thin  cinereous 
pubescence,  a  deep  semicircular  depression  on  the  middle  of  the 
posterior  margin.  Prothorax  short,  broader  than  long,  with  the 
anterior  lateral  angle  on  each  side  produced  into  an  acute  spine, 
and  a  depression  on  each  side  of  the  posterior  ma? gin,  extending 
on  to  the  mesothorax.  The  mesothorax  raised  in  the  middle  into 
a  rounded  subtubercular  elevation.  Median  segment  rather 
short,  broadened  to  the  apex,  where  it  is  almost  vei  tically  trun- 
cate, with  a  broad  median  carina,  and  the  margins  of  the  segment 
raised,  leaving  a  deep  depression  on  each  side  of  the  median 
carina.  The  thorax  and  median  segment  shining,  sparsely  and 
finely  punctured.  Abdomen  subcylindrical,  finely  and  densely 
punctured,  the  punctures  on  the  apical  half  of  each  segment 
elongate.  The  second  and  third  segments  are  more  densely 
punctured  than  the  others  and  are  thinly  clothed  with  fine  pubes- 
cence on  the  apical  half,  giving  an  appearance  of  longitudinal 
stride.  Enipygium  elongate,  strongly  detlexed  to  the  apex,  with 
a  very  slender  acute  spine  at  the  side  near  the  base,  the  lateral 
margins  on  the  apical  half  of  the  segment  raised  into  carinas,  the 
space  between  them  longitudinally  striated  to  the  apex,  which  is 
narrowly  rounded.  Black;  antennie,  mandibles,  legs  and  abdomen 
chestnut-brown.      Length  G-8  mm. 

Hah. — Cape  York,  Q.((J9  in  cop.). 


•232  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF   AUSTRALIA,   I., 

R.   TRISTIS  Sill. 

Rhagigdster  tristis  Sm.,  Cat.Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p.63,ii.l3, 1859(^). 
•      Thynnus  hammerlei  D.T.,  Cat.  Hyiii.  viii.  108,  1897(^). 

The  clypeushas  a  very  short  carina  from  the  base,  then  branch- 
ing, the  space  between  the  ])ranches  smooth  and  shining.  A 
very  faint  V-sliaped  carina  between  the  antennae.  Head,  thorax 
and  median  segment  punctured-rugose,  most  coarsely  on  the 
mesothorax  and  scutellum;  the  nrothorax  with  the  anterior  angles 
slightly  prominent;  the  scutellum  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex. 
Abdomen  slender,  rugulose,  segments  2-5  with  a  depressed  trans- 
verse line  at  the  ])ase  and  a  smooth,  polished,  raised  mark  on 
each  side  near  the  apical  margin.  Epipygium  coarsely  punctured 
at  the  base,  smooth  and  rounded  at  the  extreme  apex.  Black; 
wings  h3^aline,  iridescent,  nervures  black.      Length  11  mm. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Western  Australia. 

R.   DENTICULATUS,  n.sp. 

^.  Cl3'peus  densely  clothed  with  grey  pubescence,  with  a 
median  carina  from  the  base  to  the  apex.  Head  rugulose.  finely 
punctured  on  the  occiput.  Prothorax  rugose,  moderately  pro- 
duced at  the  anterior  angles;  mesothorax  and  scutellum  coarsely 
rugose.  Median  segment  very  densely  punctured,  obliquely 
depressed  to  the  apex.  Abdominal  segments  punctured,  with  a 
depressed  transverse  line  near  the  base  and  a  raised  mark  on  each 
side  near  the  apical  margin  of  segments  2-5.  Epipygium  rugose, 
with  a  spine  on  each  side  near  the  l)ase,  the  apex  narrowly 
truncate.  Entirely  black,  legs  fuscous.  Wings  fusco-hy aline, 
slightly  iridescent.      Length  11  mm. 

9.  Head  much  longer  than  broad,  rectangular,  shining,  sparsely 
punctured.  Prothorax  very  faintly  punctured,  with  a  depression 
on  each  side,  broad  and  deep  on  the  posterior  margin,  reaching 
nearly  half-way  to  the  anterior  margin,  but  becoming  narrower 
and  less  deep.  Median  segment  more  strongly  punctured,  with 
a  faint  median  longitudinal  carina,  oblic^uely  truncate  at  the  apex, 


BY  ROWLAND  E.    TURNER.  233 

bro^^denecl  from  the  base.      Abdominal  segments  densely  covered 
with  elongate  punctures.     Pygidiura  narrow  and  strongly  deflexed 
at  the  apex.      Abdomen  cylindrical.      Length  7  mm. 
Hab. — Macka}^,  Q.((J9  i*^  cop.). 

R.  BiDENS  Sauss. 

Rhagigaster  bidens  Sauss.,  Reise  d.  Nov.  Zool.  ii.  1,  Hym.  p.  11  2, 
n.3,  1867(^), 

Thynnus  seraijeri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  113,  1897. 

Saussure's  description  of  the  male  is  sufiicieht.  It  is  a  much 
smaller  species  tliMi  jRhagigasier  unicoloi' Guev.,  and  of  an  opaque 
black  with  subfuscous  wings;  the  sculpture  is  also  very  different. 

2.  Head  rectangular,  much  longer  than  broad,  deeply  but 
rather  sparsely  scul|)tured,  not  very  much  broader  than  the  pi-o- 
thorax.  Prothorax  narrowed  anteriorly,  as  bro^d  on  the  anterior 
margin  as  long;  mesothorax  small,  much  narrowed  posteriorl3\ 
Median  segment  as  long  as  the  prothorax,  broadened  posteriorly 
and  obliquely  truncate ;  thorax  and  median  segment  rather 
shallowly  punctured.  Abdomen  cylindrical,  thickly  covered 
with  elongate  punctures,  which  are  deeper  and  larger  on  the 
three  basal  than  on  the  apical  segments.  Pygidium  narrowly 
truncate  at  the  apex.      Entirely  castaneous.      Length  10  mm. 

Hab— Sydney  (Coll.  Froggatt). 

R.  CORNUTUS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  slightly  emarginate  at  the  apex,  with  a  longitudinal 
carina  from  the  base,  which  terminates  in  the  middle  of  the 
clypeus  in  a  very  prominent  acute  tubercle.  A  V-shaped  carina 
between  the  antennae,  but  no  transverse  frontal  carina.  Front 
strongly,  occiput  more  finely  punctured.  Thorax  strongly  and 
densely,  median  segment  rather  more  finely  punctured  and 
rounded  posteriori}-.  First  abdominal  segment  with  a  median 
sulca  from  the  base  not  reaching  the  apex;  segments  2-5  with  a 
strongly  depressed  line  near  the  base,  and  the  sides  raised  near 
the  apical  margin  forming  an  emarginate  carina  almost  obsolete 


*234  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

ill  the  centre.  The  segments  finely  punctured  at  the  base,  more 
strongly  and  sparsely  near  the  apex,  the  two  apical  segments 
coarsely  punctured.  Entirely  black;  wings  hyaline,  nervures 
fuscous,  a  slight  fuscous  cloud  in  the  radial  cell.      Length  1 1  mm. 

Hah.  —Australia.     T3^pe  in  British  Museum. 

Easily  distinguished  by  the  prominent  tubercle  on  the  clypeus. 

R.   CASTANEUS  Sm. 

Rhagigaster  castaneus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.  M.  vii.  p. 63,  n.l5, 
1859(9). 

Head  quadrate,  the  front  longitudinally  rugulose,  pubescent; 
the  occiput  finely  and  sparsely  punctured,  without  a  sulca 
between  the  antennse.  Thorax  short,  the  prothorax  rather 
broader  than  long,  punctured  sparsely.  Median  segment  short, 
broadened  posteriorly,  obliquely  truncate,  the  surface  of  the 
truncation  concave.  Abdomen  subcylindrical,  finely  punctured, 
the  epipygium  longitudinally  rugulose,  rounded  at  the  apex. 
Entirely  castaneous-brown.      Length  8  mm. 

Hah.  —  Australia. 

R.  PUGioNATUS  Sauss. 

Rhagigaster  pugionatas  Sauss.,  Reise  d.  Xov.  Zoo!,  ii.  1,  Hym. 
p.ll3,1867(,J). 

Thynnus  scalca  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  U5,  1897((J). 

Saussure's  description  of  the  male  is  good.  A  Tasmanian 
specimen  in  my  collection  is  13  mm.  in  length. 

9.  Head  rectangular,  a  little  longer  than  wide,  densely  and 
coarsely  punctured,  the  punctures  often  confluent,  the  posterior 
angles  of  the  head  rounded.  Prothorax  much  narrower  than  the 
head,  narrowed  and  rounded  anteriorly,  sparsely  punctured,  with 
shallow  depressions  on  the  sides  near  the  posterior  margin. 
Mesothorax  much  broader  anteriorl}'^  than  posteriorly,  sparsel}' 
punctured  with  a  median,  longitudinal,  impressed  line  Median 
segment  obliqueh'-  truncate  posteriorly,  only  half  as  \yide  at  the 
base  as  at  tlie  apex,  sparsely  punctured,  the  surface  of  the  trun- 
cation finel}^  and  closely  punctured.       Abdomen  subcylindrical, 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  235 

ovjai'sely  pinictured,  the  punctures  elongate,  thinly  clothed  with 
cinereous  pubescence  on  the  sides.  Epipygium  narrow,  deflexed, 
longitudinally  rugulose,  rounded  at  the  apex.  Black  ;  the 
<iQtena8e,  mandibles  at  the  apex,  mesothorax  and  median  segment, 
and  the  apex  of  the  pygidium,  fuscous;  legs  dull  ferruginous. 
Length  11  mm. 

Hah. — Tasmania. 

Specimens  from  S3'^dney  are  much  smaller,  the  male  being 
10  mm.  in  length  and  the  female  7  mm.  only.  The  fuscous  parts 
of  the  Tasmanian  female  are  bright  ferruginous  in  a  Sydney 
specimen,  as  is  also  the  prothorax. 

R.   ACULEATUS  Sauss. 

Rhagiya^ter  aculeatus  Sauss.,  Reise  d.' Nov.  Zool.  ii.  1,  Hym. 
p.  11  3,  1867((J). 

Saussure's  description  is  good.  The  colour  varies  as  to  the 
-extent  of  the  black  bands  on  the  abdominal  segments,  which  are 
sometimes  wholly  black  above  and  sometimes  ferruginous. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Sydney,  Mittagong,  N.S.W.;  Victoria. 

R.  ACULEATUS  St.   ACUTANGULUS,   n  st. 

(J.  Differs  from  the  typical  form  in  having  the  sides  of  the 
prothorax  nearl}^  parallel  and  the  anterior  angles  sharply  pro- 
duced. The  abdomen  is  wholly  ferruginous  except  the  apical 
segment,  which  is  black.      Length  11  mm. 

^.  Head  rectangular,  much  longer  than  wide,  shining,  with  a 
few  minute  scattered  punctures.  Sides  of  the  prothorax  parallel, 
a  small  depression  on  each  side  of  the  prothorax  near  the  posterior 
margin.  Thorax  and  median  segment  sparsely  and  finely  punc- 
tured, median  segment  as  long  as  the  prothorax,  twice  as  broad 
at  the  apex  as  at  the  base,  without  a  median  carina.  Abdomen 
cylindrical,  finely  and  sparsely  punctured.  Pygidium  rounded 
at  the  apex      Entirely  shining  castaneous-brown.     Length  7  mm. 

Hah.  —  S.  Australia.     In  British  Museum  collection. 


236  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

R.  BREViuscuLUS,  n.sp. 

g.  Head  and  thorax  rugose,  the  clypeus  with  a  very  short 
carina  from  the  base;  antennae  very  short.  The  prothorax  is 
narrowed  anteriorly,  not  produced  at  the  angles.  Scutellum 
short,  subtriangular,  with  a  faint  carina  at  the  apex.  Median 
sef'raent  strongly  punctured  at  the  base,  obliquely  truncate  and 
reticulate  at  the  apex,  a  faint  median  carina  from  the  base  to 
the  truncation.  Abdominal  segments  closely  and  very  finely 
punctured,  the  basal  segment  and  epipygium  coarsely  punctured. 
A  transverse  depressed  line  near  the  base  and  a  raised  mark  on 
each  side  near  the  apical  margins  of  segments  2-5,  the  extreme 
apical  margins  of  the  segments  smooth.  Epipygium  very  narrowly 
truncate  at  the  apex.  Black,  opaque,  with  grey  pubescence,  the 
abdomen,  except  the  basal  segment,  ferruginous.  Wings  hyaline, 
faintly  iridescent,  nervures  dark  fuscous.      Length  10  mm. 

9.  Head  subrectangular,  longer  than  broad,  somewhat  rounded 
at  the  posterior  angles,  with  elongate  confluent  punctures  and 
sparse  pubescence.  Prothorax  narrow  anteriorly,  about  the  same 
length  at  the  median  segment,  with  a  depression  on  each  side  on 
the  posterior  margin.  Median  segment  with  a  broad  central 
carina,  the  lateral  margins  slightly  raised:  obliquely  truncate 
posteriorly.  The  thorax  and  median  segment  sparsely  punctured. 
Abdomen  long  and  cylindrical,  delicately  longitudinally  rugulose. 
Epipygium  pointed,  with  a  delicate  median  carina.  Entirely 
chestnut-brown,  the  legs  testaceous.      Length  7  mm. 

Hab. — Mackay,  Q.(cJ$  in  cop.). 

Near  E.  aculeatus  Sauss.,  in  general  appeat  ance.  The  form  of 
the  median  segment  and  the  delicate  sculpture  of  the  abdomen 
are  the  most  marked  distinctions  in  the  male.  The  female 
differs  much  from  that  of  the  S.  Australian  form  by  the  pro- 
minent carina  of  the  median  segment  and  the  sculpture  of  the 
abdomen. 

R.  TUMiDUS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  tumid,  with  a  faint  short  carina  close  to  the  base, 
thinly  clothed  with  cinereous  pubescence.      Head  closely  punc- 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  237 

tured,  aiost  sliallowl}'  on  the  occiput.  Prothorax  with  tlie 
anterior  margin  straight,  the  lateral  angles  very  slightly  produced. 
Thorax  closely  punctured, scutellum  rounded  at  the  apex.  Median 
segment  very  densely  and  more  finely  punctured,  rounded  at  tlie 
apex.  Abdominal  segments  shallowly  punctured,  smooth  at  the 
base,  with  a  depressed  transverse  line  near  the  base.  Epipygium 
subtriangular,  very  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex.  Black;  the 
two  apical  abdominal  segments  ferruginous-red.  Wings  hyaline, 
nervures  fuscous.      Length  11  mm. 

Hah. — Melbourne,  Vic;  Swan  River,  W. A.;  Tempe,  N.S.W. 

This  is  the  species  identified  by  Smith  as  Rhayigaster  hcemor- 
r hoidalis  Guev.,  which  name,  I  consider,  applies  to  R.  apicalis  Sm.j 
the  male  of  Eydeles  bicolor  Westw. 

9.  Head  rectangular,  slightly  rounded  at  the  posterior  angles, 
longer  than  broad,  broader  than  the  thorax,  shining,  sparsely 
and  shallowly  punctured.  Prothorax  and  median  segment  finely 
and  rather  sparsely  punctured;  the  prothorax  narrowed  and 
rounded  anteriorlj',  with  a  small  depression  on  each  side  close  to 
the  posterior  angle;  median  segment  rather  longer  than  the  pro- 
thorax, slightly  broadened  from  the  base,  obliquely  truncate. 
Abdomen  cylindrical,  more  densely  punctured,  the  punctures 
confluent.  Pygidium  pointed.  Black;  the  legs  testaceous;  antennae, 
mandibles  and  margins  of  the  abdominal  segments  fusco- 
ferruginous.     Length  5  mm. 

R.  IRACUNDUS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  prominent  carina  enclosing  a  heart-shaped 
space,  which  is  smooth  and  shining.  Head  and  thorax  punctured, 
rugose;  an  obscure  carina  between  the  antennae;  the  anterior 
angles  of  the  prothorax  very  slightly  prominent.  Median  seg- 
ment finely  and  densely  punctured,  rounded  posteriorly.  Abdo- 
men finely  and  shallowl}^  punctured,  segments  2-5  v/ith  a  smooth 
raised  mark  on  the  sides  near  the  apical  margin  and  a  transverse 
impressed  line  near  the  base  of  the  segments.  Epipygium  triau- 
18 


^^^    ^    KX 


238  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

gular,  pointed  at  the  apex.      Black;  the  two  apical  abdominal  seg- 
ments red.      Wings  hyaline,  nerviires  fuscous.     Length  12-15mm. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Melbourne,  Vic. (French). 

R.  COMPARATUS  Sm. 

ma^/>a8^«r6'0/?2p«m^wjjSm.,Cat.Hym.B.M.vii.p.69,1859((J9). 

Rhagigaster  ragosus  Sm.,  Descr.  n.sp.  Hym.  p.  176, 1879  ((Jnec$). 

(^.  The  clypeus  is  carinated  at  the  base,  the  head  and  thorax 
very  coarsely  rugose,  the  prothorax  and  median  segment  more 
finely  so.  The  median  segment  is  rounded  at  the  apex.  Abdo- 
minal segments  very  finely  rugulose,  smooth  at  the  base.  The 
tibi«  and  tarsi  and  two  apical  abdominal  segments  ferruginous- 
red.     Length  10  mm. 

O.  The  head  is  rectangular,  longer  than  broad;  head  and  thorax 
punctured,  the  punctures  elongate  and  confluent;  the  prothorax 
almost  square,  shorter  than  the  median  segment,  which  is 
broadened  to  the  apex  and  obliquely  truncate,  the  whole  abdomen 
longitudinally  rugulose,  the  pygidium  simple,  rounded  at  the 
apex.  Antennae,  legs,  and  tw^o  apical  abdominal  segments 
ferruginous.     Length  7  mm, 

Hab. — Adelaide,  S.A  ;  Melbourne,  Vic. 

Much  more  coarsely  sculptured  than  in  the  allied  species,  and 
may  also  be  distinguished  by  the  colour  of  the  legs  in  the  male. 

The  female  described  by  Smith  as  that  of  rugosus  is  almost 
certainly  wrongly  paired  by  the  collector,  and  does  not  belong  to 
this  section  of  the  family. 

R.  PiNGUicuLUS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  median  carina  from  the  base  to  the  centre, 
where  it  is  vvidely  branched,  the  apex  narrowly  emarginate.  The 
carina  between  the  antenna  faint  and  broadly  rounded.  Front 
rugose,  occiput  strongly  punctured.  Thorax  and  median  segment 
at  the  base  coarsely  rugose,  the  median  segment  short  and  verti- 
cally truncate,  the  surface  of  the  truncation  finely  reticulated. 
Abdomen  densely  punctured,  the  apical  margins  of  the  segments 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER  239 

smooth,  the  base  constricted.  Epipygium  more  coarsely  punc- 
tured, narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex.  The  abdomen  is  shorter 
and  broader  than  in  others  of  the  genus.  Black,  the  two  apical 
segments  of  the  abdomen  ferruginous-red;  mandibles  at  the  apex, 
fore  tibiae  and  tarsi,  the  calcaria  and  tarsal  ungues,  and  the  apical 
margins  of  the  five  basal  abdominal  segments  fuscous.  Wings 
hyaline,  slightly  iridescent,  nervures  black.  The  clypeus  and  the 
rsides  of  the  thorax  and  abdomen  with  gre}'  pubescence.  Length 
13  mm. 

9.  Unknown 

Hah. — Mackay,  Q. 

R.   PROTHORACICUS,   n.sp. 

(J.  Head  densely  and  finely  punctured,  more  sparsely  and  very 
finely  on  the  occiput^  clypeus  clothed  with  white  pubescence, 
without  a  carina.  Thorax  densely  and  strongly  punctured,  the 
prothorax  narrowed  anteriorly,  the  angles  not  produced;  the 
scutellum  rounded  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  short,  truncated 
posteriorly,  more  tinely  punctured,  with  long  white  pubescence 
on  the  sides.  Abdomen  densely  and  finely  punctured,  segments 
2-5  with  a  depressed  transverse  line  near  the  base  and  a  raised 
mark  on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin.  Epipygium  coarsely 
rugose,  very  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex,  with  a  short  spine 
on  each  side  near  the  base.  The  aculeus  of  the  hypopygium  has 
an  acute  spine  on  the  upper  surface  close  to  the  base.  The  carina 
beneath  the  hypopygium  not  prominent.  Black;  the  prothorax 
and  mesopleura3  ferruginous-red,  the  tegulae  dark  testaceous,  the 
tarsal  ungues  testaceous.  Wings  hyaline,  very  slightly  clouded 
in  the  radial  cell.      Length  11  mm. 

9.  Head  rectangular,  longer  than  broad,  the  posterior  angles 
not  rounded,  densely  punctured,  clothed  with  pale  fulvous  pubes- 
cence. Prothorax  smooth,  rather  short,  very  little  narrowed 
anteriorly,  a  deep  depression  on  each  side,  broad  on  the  posterior 
margin,  but  not  reaching  the  anterior  margin,  the  lateral  margins 
elevated.  Median  segment  rather  sparsely  punctured,  with  a 
median   carina   and   slightly  depressed  on  the  sides,  broadened 


240  REVISION'  OF  THE  THYNMD.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

posteriorly  and  obliquely  truncate.  Abdomen  cylindrical,  finely 
longitudinally  rugulose.  Pygidiuni  narrow,  arched.  Chestnut- 
brown,  the  three  apical  abdominal  segments  rather  darker. 
Length  8  mm. 

Hab.—MRckay,  Q  (gQ  in  cop.). 

R.   CONSANGUINEUS,   n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  shining,  subpunctured,  triangular  area, 
enclosed  by  slightly  raised  carinse.  Head  without  frontal  carinie, 
densely  punctured.  Prothorax  shallowly  punctured,  the  anterior 
margin  raised  with  the  lateral  angles  prominent,  broadly  emar- 
ginate.  Mesothorax  and  scutellum  strongly  punctured,  the 
scutellum  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  shorty 
obliquely  truncate  posteriorly,  finely  rugulose.  Abdominal  seg- 
ments strongly  punctured,  constricted  near  the  base,  the  epipy- 
gium  subtriangular,  ver}'  coarsely  punctured.  Beneath  the 
segments  are  marked  with  a  depressed  transverse  line  near  the 
middle,  the  basal  portion  finely,  the  apical  strongly  punctured. 
Entirely  shining  black,  with  sparse  grey  pubescence.  Length 
1 1  mm. 

9.  Head  subquadrate,  smooth;  prothorax  smooth,  with  a  very 
few  fine  punctures,  rather  broader  posteriorly  than  anteriorly, 
longer  than  wide.  Median  segment  as  long  as  the  prothorax, 
broadened  to  the  apex,  sparsely  and  finely  punctured.  Abdomen 
cylindrical,  shining,  very  finely  punctured.  Epipygium  rounded, 
with  a  slight  depression  on  each  side  near  the  base,  the  margins 
slightly  raised.  Shining  black;  the  prothorax,  median  segment, 
antennae  and  legs  ferruginous;  the  margins  of  the  abdominal 
segments  and  the  whole  of  the  apical  segment  testaceous.  Length 
7  mm. 

Hab. — Albany,  W.A.  Types  in  Oxfoid  University  Museum, 
ex  Coll.  Saunders. 

Genus  En  teles  Westw. 

Enteles  Westw.,  Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  143,  1844. 

g.  Very  closely  resembles  Rhagigaster,  from  which  it  may  be 
distinguished  by  the  broadly  rounded  or  truncated  epipygium. 


HY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  24:1 

The  labrum  is  almost  semicircular,  truncate  posteriorly,  and  borne 
on  a  short  petiole.  The  labial  palpi  are  four-jointed,  the  maxillary 
six-jointed,  the  joints  not  diifering  much  in  length.  The  hypo- 
pygium  has  no  lateral  spines  at  the  base. 

9.  The  female  has  the  maxillary  palpi  small,  but  six-jointed, 
the  labial  palpi  four-jointed,  also  small.  The  mandibles  are 
simple;  the  head  is  small,  slightly  convex.  The  median  segment 
is  short,  obliquely  ti'uncate;  the  second  abdominal  segment  is 
transv^ersely  carinated  or  striated,  the  number  of  the  carinas  being 
about  seven.  The  pygidium  is  broad,  obliquely  or  vertically 
truncate  and  longitudinal!}'  striated. 

The  males  and  females  in  this  group  present  most  unexpected 
differences,  the  females  closely  resembling  in  appearance  those  of 
IVi  Ij  lino  ides,  and  only  showing  a  likeness  to  Rhagigaster  in  the 
structure  of  the  palpi,  though  the  males  have  always  been  placed 
in  that  genus  without  hesitation  by  previous  authors;  but 
Saussure  places  E.  niorio  in  a  division  of  the  genus  by  itself. 

Type  U.  h(f^morrhoi>lalis  Guer. 

Key  to  the  Sjiecies. 

^  (^ .  i.  Abdominal   segments  without   a   close   marginal   band  of 
pubescence  at  the  base  and  apex. 
A.  Black,  the  two  apical  segments  ferruginous-red. 
a.  Prothorax  rugose. 
a^.  Mesopleurai  black.  E.  hannorrhoidalis  Guer. 

h'^.  Mesopleuras  red,  E.  simillimus  Sm. 

h.  Prothorax  transversely  striated.  E.  conjugatus,  n.sp. 

K.  Black,  the  abdomen  wholly  ferruginous. 

a.  Abdomen  and  legs  bright  ferruginous-red.  E.  dimidiatus  Sm. 

b.  Abdomen  fusco-ferruginous,  legs  testaceous-yellow. 

E.  testaceipes,  n.sp. 
C  Abdomen  wholly  black. 

a.  Mandibles  strongly  bidentate. 

a2.  Wings  fusco-violaceous,  legs  ferruginous.  E.  morio  Westw. 

/).  Mandibles  almost  falcate. 

f(,2.  Entirely  black,  wings  hyaline,  of  small  size.       E.  harnardi,  n.sp. 

ii.  Abdominal  segments  with  a  close  marginal  band  of  pubescence 

at  the  base  and  apex. 

a.  Prothorax  with  transverse  striae. 

a'^.  Entirely  black.  E.  integer  Fab. 


242  REVISION  OF  THE  THYSNID^  OF  AUSTHALIA,   I., 

h.  Prothorax  rugose. 

a2.  Abdomen  dull  ferruginous.  E.  deceptor  Sm, 

$  $  .  A.  Apex    of   the    first   abdominal  segment  with  long  white 
pubescence. 
a.  Thorax  and  median  segment  ferruginous-red. 

E.  hamorrhoidalls  Guer, 
B.  P'irst  abdominal  segment  without  pubescence. 
a.  Two  apical  abdominal  segments  ferruginous-red. 

E.  dimidiatuH  Sm. 
h.  Black,  the  legs  testaceous.  E.  morio  Westw. 

EnTELES    H.EMOHRHOIDALIS  Guer. 

Rhagigaster  hcemorrhoidalis  Guer.,  Mag.  de  Zool.  xii.  1842((J); 
B.  apicalis  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.p.63.  n.l4, 1859((J);  Thynmis^ 
ottonis  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii  112, 1897((J);  Enteles  bicolor  Westw., 
Arc.  Eiit.ii.2,p.l43,1844(9);  Tltynnusjimbriatus^m.,  Cat.Hym, 
B.M.  vii.  p.42,  n.91,  1859(9);  Thy nnus  zing er lei  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym. 
viii.  119,  1897(9);  Thynnns  lecheri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  110, 
1897(^). 

(J.  Head  rugose,  a  transver.se  undulating  carina  below  the 
anterior  ocellus  not  reaching  the  ej^es,  a  V-shaped  carina  between 
the  antennae  and  a  short  longitudinal  frontal  carina  not  touching 
the  transverse  carina  on  the  apex  of  the  V-shaped  carina.  The 
cl)''peus  with  a  carina  branched  very  narrowly  near  the  base,  the 
branches  not  reaching  the  apical  margin,  the  clypeus  raised  into 
a  triangular  elevation,  shining  and  rugose,  finely  punctured  at 
the  base.  Thorax  and  scutellum  coarsel}^  rugose,  median  segment 
truncate  posteriorly,  finely  punctured-rugulose.  Prothorax  with 
tlie  sides  straight  and  the  anterior  lateral  angles  strongly  pro- 
duced. Abdomen  moderately  punctured,  the  lateral  elevations 
on  segments  2-5  near  the  apical  margin  smooth.  The  depressed 
lines  at  the  base  of  the  abdominal  segments  with  a  little  short 
cinereous  pubescence.  Epipygium  coarsely  punctured,  broad  and 
very  broadly  rounded  or  subtruncate  at  the  apex.  Black,  the 
two  apical  abdominal  segments  ferruginou.s-red.  Wings  hj^aline, 
nervures  dark  fuscous. 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TUHNEIJ.  24:3 

9.  The  two  carinse  at  the  apex  of  the  second  ahdominal  segment 
are  much  stronger  than  the  five  or  six  near  the  base;  the  third 
segment  lias  a  few  very  fine  and  obscure  short  transverse  stri;e 
near  the  base.  The  apical  portion  of  the  first  segment  is  depressed 
and  the  margin  raised  so  as  to  form  a  carina.  The  median  seg- 
ment is  short  and  truncate.  Otherwise  Westwood's  description 
is  sufficient. 

ffab. — Swan  River,  W. A,;  A^ictoria;  Liverpool,  N.S.W. 

I  have  not  seen  Guerin's  type,  but  I  think  I  am  correct  in  my 
identification,  which  agrees  with  Westwood's  specimens  marked 
hieniorrhoidalis. 

E.  CONJUGATL'S,   n.Sp. 

^.  Clj^peus  elevated  in  the  centre,  narrowly  subtruncate 
anteriorly,  coarsely  longitudinally  rugose,  pointed  at  the  base. 
An  interantennal  carina  broadly  rounded  at  the  apex,  and  a 
transverse  frontal  carina,  not  reaching  the  eyes,  connecting  the 
extremities  of  the  antennal  carina,  the  space  enclosed  longi- 
tudinally striated;  the  remainder  of  the  head  finely  and  densely 
punctured,  more  sparsely  on  the  occiput.  Prothorax  transversely 
striated,  broadly  and  very  slightly  emarginate  anteriorly,  the 
anterior  margin  slightly  raised,  strongly  produced  at  the  lateral 
angles.  Mesothorax  coarsely  rugose,  scutellum  very  coarsely 
punctured;  median  se,2;ment  short,  vertically  truncate  posteriorly, 
finely  and  densely  punctured.  Abdomen  shining,  densely  and 
shallowl}'  punctured;  epipygium  rugulose,  very  broadly  rounded 
at  the  apex.  The  abdominal  segments  constricted  near  the  base; 
beneath  ver}'  finely  and  densely  punctured  at  the  base,  coarsely 
and  more  sparsely  at  the  apex,  the  first  segment  with  a  blunt 
tubercle  in  the  middle.  Black,  the  two  apical  segments  bright 
ferruginous-red.  Wings  fuscous  with  brilliant  purple-blue  reflec- 
tions, lighter  at  the  apex.      Length  17  mm. 

Hah. — Queensland. 

Type  in  Oxford  University  Museum,  ex  Coll.  Saunders. 

Very  near  E.  hcemorrhoidalis  Guer.,  but  the  prothorax  is 
transversely  striated,  and  the  whole  sculpture  finer. 


244  REVISION  OF  THE  TflYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

E.  SIMILLIMUS  Sm. 

Rhayiyaster  simillimus  Sm.,  Trans.  Ent.  8oc.  Loud.  (3)  ii.  5, 
p.390,  1865((J). 

Thynnus  ivolfraniii  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  H9((J). 

Probably  only  a  local  form  of  E.  /uHmorrhoidalis,  from  which  it 
differs  mainly  by  the  red  colour  of  the  mesopleiuw,  the  lesser 
development  of  the  frontal  carinas,  and  the  presence  of  a  fine 
median  longitudinal  carina  on  the  epipygium. 

9.  Unknown. 

Ilah.—^.W.  Australia. 

E.   DIMIDIATQS   8m. 

I  Rhayiyaster  dlmidiatus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.vii.p.62,n.lO,  1859((J9). 

Tkynnus  ottetihallii  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  112,  1897((J9). 

(J.  Clypeus  coarsely  longitudinally  rugose.  Front  and  vertex 
rugulose,  an  undulating  transverse  carina  between  the  eyes,  a 
wide  V-shaped  carina  between  the  antennae  joining  at  the  apex  a 
short  longitudinal  carina  which  extends  on  to  the  basal  portion 
of  the  clypeus.  Prothorax  transversely  rugulose,  the  anterior 
margin  raised  and  produced  at  the  lateral  angles.  Mesothorax 
and  scutellum  coarsely  rugose;  median  segment  truncated  poste- 
riorly, finely  rugulose  at  the  base,  finely  punctured  on  the  surface 
of  the  truncation.  Epipygium  rugulose  at  the  base,  longitudinally 
striated  on  the  apical  portion,  truncate  at  the  apex  with  a  slight 
median  emargination,  the  margin  recurved. 

9.  Third  abdominal  segment  delicately  transversely  striated 
near  the  base.  Pygidium  vertically  truncate  posteriorly,  the 
surface  of  the  truncation  longitudinally  striated,  the  extreme 
apex  smooth  and  narrowly  rounded.  Otherwi.se  as  in  Smith's 
description. 

Zra6.  — Sydney,  N.  S.W. 

E.   TESTACKIPES,   n  Sp. 

^.  Head  punctured,  very  sparsely  and  finely  on  the  occiput;  a 
strong  undulating  transverse  carina  below  the  anterior  ocellus, 
not    quite    reaching    the    eyes,   a    rounded    carina  between    the 


liY    ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  245 

antennae  the  ends  reacliing  the  transverse  carina,  tlie  enclosed 
space  longitudinally  rugulose  with  a  smooth  line  immediately 
below  the  transverse  carina.  Clypeus  with  two  carinte  diverging 
from  the  base  but  not  reaching  the  apex,  the  space  between  them 
elevated,  narrow  and  rugulose,  the  sides  of  the  clypeus  punctured. 
Prothorax  obscurely  transversely  rugulose.  Mesothorax  and 
scutellum  coarsely  and  rather  sparsely  punctured.  Median  seg- 
ment almost  smooth,  vertically  truncate  posteriorly,  the  posterior 
angles  prominent.  Abdominal  segments  slightly  constricted  at 
the  base,  sparsely  punctured;  the  epipygium  truncate  at  the  apex, 
irregularly  longitudinally  striated.  Hypopygiura  with  the  usual 
recurved  aculeus  armed  with  a  strong  blunt  tooth  on  the  upper 
surface.  First  abdominal  segment  beneath  with  a  tubercle  near 
the  base.  Black,  the  abdomen  fusco-ferruginous,  the  legs 
testaceous-yellow,  the  coxse  black  and  the  tarsi  obscure  fuscous. 
[Wings  missing].      Length  19  mm. 

}[ah.  —  A  ustralia. 

I'ype  in  Oxford  University  Museum,  ex  Coll.  Westwood. 

E.  INTEGER  Fab. 

Thynmis  inteyir  Fab,,  Syst.  Ent.  p. 360,  n.3,  \llb{$). 

Rhaglgaster  utteger  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  60,  1859((J). 

Smith  has  published  a  good  description  of  this  insect.  The 
type,  which  is  as  far  as  I  know  still  unique,  is  in  good  condition 
in  the  Banksian  Collection.  Probably,  like  most  of  the  Australian 
insects  in  that  collection,  it  was  taken  at  Cooktown,  Q. 

E.  DECEPTOR  8m. 

Thynnus  deceptor  Sm.,  Descr.  n.sp.  Hym.  p.  169,  n.30,  1&79((J). 

$  The  clypeus  has  a  prominent  A-shaped  carina,  the  front  is 
produced  over  the  base  of  the  antennae,  and  there  is  a  short 
transverse  carina  below  the  anterior  ocellus.  The  median  seg- 
ment is  vertically  truncate  posteriorly,  and  the  abdomen  is  finely 
and  densely  punctured.  Epipygium  strongly  longitudinally 
striated,  broadly  truncate  at    tlie  apex  with  a  very  slight  median 


246  HKVISIOX  OF  TlIK  TIIVXNID.*;  OF  AUSTRALIA,    I., 

emai-giiiatioii.  The  aculeus  is  sharply  recurved,  but  does  not 
project  much  beyond  the  epipygiuiii. 

There  is  a  colour  variety  in  the  British  Museum  in  which  the- 
abdomen  is  dark  fuscous. 

The  female  placed  with  this  species  in  the  British  Museum 
Collection  probably  does  not  belong  to  it. 

//«6.— N.W.  Australia. 

Most  nearly  allied  to  E.  integer  Fab. 

E.  MORio  Westw. 

Rhagigaster  morio  Westw.,  Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  p.  105,  n.4,  1844((J); 
Sauss.,  Raise  d.  Nov.Zool.ii.  l,p.l  14,n.6,t.4,  f.67,  1867((J);  8auss., 
Stett.  Ent.  Zeit.  xxx.  p.58,  n.8,  1869(9). 

ThynniLS  serripes  8m.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.  M.  vii. p. 44, n. 12-5, 1859(9). 

Saussure's  descriptions  are  good.  He  expresses  some  doubt  as- 
to  the  correctness  of  the  pairing,  which  has  been  now  settled  by 
more  than  one  collector. 

^«6.— Sydney,  N.  8.W. 

iNly  dissections  of  the  female  show  the  maxillary  palpi  six- 
jointed  as  in  Westwood's  plate  showing  E.  hicolor. 

E.    BARNARDI,   n  sp. 

(J.  Mandibles  slender,  almost  falcate,  the  tooth  on  the  inner 
margin  hardly  at  all  developed.  Clypeus  with  a  short  longi- 
tudinal carina  from  the  base,  which  branches  in  front  enclosing 
a  triangular  space  which  is  shining,  and  sparsely  punctured,  the 
punctures  large  and  confluent.  The  sides  of  the  clypeus  covered 
with  long  white  pubescence.  A  V-shaped  carina  between  the 
antennse  and  a  transverse  frontal  carina,  which  does  not  reach 
the  eyes.  Front  finely  rugulose,  occiput  punctured.  Labrum 
exposed.  Prothorax  rugulose,  the  lateral  angles  less  prominent 
than  in  the  other  species  of  the  genus;  mesothorax  and  scutellum 
coarsely  punctured.  Median  segment  finely  punctured,  vertically 
truncate  posteriorly,  the  surface  of  the  truncation  .delicately 
reticulated.  Abdomen  densely  punctured,  the  tw^o  apical  segments 
most    coarsely,   segments    2-6    constricted    near    the   base.       N"o 


BV  ROWLAND   E.   TUKNEK.  247 

tubercle  beiiecatli  the  first  segment.  Epipygiuin  broadly  truncate 
at  the  apex,  punctured,  svith  delicate,  short,  longitudinal  striae 
near  the  apex.  The  aculeus  of  the  hypopygium  does  not  extend 
much  be3^ond  the  epipygium.  Black,  with  greyish-white  pubes- 
cence. Apical  half  of  the  mandibles  and  the  legs  piceous. 
Length  1 1  mm. 

Hah. — Duaringa,  Q. 

The  head  and  prothorax  of  a  female  pinned  with  this  resemble 
those  parts  in  other  species  of  the  genus. 

Genus  Aelurus  Klug. 

Aelurus  Klug,  Physik.Abh.  Akad.Wiss. Berlin,  1840, p.42,  1842 
(nee  Aehirns  Sm.). 

(J.  Antennae  long  and  slender;  head  more  or  less  narrowed 
behind  the  eyes;  mandibles  bidentate;  labium  short,  labial  palpi 
four-jointed,  the  first  joint  much  the  longest;  maxilla  small,  galea 
subtruncate  at  the  apex  and  not  divided;  maxillary  palpi  six- 
jointed,  the  apical  joints  filiform,  very  long  and  slender,  the  three 
basal  joints  short  and  stouter,  the  first  extremely  short.  Labrum 
transverse,  short.  The  division  of  the  tirst  cubital  cell  is  marked 
by  a  scar  only,  and  the  third  cubital  cell  is  not  much  narrowed 
along  the  radial  nervure. 

9.  Head  nearly  rectangular;  antennae  thick;  mandiljles  lai-ge, 
not  bidentate ;  abdomen  cylindrical.  Tarsal  ungues  simple. 
Ashmead  gives  the  maxillary  palpi  as  four-jointed. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  dissect  a  female,  nor  does  Klug  give 
any  details  as  to  the  mouth-parts.  The  two  Australian  species 
which  I  assign  to  this  genus  correspond  well  with  the  uiale  of 
Ael.  clypeatas^  figured  by  Klug,  in  mouth-parts  and  neuration,  and 
are  very  different  from  the  Australian  species  assigned  to  Aelurus 
by  Westwood  and  ^-^imth  {Tacky  no  my  ia).  I  have  separated  the 
genus  Leptnirone  from  Aelurus  on  account  c>f  the  narrowing  of 
the  third  cubital  cell  along  the  radial  nervure.  Buttle/,  iiafuhis 
Klug,  is  the  type  of  the  genus,  not  Ael.  chj'peatui< ;  and  the 
neuration  may  possibly  differ. 

Type  ApX.  nasufns  Klug  (Brazil). 


248  REVISION  OF  TJIE  TllVNNID.E  OF  AUSTKALIA,   I., 

Key  to  the  specks  of  Aelurns. 

<^  J .  A.  Scutellum  broadly  rounded  at  the  apex. 

'I.  Black,  legs  and  antennaj  ferruginous.  Atl.  'jrandiceps,  n.sp, 

B.  Scutellum  subtriangular. 

b.  Legs  and  four  basal  abdominal  segments  bright  rufo-testaceou^^. 

Ael.  rujTcru'i,  n.sp. 

AkL.  GRANDICEPS,   n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  carina  from  the  base  almost  reaching  the 
apex,  smooth  at  the  apex,  finely  rugulose  on  the  sides.-  Head 
very  large,  produced  beliind  the  eyes,  shallowly  but  strongly 
punctured;  a  V-shaped  carina  between  the  antennae.  Prothorax 
very  sparsely  and  shallowly  punctured,  tlie  anterior  margin  raised. 
Mesothorax  sparsely  punctured  on  the  disc,  densely  and  finely  on 
the  sides.  Scutellum  rounded  posteriorly.  Median  segment 
short,  reticulate,  almost  smooth  at  the  base,  obliquely  truncate. 
A  short  sulca  from  the  base  of  the  first  abdominal  segment,  and 
a  minute  tubercle  at  the  base  beneath;  a  transverse  impressed 
line  near  the  base  of  segments  2-5.  Epipygium  truncate  at  the 
iipex,  hypopygiuni  rounded  and  ciliated.  Abdomen  shining, 
shallowly  and  sparseh'  punctured.  Black,  with  a  little  fulvous 
pubescence;  mandibles,  except  the  apex,  antennte  and  legs,  fulvous. 
AYings  fulvo-hyaline,  nervures  fulvous.      Length  15  mm. 

^.  Head  rectangular,  the  posterior  angles  slightly  rounded, 
much  longer  than  broad,  strongly  punctured,  the  punctures  large 
and  elongate;  front  produced  into  a  very  small  blunt  tubercle  on 
each  side  at  the  base  of  the  antenna.  Clypeus  with  a  median 
carina.  Thorax  and  median  segment  with  deep,  elongate  punc- 
tures, often  confluent.  Prothorax  subquadrate,  slightly  narrowed 
anteriorly;  median  segment  longer  than  the  prothorax,  ^  ery  little 
broadened  posteriorly,  obliquely  truncate.  Abdomen  cylindrical, 
punctured,  the  punctures  shallower  than  those  on  the  thorax,  but 
more  elongate  and  confluent.  Pygidium  simple,  rounded  at  the 
apex.      Castaneous-brown,  the  abdomen  darker.      Lengfli  10  mm. 

Hab,- Sydney,  N.  8.W. 


BY  HOWLAND   K.  TUKNEH.  249- 

Ael.  ruficrus,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  very  short  carina  at  the  base,  branching 
broadly  and  shortly;  the  apical  portion  smooth  and  shining,  not 
much  produced  at  the  apex,  the  apical  margin  slightly  emarginate 
at  the  sides  before  the  angles,  which  are  produced  into  short, 
blunt  spines.  Head  densely  punctured,  with  an  interantennal 
carina,  rounded  at  the  apex;  slightl}'  narrowed  behind  the  eyes. 
Prothorax  depressed,  the  anterior  margin  raised,  very  closely  and 
minutely  punctured.  Mesothorax  and  scutellum  punctured,  the 
scutellum  rather  long,  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex.  Median 
segment  delicatel}^  reticulate,  almost  smooth  at  the  base,  rounded. 
Abdomen  elongate,  subcylindrical,  shining,  with  shallow,  scattered 
punctures;  segments  2-5  with  "a  transverse  line  near  the  base. 
Epipygium  strongly  punctured,  smooth  at  the  apex  and  sub- 
truncate.  Hypopj'^gium  rounded  and  ciliated.  Black ;  w^ith 
fulvous  pubescence  on  the  sides  of  the  head  and  median  segment; 
the  mandibles,  the  apical  portion  of  the  clypeus,  the  legs,  the 
tegulse,  and  the  four  basal  segments  of  the  abdomen  bright  rufo- 
testaceous.  Wings  pale  flavo-hyaline,  nervures  black,  testaceous 
at  the  base.     Length  15-17  mm. 

/?a6.  — Kenthurst,  N.S.W.     Type  in  Coll.  Froggatt. 

Subgenus  Lepteirone,  n.subgen. 

^.  Differs  from  Aelurus  in  the  neuration,  the  third  cubital  cell 
being  much  narrowed  along  the  radial  nervure.  The  clypeus  has 
either  a  carina  from  the  base  ending  in  a  tubercle  before  the 
apex,  or  an  elevated  triangular  area  from  the  base,  suddenly 
ceasing  before  the  apex,  leaving  the  apex  depressed  below  the 
basal  portion. 

The  female  resembles  that  of  Eirone  and  Aelurns  in  form,  but 
I  have  been  unable  to  dissect  specimens. 

The  insects  are  slenderer  than  in  Eirone  ((J),  in  this  point 
resembling  the  typical  S.  American  Aeluri. 

Type  L.  ru/opictus  Sm. 

This  group  occurs  also  in  S.  America,  lltynnus  nigrofasciatus 
Sm.,  belonging  to  it. 


250  REVISION  OF  11115  THYNNID.B  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

I  do  not  regard  the  group  as  sufficiently  distinct  to  merit  full 

generic  rank. 

Key  to  the  Species  of  Lepteirone. 

^  S^.\.  Head   large,   produced  behind  the  eyes,  not  appreciably 
narrowed  posteriorly, 
A.  Abdomen  light  ferruginous.     An  interrupted  yellow  line  on 
the  vertex. 
a.  Black,  clypeus  and  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  yellow. 

L.  arenaria,  n.sp. 
ii.  Head   not   produced   behind  the  eyes,   more  or  less  narrowed 
posteriorly. 

A.  Abdomen  light  ferruginous. 
a.  Prothorax  yellow. 

a2.  A  spot  on  the  mesothorax  and  the  scutellum  yellow. 

L.  7'ufopicta  Sm 
62,  Mesothorax  and  scutellum  black  entirely,  L.  caroli,  n.sp. 

h.  Margins  of  the  prothorax  yellow, 
a^.  An  interrupted  line  on  the  vertex  and  the  postscutellum 

yellow.  L.  suhacta,  n.sp, 

c.  Anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  only  yellow. 

L.  ichneiimoniformiti  Sm, 

B.  Abdomen  with  the  basal  segments  ferruginous. 

a.  Three  basal  abdominal  segments  ferruginous.  L.  comes,  n.sp. 

h.  Four  basal  segments  ferruginous,  except  the  base  of  the  first. 

L.  jyseudosedula ,  n.sp. 
•C.  Abdomen  black. 

a.  Legs  and  antennae  ferruginous.  L.  fallax  Sm. 

b.  Basal   half   of    flagellum    of   antenna?,    femora    and    tibige 

ferruginous.  L.  cuhitalU,  n.sp. 

c.  Wholly  black. 

a^.  Slender,  finely  and  rather  sparsely  punctured.         L.  ojiaca,  n.sp. 
&2,  More  robust,  more  closely  and  strongly  punctured.     L.  triatis  Sm. 

:$  $  .  A.  Head  nearly  square. 

a.  Median  segment  considerably  broadened  from  the  base, 
a 2.  Without  a  depression  near  the  posterior  angle  of 

the  prothorax.  L.  ichneumoniformis  Sm. 

&2_  With  a  slight  depression  on  each  side  near  the  angles 

of  the  prothorax.  L.  cubit  alls,  n.sp. 

b.  Median  segment  very  slightly  broadened  from  the  base. 

L..  fcdlax  Sm. 
B.  Head  much  longer  than  broad. 

a.  Median  segment  with  a  delicate  median  carina.         L.  subactrt,  n.sp. 


BY  ROWLAND   E.   TURNEK.  251 

L.   RUFOPICTA  Sill. 

Thynnus  rufopictus  ^m.,  Descr,  n.Sp.  Hyni.  p.  159,  ii.3,  1879((J). 

The  basal  portion  of  the  clypeus  is  raised  and  narrowlj^ 
triangular,  the  apical  portion  is  abruptl}'  depressed  and  trans- 
versely truncate  at  the  apex.  The  head  is  produced  behind  the 
eyes,  strongly  rounded  at  the  posterior  angles,  liroader  than  the 
prothorax.  Head  and  thorax  very  tinely  and  closely  punctured, 
median  segment  and  abdomen  almost  smooth,  the  abdomen 
elongate  fusiform.  The  scutellum  is  broadly  rounded  at  the 
apex.  The  epipygium  is  elongate,  punctured,  narrowly  truncate 
at  the  apex,  the  hypopygiuni  nari-ow  and  ciliated  at  the  apex. 

^.  Unknown. 

Hab. — Adelaide,  S.A.;  Melbourne. 

A  variet}'  of  this  species  in  Coll.  Froggatt  has  the  median 
segment  black  instead  of  ferruginous,  and  is  a  rather  more  robust 
insect,  the  thorax  being  broader. 

L.    PSEUDOSEDULA,   n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  slightly  produced,  depressed  at  the  extreme  apex; 
head  very  closely  and  finely  punctured,  not  much  narrowed  to 
the  posterior  margin,  about  as  wide  as  the  prothorax.  Thorax 
finely  and  closely  punctured,  the  anterior  margin  of  the  pronotum 
slightly  raised.  Scutellum  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex,  median 
segment  very  delicately  reticulate.  Abdomen  elongate  fusiform, 
almost  smooth;  the  two  apical  segments  delicately  punctured  and 
pubescent,  the  apical  margins  of  segments  1-4  slightly  depressed, 
and  a  faint,  depressed,  transverse  line  near  the  base  of  segments 
2-5.  Black;  the  anterior  margin  of  the  clypeus,  the  inner  margin 
of  tlie  eyes,  an  obscure  mark  on  each  side  of  the  vertex,  the  legs, 
except  the  coxae  and  the  base  of  the  trochanters,  the  apical  half 
of  the  first  and  the  whole  of  the  second,  third  and  fourth 
abdominal  segments  ferruginous ;  the  mandibles,  the  anterior 
margin  of  the  pronotum  and  a  broad  band  on  the  posterior 
margin,  and  the  tegulae,  yellow.  Wings  h3^aline,  iridescent ; 
iiervures  testaceous-brown.     Length  10  mm. 

Hah. — Adelaide,  S. A. 

Type  in  B.M.,  ex  Coll.  Smith. 


252  REVISION  OF  THK  TllYNMD^,  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

L.   ICHNF.UMOXIFORMIS  SlU. 

Thynnus  (Agriomi/a)  ichnciano7iifor/nis  Sm., Cat.  Hyni.  B.M.  vii, 
p.39,n.l02,  1859(,:^). 

(J.  Clypeus  pubescent;  a  carina  from  the  base  to  the  centre, 
where  it  is  slightly  prominent,  overlapping  a  smooth,  oblique, 
triangular  truncation  which  extends  to  the  apex.  Head  finely 
punctured,  narrowed  behind  the  eyes.  Prothorax  shining,  very 
faintly  punctured,  the  anterior  margin  raised;  niesothorax  and 
scutellum  tinely  punctured,  the  scutellum  large  and  broadly 
rounded  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  delicately  reticulate, 
smooth  at  the  base,  with  a  short  longitudinal  sulca  from  the  base. 
Abdomen  slender  fusiform,  with  very  shallow  scattered  punctures^ 
the  epipygiuin  strongly  punctured,  with  sparse  fulvous  pubescence. 
Black;  the  abdomen,  except  the  base  of  the  first  segment,  and 
the  legs,  except  the  cox^e  and  trochanters,  light  ferruginous;  the 
mandibles,  two  small  spots  between  the  antennte,  a  narrowly 
interrupted  line  on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax,  and  a 
short  line  before  the  tegulse,  yellowish-white;  the  mandibles  at 
the  apex  ferruginous.  Wings  hyaline,  slightly  iridescent, 
nervures  fuscous,  tegulte  testaceous.     Length  9  mm. 

9.  Head  rectangular,  a  little  longer  than  broad,  smooth  and 
shining,  with  a  delicate,  median,  frontal  sulca.  Thorax  and 
median  segment  sparsely  punctured,  the  median  segment  ehngate, 
longer  than  the  prothorax,  broadened  from  the  base,  and  obliqueljr 
truncate  at  the  apex.  Abdomen  subcylindrical,  shining,  with 
large,  elongate  punctures;  the  epi[)ygium  with  a  broad,  median 
longitudinal  carina,  narrowly  rounded  at  the  apex;  the  first  seg- 
ment beneath  with  a  minute  tubercle  at  the  base.  Ferruginous- 
brown,  the  abdominal  segments  stained  with  black  on  the  sides. 
Length  5  mm. 

Hab. — Berwick,  Melbourne,  Vic. 

The  type  appears  to  be  lost,  and  my  identification  may  possibly 

be  mistaken. 

L.  CAROLi,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  short  carina  from  the  base,  which  ends 
about  the  centre  in  a  subtubercular  prominence,  overlapping  a 


BY   ROWLAND  E.   TUKNKR.  253 

broad  triangular  truncation  extending  to  the  aj)ex.  Head  very 
finely  and  densely  punctured,  a  short,  median  frontal  sulca 
between  the  antennae,  separating  two  small  tubercles.  Prothorax 
shining,  with  very  minute,  shallow  punctures,  the  anterior  margin 
slightly  raised.  JMesothorax  and  scutellum  densely  and  finely 
punctured,  the  scutellum  subtriangular,  rounded  at  the  apex. 
Median  segment  very  finely  reticulate,  with  a  short,  median, 
longitudinal  sulca  from  the  base.  Abdomen  elongate  fusiform, 
ver}'-  faintly  punctured,  shining;  epipygium  strongl}^  punctured, 
with  thin  fulvous  pubescence  on  the  sides.  Hypopygium  rounded 
and  ciliated  at  the  apex.  Black;  the  antennae,  legs,  except  the 
cox^e,  and  abdomen,  light  ferruginous;  the  mandibles,  the  trian- 
gular truncation  of  the  clypeus  and  the  anterior  margin  at  the 
sides  of  the  clypeus,  the  prothorax,  except  a  black  spot  in  the 
middle  and  the  tegulte,  yellow.  Wings  hyaline,  iridescent, 
nervures  fuscous.  Length  10  mm. 
Hah. — Victoria  (French). 

L.   ARENARIA,   n.Sp. 

(J.  Head  large,  produced  behind  the  eyes,  the  sides  nearly 
parallel;  shining,  rather  closely  and  shallowlj^  punctured;  two 
rather  prominent  tubercles  between  the  antennae.  The  clypeus 
with  a  small  elevated  triangular  area  on  the  basal  portion, 
depressed  on  the  apical  portion,  subtruncate  at  the  apex  and 
produced  into  minute  spines  at  the  apical  angles.  Prothorax 
almost  smooth  with  minute  shallow  punctures.  Mesothorax  and 
scutellum  shining,  rather  sparsely  punctured,  scutellum  broadly 
rounded  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  nearly  smooth  at  the 
base,  very  finely  transversely  rugulose  at  the  apex.  Abdomen 
shining,  with  a  few  scattered  punctures;  epipygium  punctured, 
elongate,  with  a  very  fine  median  carina  at  the  apex,  and  with 
sparse  fulvous  pubescence.  Black;  the  abdomen,  except  the 
extreme  base,  and  legs,  except  the  coxse  and  trochanters,  ferru- 
ginous. A  fuscous  mark  on  the  fifth  abdominal  segment.  The 
anterior  margins  of  the  clypeus  and  face  uniting  wdth  a  central 
mark  on  the  clypeus  extending  nearly  to  the  base,  the  two 
19 


254  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,  I., 

tubercles  between  the  antenn?e,  a  broadly  interrupted  line  on  the 
vertex,  a  narrowly  interrupted  line  on  the  anterior  of  the  pro- 
thorax  and  a  narrow  line  in  front  of  the  tegulae,  yellow.  The 
wings  hyaline,  tegulae  and  nervures  at  the  base  dark  testaceous, 
the  nervures  at  the  apex  black.     Length  11  mm. 

^.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Victoria  (French). 

L.  SUBACTA,  n  sp. 

(J.  Head  not  much  narrowed  behind  the  eyes  nor  produced; 
closely  and  finely  punctured,  with  two  slightly  prominent 
tubercles  between  the  antennae.  The  clypeus  is  depressed  along 
the  apical  margin,  with  a  slight  tubercle  on  each  side  before  the 
apex.  Prothorax  almost  smooth,  the  anterior  margin  consider- 
ably raised;  mesothorax  and  scutellum  closely  and  finely  punc- 
tured, the  scutellum  subtruncate  at  the  apex.  Median  segment 
very  finely  reticulate,  with  a  ver}^  small,  transverse,  shining  mark 
at  the  base,  rounded  at  the  apex.  Abdomen  shining,  w^ith  a  few 
scattered  punctures.  Epipygium  with  a  broad  median  carina, 
not  elongate,  narrowly  rounded  at  the  apex,  thinly  clothed  with 
long  fulvous  hairs.  Black  ;  the  legs,  except  the  coxse  and 
trochanters,  the  abdomen,  except  the  extreme  base,  and  a  spot 
at  the  apex  of  the  scutellum,  ferruginous;  the  margin  of  the  face 
and  clypeus,  a  triangular  spot  on  the  clypeus,  the  tubercles 
between  the  antennae,  an  interrupted  line  on  the  vertex,  the 
anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  narrowly  and  the  posterior 
margin  broadly,  almost  uniting  with  the  anterior  marginal  line 
in  the  middle,  and  the  postscutellum,  yelloNv.  Wings  hyaline, 
nervures  dark  fuscous.     Length  9  mm. 

Q.  Head  rectangular,  nearly  twice  as  long  as  broad,  shining, 
sparsely  punctured,  with  a  slight  median  frontal  sulca.  Thorax 
sparsely  punctured;  prothorax  shorter  than  the  median  segment, 
narrowed  and  rounded  anteriorly.  Median  segment  elongate, 
the  sides  almost  parallel.  Abdomen  cylindrical,  finely  punctured; 
a  median  longitudinal  depression  on  the  apical  portion  of  segments 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TUllNKK.  255 

2-4.       Epipygium    with    a    median   carina.       Castaneous-ljiown. 
Length  5  mm. 

Hah. — Adelaide  (Fortnuiu).  Types  in  Oxfoid  University 
Museum. 

L.  COMES,  n.sp. 

(J.  Very  slender.  Clypeus  with  a  raised  triangular  elevation 
from  the  base  to  near  the  apex,  where  it  is  broadest,  suddenly 
depressed  at  the  apex.  Head  densely  and  finely  punctured, 
narrowed  posteriorly.  Prothorax  shining,  almost  smooth;  meso- 
thorax  delicately  punctured,  scutellum  rather  long,  narrowly 
rounded  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  delicately  reticulate,  with 
a  deep  longitudinal  sulca  from  the  base  reaching  about  half-way 
to  the  apex.  Abdomen  with  a  few  shallow  punctures,  the  apical 
segment  more  coarsely  punctured,  with  thin  fulvous  pubescence. 
Black ;  the  mandibles  yellow,  ferruginous  at  the  apex ;  the 
antenn?e,  legs,  except  the  cox«  and  trochanters,  the  two  basal 
abdominal  segments  and  the  third  at  the  base,  dark  ferruginous 
the  two  apical  joints  of  the  antennae  fuscous.  A  very  narrow 
interrupted  white  line  on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax. 
Wings  hyaline,  iridescent,  nervures  fuscous.     Length  7  mm. 

Hah. — Victoria  (French). 

L.  OPACA,  n.sp. 

(J.  Slender.  Clypeus  with  a  basal  carina  produced  into  a  pro- 
minent tubercle  in  the  centre  of  the  clypeus;  head  finely  punc- 
tured, with  a  short  white  pubescence  and  a  very  fine  median 
frontal  sulca;  narrowed  behind  the  eyes.  Prothorax  rather 
depressed,  narrowed  anteriorly,  very  finely  and  shallowly  punc- 
tured; mesothorax  more  strongly  punctured;  scutellum  subtri- 
angular,  narrowly  rounded  at  the  apex;  median  segment  reticulate, 
almost  smooth  at  the  base,  with  white  pubescence  on  the  sides. 
Abdomen  slender,  shining,  with  very  minute,  shallow  punctures, 
a  slightly  raised  mark  on  each  side  of  segments  2-5  near  the 
apical  margin.  Epipygium  strongly  punctured,  broadly  rounded 
-at  the    apex.       Entirely   black,   the  head   opaque,    thorax    and 


256  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

abdomen    shining.      ^Yings   liyaline,  iridescent,  nervures  black. 
Length  10  mm. 

The  third  cubital  cell  subtriangular,  l)eing  very  short  along 
the  radial  nervure. 

Hah. — Victoria  (French). 

L.  TRiSTis  Sm. 

Thynmis  {Agriomyia)  tristis  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.p.34,n.88. 

(J.  Head  densely  punctured;  the  clypeus  with  a  longitudinal 
carina  from  the  base  to  the  centre,  where  it  is  produced  into  a 
tubercle.  The  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  raised,  the 
scutellum  transversely  truncate  at  the  apex;  the  whole  thorax 
closely  punctured,  most  finely  on  the  prothorax.  Median  seg- 
ment finely  reticulate,  almost  smooth  at  the  base.  Abdomen, 
finely  and  closely  punctured,  the  epipygium  rugulose.  Entirely 
black.  Wings  hyaline,  iridescent,  nervures  dark  fuscous. 
Length  12  mm. 

The  antennae  are  shorter  and  stouter  than  in  most  species  of 
the  genus. 

Hah. — Australia. 

L.   FALLAX  Sm. 

Thynniis  fallax  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p.35,  n.91,  1859((J). 

A  pair  from  Adelaide  in  the  Hope  Collection  at  Oxford. 

The  male  differs  from  the  type  in  having  the  space  at  the  base 
of  the  median  segment  punctured  instead  of  smooth  and  shining. 
The  scutellum  is  rather  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex. 

9.  Head  rectangular,  rather  longer  than  broad,  \evy  sparsely 
and  finely  punctured,  shining.  Thorax  and  median  segment 
shining,  sparsely  and  finely  punctured;  the  prothorax  almost 
square;  the  median  segment  longer  than  the  prothorax,  the  sides 
almost  parallel,  obliquely  truncate  posteriorly.  Abdomen  shining, 
more  densely  punctured  than  the  thorax,  the  first  segment 
vertically  truncate  anteriorly,  and  with  a  small  acute  tubercle  at 
the  base  beneath.  Epipygium  narrowlj^  rounded  at  the  apex, 
with  a  slightly  raised,  broad  median  carina.      The  abdomen  is. 


BY   ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  257 

■subcyliiidrical.     Ferruginous-brown;  the  abdomen  fuscous,  except 
the  apical  segment.     Length  9  mm. 

Hah. — Adelaide. 

The  male  closely  resembles  Eirone  ruficomis  8m.,  in  general 
appearance. 

L   cuBiTALis,  n.sp. 

^.  Clypeus  slightly  advanced,  truncate  at  the  apex,  a  median 
carina  from  the  base  ending  in  a  minute  tubercle  a  little  before 
the  apex,  very  tinely  punctured.  Head  densely  punctured, 
narrowed  behind  the  eyes,  with  two  small  tubercles  between  the 
autemiaB.  Prothorax  shining,  very  finely  punctured,  the  anterior 
margin  raised,  with  a  faint,  depressed,  shining  line  behind  the 
margin.  Mesothorax  punctured,  the  scutellum  subtriangular, 
narrowly  rounded  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  delicately 
reticulate,  slender.  Abdomen  subpetiolate  fusiform,  shining,  with 
minute  shallow  punctures  and  long  cinereous  pubescence  on  the 
sides  of  the  apical  segments  Black;  the  antennae  from  the  third 
to  the  eighth  joints,  the  mandibles  at  the  apex,  the  tibise,  tarsi, 
<ind  posterior  femora  ferruginous;  the  mandibles  at  the  base,  a 
narrow  line  on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  clypeus,  a  narrow, 
interrupted  line  on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  and  a 
narrow  transverse  line  on  the  postscutellum,  creamy-white. 
Wings  hyaline,  slightly  iridescent,  nervures  dark  fuscous. 
Length  7  mm. 

9.  Head  rectangular,  longer  than  wide,  slightly  rounded  at  the 
posterior  angles,  shining,  with  a  few  minute  punctures,  a  very 
short  median  frontal  sulca,  front  between  the  antennae  deeply 
emarginate.  Thorax  and  median  segment  with  sparse,  large, 
elongate  punctures,  prothorax  rectangular,  longer  than  broad, 
rather  narrower  than  the  head;  median  segment  longer  than  the 
prothorax,  moderately  broadened  to  the  apex.  Abdomen  C3''lin- 
drical,  more  closely  punctured  than  the  thorax,  the  apical  portion 
of  the  epipygium  smooth  with  a  longitudinal  median  carina. 
Eirst  abdominal  segment  beneath  with  a  minute  tubercle  at  the 


258  KEVISIOX  OF  THE  THVNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

base.     Chestnut-brown,  stained  with  black  on  the  median  segment) 
and  on  the  abdominal  segments  above.     Length  4  mm. 
Hah. — Victoria  (French;.     Types  in  Coll.  Froggatt. 

Subgenus  Eiroxe  Westw. 

Eirone  Westw.,  Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  144,  1844. 

(J.  Very  near  AeJurus  Klug,  from  which  it  differs  in  the  joints 
of  the  maxillary  palpi,  the  three  apical  joints  in  Eirone  being 
only  a  little  more  than  half  as  long  again  as  the  three  basal 
joints. 

9.  Head  rectangular;  maxillae  small,  with  four-jointed  maxillary 
palpi;  labial  palpi  four-jointed.  Abdomen  C3dindrical  or  sub- 
cylindrical.     Tarsal  ungues  simple. 

In  E.  chspar,  the  typical  species,  the  mandibles  of  the  female 
are  bidentate,  but  this  is  not  usually  the  case. 

The  differences  between  this  and  Aeluriis  are,  in  my  opinion, 
too  slight  to  merit  full  generic  rank.  Ashmead  (Canad.  Ent.xxxv.) 
mentions  Eirone  among  genera  of  which  the  female  only  is  known, 
and  suggests  that  Lophocheilus  Guer.,  may  be  the  male.  He 
cannot  have  looked  at  Westwood's  description  and  figures,  which 
are  very  good  and  clear;  but  has  probably  been  misled  by  an 
error  of  Saussure's. 

Type  E.  dispar  Westw. 

Kty  to  the  Species  of  Eirone. 

S'  3'  i-  Clypeus  with  a  triangular  truncation  at  the  apex. 

A.  Head  very  large,  produced  behind  the  eyes. 

a.  Median  segment  short,  truncate. 

a'2.  Anterior   margin   of    prothorax   yellow,   legs  testaceous. 

Length  6-8  mm.  E.  crassiceps,  n.sp. 

B.  Head  not  so  large. 

a2.  Antennae  and  legs  yellow.     Length  10  mm.  E.  lacidu/a,  n.sp. 

&2.  Legs  only  yellow.     Length  10  mm.  E.  lucida  Sm. 

c2.  Antennte,  legs,  prothorax  and  scutellum  yellow.     Length 

5-7 mm.  E.  sctUellata,  n.sp. 

b.  Median  segment  rounded. 

a2.  Legs  and  antennse  ferruginous.     Length  1 1  mm. 

E.  rujicornis  k>m. 
ii2,  Antennte  only  ferruginous.     Length  7  mm.     E.  Jul vicostalis,  n.sp. 


I 


I 


BY   ROWLAND  E.  TURNER.  259 

c'^.  The  triangular  truncation  of  the  clypeus  white. 
a'^.  A  white  line  on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax. 
a*.  Clypeus  without  a  median  carina;    with  a  minute 

tubercle  on  each  side.  E.  tuberculata  Sm. 

b^.  Clypeus  with  a  median  carina.  E.  vitripennh  Sm. 

h^.  Prothorax  wholly  black.     Length  8mm.  E.  osculans,  n.sp. 

ii.  Clypeus  without  a  triangular  truncation  at  the  apex. 

A,  Abdominal  segments  slightly  constricted  near  the  base. 
a.  Wholly  black. 

a'^.  Thorax  strongly  punctured. 

a^.  Median  segment  with  a  broad  low  median  carina  at 

the  base.  E.  tenuipalpa,  n.sp. 

6^.  Median  segment  without  a  carina.     Length  11  mm. 

E.  (iispar  Westw. 

h'^.  Ttorax  finely  punctured.     Length  6  mm.  E.  tenehrosa,  n.sp. 

h.  Postscutellum  white. 

a2.  Clypeus  white,  antennae  black.     Length  5  mm.      E.  parca,  n.sp. 

h'^.  Clypeus  black,  antennae  fuscous.  E.  inconspinia,  n.sp. 

B.  Abdominal  segments  not  constricted. 

a.  Clypeus  with  a  median  carina  from  base  to  apex, 

a'^.  Head  and  five  basal  segments  of  abdomen  ferruginous. 

Length  13  mm.  E.  ferrugineiceps,  n.s-g. 

6'2.  Light  castaneous,  two  apical  segments  of  abdomen  black. 

Length  12  mm.  E.  castaneicejis,  n.sp. 

5  $  .  i.  Abdomen  subcylindrical. 

a.  Black,  prothorax  and  two  basal  segments  of  the  abdomen 

ferruginous.  E.  luckhda,  n.sp. 

b.  Wholly  castaneous. 

ffc2.  First  abdominal  segment  truncate,  with  a  minute  spine 

at  each  angle,  E.  scutellata,  n.sp. 

b'^.  Pygidium  with  minute  lateral  spines  and  a  tuft  of  hair  at 

the  apex.  E.  fulvicostalis,  n.sp. 

ii.  Abdomen  cylindrical, 

A.  Median  segment  longer  than  the  prothorax. 

a.  With  an  impressed  median  longitudinal  mark  on  the  apical 

half  of  abdominal  segments  2-4. 
a^.  First  abdominal  segment  short,  much  broadened  from  the 

base.  E.  tuberculata  Sm. 

62.  First  abdominal  segment  not  short,  not  much  broadened 

from  the  base.  E.  tenebrosa,  n.sp. 

b.  Without  an  impressed  longitudinal  mark  on  segments  2-4. 

a-.  Delicately  punctured,  mandibles  bidentate.  E.  dispar  Westw. 


260  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

/>-.  Strongly  punctured,  mandibles  simple.  E.  tenuipalpa,  n.sp. 

B.  Median  segment  about  the  same  length  as  the  prothorax. 

a.  Front  between  the  antenna?  deeply  emarginate.  E.  parca,  n.sp. 

E.  DISPAR  Westw. 

Uirone  dispar  Westw.,  Ai-c.Eiit.ii.2,p.l44,t.82,f  ,5-6,1844  (^^9). 

?  Thynyius  {Ayriomyia)  brevlGor'niH  Sm,,  Cat.  Hym.  B.  M.  vii. 
p.:39, 11.103,  i859(^). 

The  female  of  this  species  has  the  mandibles  bidentate.  In 
other  nearly  related  species  the  mandibles  are  simple.  West  wood 
gives  full  details  as  to  the  mouth-parts  in  his  plates  and  in  his 
generic  description.  Thynaus  brevicornis  Sm.,  is  almost  certainly 
a  synonym,  but  the  type  seems  to  be  lost  and  the  description  is 
not  sufficiently  full  for  absolute  certainty. 

Hah. — Adelaide,  S.A. 

E.   TENUIPALPA,  n.sp. 

^.  Head  transverse,  slightly  narrowed  posteriori}^;  elypeus 
densel}'  and  finely  punctured,  smooth  on  the  apical  margin,  not 
much  advanced.  Head  and  thorax  strongly  punctured;  prothorax 
very  long,  the  anterior  margin  slightly  elevated  at  the  sides, 
slightly  emarginate  in  the  middle.  Median  segment  with  a  fine 
median  carina  from  the  base  to  the  centre,  a  smooth  area  at  the 
base,  the  remainder  finely  transversely  rugulose,  smooth  at  the 
extreme  apex.  Abdomen  fusiform,  the  first  segment  with  a 
median  longitudinal  sulca  not  reaching  the  apex,  sabtuberculate 
beneath  at  the  base.  Segments  2-4  with  an  impressed  transverse 
line  near  the  base,  and  slight  lateral  elevations  near  the  apical 
margin.  All  the  segments  densely  punctured,  almost  smooth  at 
the  base.  Hypopygium  rounded,  ciliated  at  the  apex.  Black, 
the  abdomen  shining,  mandibles  fusco-ferruginous.  Wings 
hyaline,  faintly  iridescent,  a  fuscous  cloud  in  the  radial  and 
second  cubital  cells,  nervures  black.      Length  12  mm. 

9.  Head  rectangular,  slightly  rounded  at  the  posterior  angles, 
longer  tlian  bro:id,  with  a  faint  median  frontal  sulca.  Head, 
thorax  and  median  segment  punctured,  the  punctures  large  and 


]3Y  ROWLAND  K.   TUKNKH.  261 

-elongate.  Prothorax  slightl}^  nanowed  anteriorly;  median  seg- 
ment longer  than  the  prothorax,  moderately  broadened  to  the 
apex,  where  it  is  obliquely  depressed.  First  alxlominal  segment 
narrowly  truncate  anteriorly  ;  the  surface  of  the  truncation 
concave,  with  a  median  sulca.  The  four  basal  segments  with 
elongate  punctures,  shallow  on  the  fourth  segment.  Apical 
segments  very  finely  punctured,  the  punctures  not  elongate. 
Pygidiuin  with  a  delicate,  longitudinal  median  carina.  A 
minute  tubercle  at  the  base  of  the  first  segment  beneath. 
Abdomen  cylindrical.  The  mandibles  are  not  bidentate. 
Entirely  castaneous-brown.     Length  7  mm. 

Hah,  —  Mackay,  Q. 

Near  E.  dispar  Westw.,  from  which  it  diifers  in  the  sculpture 
of  the  median  segment  in  the  male,  and  the  simple  mandibles  of 
the  female. 

E.   TENEBROSA,  11. Sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  and  head  delicately  and  closely  punctured;  clypeus 
without  a  carina.  Prothorax  shining,  with  very  fine,  almost 
microscopic,  punctures,  the  anterior  margin  raised.  Mesothorax 
and  scutellum  more  strongly  punctured,  the  scute  Hum  narrowly 
rounded  at  the  apex;  median  segment  rather  short,  delicately 
reticulate,  with  a  smooth  mark  at  the  base.  Abdominal  segments 
finely  punctured,  smooth  at  the  extreme  apex;  a  raised  mark 
close  to  the  apical  margin  and  strongly  emarginate  posteriorly  in 
the  middle  on  segments  2-4.  Entirely  black,  the  mandibles 
fuscous.  Wings  hyaline,  strongly  iridescent,  nervures  fuscous. 
Length  6  mm, 

9-  Head  rectangular,  longer  than  broad,  shining,  with  a  few 
minute  shallow  punctures;  a  very  fine  sulca  between  the  antenna?. 
Thorax  and  median  segment  shining,  with  scattered  punctures, 
tlie  prothorax  narrower  than  the  head;  the  jnedian  segment 
longer  than  the  prothorax,  very  slightly  widened  to  the  apex. 
Abdomen  cylindrical,  rather  sparsely  punctured,  the  punctures 
large  and  elongate,  a  depressed,  median,  longitudinal  line  on  the 
apical  half  of  segments  2-1.      Epipygium  with  a  delicate  median 


262  KEVLSION  OF  THE  THYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

carina,  not  reaching  the  apex,  which  is  pointed.  Shining  casta- 
neons-brown,  abdominal  segments  2-5  stained  with  black.  Length 
6  mm. 

Hab. — Melbourne  (Bakewell). 

Types  in  Oxford  University  Museum. 

E.  INCONSPICUA,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  short,  without  a  triangular  truncation  at  the  apex; 
head  delicatel}^  punctured,  with  a  short,  faint  sidca  between  the 
antennae.  Anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  moderately  raised; 
the  whole  thorax  punctured.  The  median  segment  finely  reticulate. 
Abdomen  finely  punctured,  the  median  sulca  on  tlie  first  segment 
extending  from  the  base  more  than  half-way  to  the  apex,  segments 
2-4  with  an  impressed  transverse  line  near  the  base,  and  with  a 
raised  mark  on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin,  the  marks 
indistincth^  connected  and  widely  emarginate  in  the  centre. 
Shining  black,  with  white  pubescence;  the  postscutellum  white; 
the  mandibles,  antennae  and  the  tarsi  of  the  anterior  legs  fusco- 
ferruginous.  Wings  hyaline,  iridescent,  nervures  black.  Length 
6  mm. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Cairns,  Q. 

Allied  to  E.  imrca. 

E.  PARCA,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  hardly  at  all  advanced,  without  a  basal  carina  or 
oblique  truncation,  transversely  truncate  at  the  apex,  very 
delicately  punctured,  pubescent  at  the  sides.  Head  finel}-  punc- 
tured, with  a  very  delicate  longitudinal  carina  from  the  vertex  to 
the  anterior  ocellus.  Prothorax  long,  the  anterior  margin  raised, 
except  in  the  middle,  very  finel}''  and  closely  punctured,  as  is  also 
the  mesothorax,  which  is  very  short.  Scutellum  subtriangular, 
narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex,  rather  more  sparsely  punctured. 
Median  segment  finely  reticulate,  almost  smooth  at  the  base. 
Abdonien  fusiform,  very  delicately  and  closely  punctured,  the 
first  segment  with  a  short  sulca  from  the  base;  segments  2-4  with 
a  raised  mark  on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin,  and  with  the 


I5Y   HOWLAND  E.   TURNER.  203 

apical  margin  widely  einarginate.  Hypopygium  rounded  and 
ciliated  at  the  apex.  Black;  the  clypeus,  postscutellum  and  an 
interrupted  line  on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  white; 
mandibles  and  anterior  tibiae  and  tarsi  fuscous.  Wings  hyaline 
iridescent,  with  a  fuscous  cloud  in  the  radial  cell,  nervures  fusco- 
testaceous.      Length  7-8  mm. 

2-  Head  rectangular,  rather  longer  than  broad,  the  front 
between  the  antennae  deeply  and  narrowl}^  emarginate  ;  the 
mandibles  acute  at  the  apex,  not  bidentate.  The  whole  insect 
punctured,  the  punctures  large  and  elongate.  The  prothorax 
longer  than  broad,  slightly  narrowed  anteriorly;  the  median  seg- 
ment about  the  same  length  as  the  prothorax,  .slightly  narrowed 
anteriorly;  the  median  segment  about  the  same  length  as  the 
prothorax,  slightly  broadened  to  the  apex,  obliquely  depressed 
posteriorly.  Abdomen  cylindrical,  the  first  segment  vertically 
truncate  at  the  base.     Entirely  castaneous.     Length  5  mm. 

Hab. — Mackay,  Q.((J9  in  cop.). 

E.   FULVICOSTALIS,   n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  slightly  advanced,  punctured,  with  a  small,  sub- 
triangular  truncation  at  the  apex,  the  apical  margin  transversely 
truncate.  Head  and  thorax  densely  and  finely  punctured,  the 
prothorax  not  very  long,  with  the  anterior  margin  raised  and 
the  sides  nearly  parallel;  the  scutellum  rounded  at  the  apex,  the 
median  segment  reticulate,  closely  punctured  at  the  base,  short 
and  depressed.  Abdomen  short,  fusiform,  finely  punctured;  the 
first  segment  with  a  short  median  sulca  from  the  base;  segments 
2-4  with  a  raised  mark  on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin.  The 
hyi)opygium  rounded  and  ciliated  at  the  apex.  Black;  the 
mandibles  and  antennae,  except  the  scape,  fulvous;  the  tibias  and 
tarsi  of  the  anterior  legs  fuscous.  Wings  hyaline,  faintly  fiavo- 
hyaline  at  the  base,  splendidly  iridescent,  nervures  fulvous. 
Length  7  mm. 

9.  The  whole  insect  punctured,  the  punctures  large  and  more 
or  less  elongate.  Head  rectangular,  longer  than  wide,  with  a 
strong  median  frontal  .sulca;   wider  than  the  thorax.      Prothorax 


264  REVISION  OF  THK  TIIYNNID.E  OP  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

slightly  narrowed  anteriorly,  broader  than  long;  median  segment 
much  broadened  at  the  apex,  where  it  is  obliquely  truncate. 
Abdomen  subcylindrical,  first  segment  verticall}''  truncate  ante- 
riorly, the  two  apical  segments  narrowed,  the  pygidium  pointed, 
with  a  small  tuft  of  pubescence  at  the  apex.  Chestnut-brown, 
abdominal  segments  suffused  with  fuscous.  Length  3-4  mm. 
Hah. — Mackay,Q  ((J9  in  cop.). 


E.  oscuLANs,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  very  slightly  advanced,  with  a  very  short  carina 
from  the  i)ase  joining  a  narrow,  oblique,  triangular  truncation 
which  extends  to  the  apex.  Head  densely  punctured,  narrowed 
behind  the  eyes.  Prothorax  long,  the  anterior  margin  straight 
and  raised,  the  raised  collar  narrowU^  interrupted  in  the  middle. 
Mesothorax  and  prothorax  very  delicately  punctured,  the  pro- 
thorax  niost  sparsely;  scutellum  sparsely  punctured,  rounded  at 
the  apex.  Median  segment  finel}'  reticulated,  smooth  at  the  base. 
Abdomen  ver}^  delicately  and  closel}''  punctured,  shining,  elongate 
fusiform,  the  first  segment  with  a  short  median  basal  sulca,  seg- 
ments 2-4  with  slightly  raised  marks  on  each  side  near  the  apical 
margin.  Hypopygium  rounded,  ciliated.  Black;  a  white  line 
on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  clypeus,  the  triangular  truncation 
of  the  clypeus  white;  tibi^  and  tarsi  of  the  anterior  legs  fuscous. 
Wings  hyaline,  with  a  faint  fuscous  cloud  in  the  radial  cell, 
nervures  fuscous.     Length  8  mm. 

Hah. — Mackay,  Q. 

Nearest  to  E.  vitripeiDiis  Sm. 

E.  VITRIPENNIS  Sm. 

Thynnus  {Eirone)  vitripennis  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.  M.  vii.  p.41, 
n.ll3,1859(cJ$). 

g.  Tlie  scutellum  is  rounded  at  the  apex;  the  median  segment 
is  rounded,  depressed  at  the  apex,  delicately  reticulate,  most 
finely  at  the  base.  The  abdomen  is  finely  and  very- shallowly 
punctured.  The  third  cubital  cell  is  considerably  narrowed 
along  the  radial  nervure. 


BY  ROWLAND  K.  TURNER.  265" 

llab, —  Victoria  (Lower  Plenty). 

The  female  under  this  name  in  the  British  Museum  does  not 
correspond  with  Smith's  description. 
The  type  appears  to  be  lost. 

E.  TUBERCULATA  8m. 

ThijMias  [Eirone)  t^tbercn/atus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.  M.  vii.  p. 41, 
n.ll2,1859(cJ9). 

g.  The  scutellum  is  rather  broadly  subtruncate  at  the  apex; 
the  median  segment  rather  long  and  narrow  at  the  apex,  finely 
reticulate,  with  a  short  median  sulca  from  the  base.  The  abdomen 
is  subpunctate,  segments  2-4  with  a  curved  raised  mark  near  the 
apical  margin  on  each  side. 

9.  An  impressed  median  longitudinal  line  on  the  apical  portions 
of  abdominal  segments  2-4,  and  a  curved  raised  mark  on  each 
side  near  the  apical  margin.  The  pygidium  at  the  apex  is  acute, 
with  a  faint  median  carina  and  the  lateral  margins  slightly  raised. 

Bab. — Victoria  (Lower  Plenty). 

E.  RUFICORNIS  Sm. 

Thynnus  (^Agriomyia)  rujicornis  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p. 34, 
n.89,  1859((J). 

Thynnus  haerdtii  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  108((J). 

The  clypeus  has  a  short  carina  from  the  base,  joining  a  smooth, 
oblique,  triangular  truncation  which  extends  to  the  apex.  Hypo- 
pygium  rounded  and  ciliated  at  the  apex. 

Hab. — Swan  River,  W.A. 

E.  SCUTELLATA,  n.Sp. 

(^.  Clypeus  with  a  very  short  delicate  carina  from  the  base,  a 
short  and  wide  triangular  truncation  at  the  apex.  Head  and 
thorax  densely  punctured;  head  narrowed  behind  the  eyes;  the 
anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  very  slightly  raised;  the  scu- 
tellum rather  broadly  truncate  at  the  apex.  Median  segment 
short,  depressed  and  subtruncate  posteriorly,  delicately  reticulate. 
Abdominal  segments  shining,    with  very  fine  punctures  at  the 


266  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

base,  smooth  at  the  apex.  Pygidium  smooth  and  rounded. 
Abdomen  fusiform,  short.  Black;  antennae  fuscous,  the  scape 
ferruginous;  mandibles,  the  anterior  portion  of  the  clypeus,  a 
narrowly  interrupted  line  on  the  anterior  margin  of  the  protliorax, 
a  curved  line  before  the  tegulae,  the  tegula3,  a  large  spot  on  the 
scutellum,  a  transverse  line  on  the  postscutellum  and  the  legs 
yellow.  Wings  hyaline,  iridescent,  nervures  testaceous.  Length 
5-7  mm. 

9.  Head  much  longer  than  wide,  slightly  narrowed  to  the 
posterior  margin,  shining,  very  finely  and  sparsely  punctured, 
with  a  very  delicate  median  frontal  sulca.  Prothorax  narrowed 
^nd  rounded  anteriorly,  about  the  same  length  as  the  median 
segment,  wdiich  is  modeiately  broadened  to  the  apex  where  it  is 
obliquely  truncate.  Thorax,  median  segment  and  abdomen 
shining,  with  large,  elongate,  shallow  punctures.  Abdomen  sub- 
cylindrical,  the  first  segment  truncate  at  the  base,  the  lateral 
angles  of  the  truncation  produced  into  short  spines,  a  minute 
tubercle  beneath  near  the  base.  Epipygium  pointed.  Entirely 
castaneous.     Length  3  mm. 

Hah. — Mackay,  Q.((J9  in  cop.).  Cape  York,  Q. 

Cape  York  specimens  have  the  whole  pronotum  yellow,  and 
the  sculpture  on  the  median  seghient  is  coarser. 

E.  LUCiDA  Sm. 
Thynnus   {Agriomyia)  lucidus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p.36, 
n.95,  1859((J). 

The  antennae  are  black,  not  yellow  as  in  the  following  species; 
it  is  also  much  less  strongly  punctured,  especially  on  the  abdomen. 
The  type  is  in  the  Oxford  University  Museum. 
9.  Unknown. 
Hah. — Tasmania. 

E.  LUCiDULA,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  almost  smooth,  a  very  faint  median  carina  from 
the  base  to  the  centre,  whence  the  clypeus  is  broadly  triangularly 
truncate  to  the  apex.  Head  punctured,  least  strongly  on  the 
xjcciput.      Prothorax   of  moderate   length,   the   anterior  margin 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  267 

raised.  The  whole  thorax  punctured,  the  scutellum  rounded  at 
the  apex.  Median  segment  smooth  at  the  extreme  Imse,  witlj  a 
slight  median  depression,  the  remainder  of  the  segment  rugulose, 
most  finely  near  the  apex;  the  segment  is  obliquely  depressed  to 
the  apex.  Abdomen  short,  fusiform,  delicately  punctured;  the 
first  segment  with  a  short  median  sulca  from  the  base.  H^^po- 
pygium  broadly  rounded,  ciliated.  Black;  antennae,  mandibles, 
clypeus  on  the  apical  half,  tegula?  and  legs  yellow.  Wings 
hyaline,  slightly  iridescent,  nervures  fuscous,  testaceous  at  the 
base.     Length  10-11  mm. 

O.  Head  rectangular,  rather  longer  than  broad,  with  fine 
scattered  punctures,  the  front  more  closel}^  punctured,  with  a 
short  median  frontal  sulca.  Thorax  and  median  segment  sparsely 
and  finely  punctured;  the  prothorax  narrowed  and  rounded 
anteriorly,  as  broad  on  the  posterior  margin  as  long;  the  median 
segment  as  long  as  the  prothorax,  obliquely  truncate  at  the  apex, 
where  it  is  nearl}^  twice  as  broad  as  at  the  base.  Abdomen 
broader  than  the  thorax,  subcylindrical,  punctured.  Pygidium 
short,  nearly  pointed  at  the  apex.  Black;  ttie  antennae  fusco- 
ferruginous;  the  protliorax,  the  two  basal  and  tw^o  apical  abdominal 
segments,  the  mandibles,  clypeus,  anterior  legs,  all  the  tarsi  and 
the  extreme  apex  of  the  intermediate  and  posterior  tibiae  ferru- 
ginous-red.     Length  5  mm. 

^a6.— Mackay,  Q.((J9  in  cop.);  Wagga,  N.  S.W.;  Victoria; 
S.  Australia, 

The  female  from  S.  Australia  has  the  legs  entirely  ferruginous 
and  the  third  and  fourth  abdominal  segments  black  on  the  basal 
half  only. 

E.  CRASSICEPS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  not  much  produced,  with  a  short  carina  from  the 
base  and  an  oblique  triangular  truncation  at  the  apex,  the  surface 
of  the  truncation  smooth,  the  sides  very  finely  punctured.  Head 
very  large,  very  slightly  narrowed  behind  the  eyes,  densely 
punctured,  a  small  V-shaped  carina  between  the  antennae,  the 
space  between  the  carinas  marked  with  a  very  faint  median  carina. 
Prothorax  finely  punctured,  the  anterior  margin  raised,  as  broad 


268  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNII)^  OF  AUSTRALIA.   I., 

as  the  head  ))ut  not  long.  Mesothorax  and  scutellum  strongly 
punctured,  the  scutellum  strongly  rounded  at  the  aj^ex.  Median 
segment  strongly  punctured,  reticulate  at  the  apex  and  smooth 
at  the  extreme  base,  obliquely  truncate  posteriorly.  Abdomen 
densely  covered  with  minute  shallow  punctures;  first  segment 
with  a  short  median  sulca  from  the  base  and  a  small  tubercle  at 
the  base  beneath;  segments  2-4  wdth  a  small,  raised,  smooth  mark 
on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin.  Epipygium  smooth,  rounded 
at  the  apex.  Black;  the  antennse  fusco-ferruginous;  legs  pale 
ferruginous  marked  with  yellow;  clypeus,  mandibles,  a  line  on 
the  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  and  the  tegulfe  yellow. 
Wings  hyaline,  slightly  iridescent,  nervures  black.  Length 
6-8  mm. 

2.  Unknown.  ' 

Hah.— Cape  York,  Q. 

E.   FERRUGINEICEPS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Head  rather  large,  strongly  punctured;  clypeus  produced 
moderately,  transversely  rugose,  with  a  median  carina  from  the 
base  to  the  apex.  Prothorax  long,  as  broad  as  the  head,  trans- 
versely rugulose,  the  anterior  margin  raised,  the  sides  not  quite 
parallel.  Mesothorax  and  scutellum  strongly  punctured,  the 
scutellum  subtriangular,  narrowl}^  rounded  at  the  apex.  Medi?.n 
segment  short,  depressed  to  the  apex,  finely  reticulate,  smooth  at 
the  base.  Abdomen  punctured,  with  a  transverse  line  near  the 
base  of  segments  2-4,  which  are  almost  smooth  at  the  base  and 
on  the  apical  margin.  Epipygium  at  the  apex  smooth  and 
rounded.  Black;  head,  except  the  clypeus  and  mandibles,  the 
five  basal  abdominal  segments,  except  the  base  of  the  first, 
ferruginous.  Tarsi  fuscous.  Wings  hyaline,  nervures  black. 
Length  11-13  mm. 

The  first  abdominal  segment  has  an  acute  tubercle  near  the 
centre  beneath. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hab. — Sydney. 

Apparently  allied  to  E,  castaneiceps,  but  I  have  not  been  able 
to  study  the  mouth-parts. 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNER.  269 

E.   CASTANEICEPS,  n.Sp. 

-J.  Clypeus  produced  anteriorly,  rather  narrowly  truncate  at 
the  apex,  with  a  longitudinal  carina  from  the  base  to  the  apex, 
punctured.  Head  rather  large,  strongly  punctured,  the  antenna? 
very  short,  a  raised  carina  above  the  base  of  the  antennae  on  each 
side,  the  front  between  the  antennae  narrowly  truncate.  Pro- 
thorax  long  and  broad,  as  broad  as  the  head,  the  sides  parallel, 
the  anterior  margin  raised.  The  thorax  finel}^  and  densely  punc- 
tured, most  finely  on  the  prothorax;  the  scutellum  triangular, 
more  sparsely  punctured,  with  a  very  delicate  longitudinal  carina 
from  the  base  to  the  apex.  Median  segment  smooth  at  the  base, 
very  finely  reticulate  on  the  apical  portion,  rather  short  and 
obliquely  depressed  to  the  apex.  Abdomen  shining,  with  close, 
shallow  punctures,  the  apical  margins  of  the  segments  smooth. 
Segments  2-4:  with  a  faint  depressed  transverse  line  near  the  base 
and  a  faint  raised  mark  on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin. 
Pygidium  smooth  and  rounded  at  the  apex.  The  first  segment 
beneath  with  an  elevated  longitudinal  carina  from  the  base, 
ending  in  a  tubercle  at  the  base  of  the  oblique,  triangular,  apical 
truncation  of  the  segment.  Light  chestnut-brown;  the  clypeus, 
anterior  margin  of  the  piothorax  and  postscutellum  yellowish; 
antennae,  except  the  scape,  and  the  three  apicaJ  abdominal  seg- 
ments black.  Wings  hyaline,  faintly  iridescent,  nervures  fuscous, 
stio;ma  testaceous.     Length  1 2  mm. 

$.  Unknown. 

Hab. — Mackay,  Q. 

The  first  and  third  joints  of  the  maxillary  palpi  are  the  shortest, 
the  others  subequal.      May  have  to  be  separated  from  Eirone. 

Genus  A  r  i  p  h  r  o  n  Erichson. 

Ariphron  Erichs.,  Arch.  f.  Naturgesch.viii.Pt.l,  p. 264,  1842(9). 

(J.  Clypeus   very   narrowly  produced,  usually  with  a   median 

carina;    antennae  of  moderate   length,   usually   longer  than   the 

head  and  thorax  without  the  median  segment.      Head  rounded, 

the  sides  with  rather  long  pubescence,  not  much  lengthened  and 

20 


270  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

curled  as  in  I'achynomyia.  The  head  beneath  concave,  but  not 
nearly  as  widely  so  as  in  Tachynomyia.  Maxillary  palpi  with 
the  three  apical  joints  filiform  and  much  elongated  as  in  Aelurus, 
the  basal  joint  very  short.  Labium  rather  short,  labial  palpi 
rather  stout,  the  basal  joint  the  longest,  without  hairs  at  the 
apex.  No  hairs  on  the  labium.  Labrum  narrow,  rounded 
anteriorly  and  ciliated,  rather  long  and  slightly  narrowed  to  the 
base.  The  galea  of  the  maxilla  shows  an  obscure  dividing  line. 
The  abdomen  is  short,  petiolate;  the  hypopygium  has  a  spine  on 
each  side  near  the  base,  and  is  produced  either  narrowly  or  tri- 
angularly to  the  base  of  the  apical  spine.  The  third  cubital  cell 
is  long  and  receives  the  second  recurrent  nervure  at  about  one- 
third  of  the  distance  from  the  base  to  the  apex.  The  claspers  are 
very  long  and  slender. 

9.  Head  flat,  quadrate,  broader  than  the  prothorax,  the  max- 
illary palpi  (according  to  Erichson)  six-jointed;  the  mandibles 
not  bidentate.  The  prothorax  is  deeply  excavated  in  the  known 
species,  the  median  segments  rather  short,  and  the  tarsal  ungues 
simple.     The  pygidium  varies  a  good  deal. 

Type  A.  bicolor  Erichs. 

Key  to  the  Species  of  Ariphron. 
^  ^ .  i.  Antennae  bright  orange. 

A.  Wholly  black. 

a.  Median  segment  coarsely  rugulose.  A.  petiolafiis  Sm. 

b.  Median  segment  shining,  with  a  few  shallow  punctures. 

A.  vagulus,  n.sp. 

B.  Black  and  ferruginous. 

a.  Legs  and  abdomen,  except  segments  4-5,  ferruginous. 

A.  rigidulus,  n.sp. 
ii.  Antennae  black. 

A.  Wholly  black. 

a.  Wings  fusco- violaceous.  A.  hospes,  n.sp. 

b.  Wings  fusco-hyaline. 

a^.  Median  segment  punctured.  A.  blandulus,  n.sp. 

62.  Median  segment  smooth.  A.  rixosus  Sm. 

c.  Wings  hyaline,  iridescent.  A.  nudulu'^,  n.sp. 

B.  Abdomen  and  legs  at  least  ferruginous  or  testaceous. 

a.  Margins  of  prothorax  yellow,  abdomen  and  legs  ferruginous. 

A.  tryphonoides  Sm. 

b.  Wholly  testaceous.  .4,  pallididus,  n.sp. 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  271 

$  5 .  i.  Head  very  much  broader  than  prothorax,  as  broad  as  long 
or  broader. 
a.  Pygidium  broadly  transversely  truncate  at  apex. 
a'^.  Ferruginous;  abdomen,  except  pygidium,  black. 

A.  hicolor  Erichs. 
h'^.  Wholly  ferruginous-brown,  A.  tryphojioides  Sm. 

h.  Pygidium  more  elongate,  very  narrowly  rounded  at  apex, 
with  a  strong  median  carina, 
a-.  Dull  ferruginous,  abdomen  black.  A.  blandulus,  n.sp. 

ii.  Head  very  little  broader  than  prothorax,  rather  longei  than  broad. 

a.  Wholly  testaceous.  A.  nudulus,  n.sp. 

Ariphron  BicoLOR  Erichs. 

Ariphron  hicolor  Erichs.,  Arch,  f,  Naturgesch.  viii.  Pt.  1,  p. 264, 
n.239,t.5,f.l,  1842(9). 

The  male  of  this  fine  species  is  still  unknown. 

A.   PETIOLATUS  Sm. 

Thynnus  iMiolatns  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.p.36,n.94,1859((J) 

The  hypopygium  has  a  spine  on  each  side  near  the  base,  thence 
very  narrowly  produced  with  parallel  sides  to  the  base  of  the 
apical  spine.  The  clypeus  is  narrowly  produced  anteriorly  and 
has  a  carina  from  the  base,  not  reaching  the  apex. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Melbourne,  Vic.  (French);  Hunter  River,  N.  S.W.; 
Cairns,  Q. 

Melbourne  specimens  are  12-13  mm.  in  length,  those  from 
Cairns  8-10  mm.  The  type  is  from  the  Hunter  River,  and  is 
intermediate  in  size. 

A.  VAGULUS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  produced  anteriorly,  very  narrowly  truncate  at  the 
apex,  with  a  median  longitudinal  carina  from  the  base  to  the 
apex;  the  sides  of  the  clypeus  finely  and  densely  punctured  and 
thinly  covered  with  rather  long  grey  pubescence.  Head  and 
thorax  punctured,  median  segment  shining,  sparsely  and  shallowly 
punctured,  longer  than  in  A.petiolatics  Sm.,  narrowed  and  rounded 
at  the  apex.     Abdomen  slenderer  than  in  A.  lyetiolatus,  the  petiole 


"2r2  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

longer  and  more  gradually  widened,  the  second  segment  depressed 
at  the  base  above.  The  whole  abdomen  shining,  smooth  on  the 
basal  segments,  densely  and  shallowly  punctured  on  the  two  or 
three  apical  segments.  Hypopygium  with  an  acute  spine  on  each 
side,  thence  very  narrowly  produced  with  parallel  sides,  narrow- 
ing slightly  and  abruptly  into  the  apical  spine.  Black;  the 
antenna?  bright  orange,  the  clypeus  at  the  apex,  the  mandibles 
and  two  minute  spots  between  the  antennae  fuscous.  Length 
11  mm. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Victoria  (French). 

Near  A.  petiolatus  Sm.,  from  which  it  may  be  easil}'-  distin- 
guished by  the  shining  median  segment  and  the  slenderer 
abdomen. 

A.  HOSPES,  n.sp. 

(J.  Head  broad,  slightly  and  widely  emarginate  posteriorly, 
occiput  with  rather  sparse,  fine,  shallow  punctures,  front  densely 
and  coarsely  punctured.  Clj^peus  with  a  strong  median  longi- 
tudinal carina,  densely  clothed  with  white  pubescence.  Thorax 
punctured,  most  finely  on  the  protborax;  the  anterior  margin  of 
the  prothorax  slightly  raised,  with  a  narrow,  smooth,  depressed 
line  behind  it.  Scutellum  broadly  rounded  posteriorly.  Median 
segment  rounded  to  the  apex,  ver}'-  finely  punctured.  Abdomen 
petiolate,  oval,  shining,  subpunctate;  the  epipygium  rugose,  with 
a  delicate  median  carina.  Hypopj'gium  with  a  spine  on  each 
side  near  the  base,  thence  narrowly  produced  and  rounded  at  the 
apex,  with  a  sharp  apical  spine.  Beneath  the  abdomen  is  more 
strongly  punctured,  the  first  segment  has  an  oblique  triangular 
truncation  at  the  apex.  Hind  trochanters  with  an  acute  spine 
beneath.  Entirely  black.  Wings  fusco-hyaline,  with  violet 
reflections,  lighter  at  •  the  base  and  apex,  nervures  fuscous. 
Length  14  mm. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Australia. 

Type  in  Oxford  University  Museum,  ex  Coll.  Saunders. 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNER. 


273 


A.  BLANDULUS,  11. sp. 

^.  Clypeus  with  a  longitudinal  median  carina  from  the  base  to 
the  apex,  narrowly  produced  and  truncate  at  the  apex,  thickly 
clothed  with  grey  pubescence.  Head  densely  punctured,  pubes- 
cent, a  very  short,  shallow  sulca  between  the  antennae,  and  a 
delicate  carina  from  the  vertex  to  between  the  two  posterior 
ocelli.  Thorax  densely  punctured,  most  coarsely  on  the  meso- 
thorax,  scutellum  broadly  rounded  at  the  apex.  Median  segment 
finely  punctured-rugulose,  clothed  with  grey  pubescence.  Abdo- 
men smooth  and  shining,  subpetiolate;  a  rather  deep  depression 
near  the  base  of  the  second  segment.  Epipygium  with  a  few 
deep  punctures,  pubescent;  hypopygium  with  a  spine  on  each 
side  near  the  base,  thence  sharply  narrowed  into  a  long  apical 
spine.  Entirely  black,  with  ashy-grey  pubescence.  Wings  fusco- 
hyaline,  hyaline  at  the  base.     Nervures  black.      Length  1 1  mm. 

9.  Head  subquadrate,  large,  very  much  broader  than  the  thorax, 
shining  and  punctured;  the  front  opaque,  very  finely  and  densely 
punctured,  the  punctures  confluent  longitudinally.  A  short,  fine 
sulca  betw^een  the  antennae,  and  a  slight  median  depression  on 
the  vertex.  The  mandibles  short  and  blunt.  Prothorax  narrow 
and  depressed  anteriorly,  the  anterior  half  with  the  margins 
raised,  forming  a  prominent  cordiform  carina,  the  enclosed  area 
depressed,  the  centre  of  the  prothorax  transversely  elevated  and 
the  posterior  portion  oblique.  The  mesothorax  very  small,  raised 
above  the  posterior  margin  of  the  prothorax;  the  median  segment 
oblique  from  the  base,  much  broadened  to  the  apex,  with  a  few 
scattered  punctures,  shorter  than  the  prothorax.  Abdomen 
shining,  finely  punctured,  the  first  segment  vertically  truncate  at 
the  base,  the  third  segment  the  broadest.  Epipygium  with  a 
strong  median  carina  from  the  base  to  the  apex.  Ferruginous, 
the  abdomen  black,  the  pygidium  and  the  margins  of  the  segments 
fuscous.     Length  9  mm. 

Hab. — Berwick,  Vic. 

Types  in  Coll.  Froggatt. 


274  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNIDiE  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

A..  RIXOSUS  Sm. 

Thynnus  rixosus  Sm.,  Desc.n.sp.Hym.  p. 168,  n.27,  1879((J). 
Hah. — Champion  Bay,  W.A. 

A.  NUDULUS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  median  carina  from  the  base  to  tiie  apex, 
narrowly  produced  anteriorly.  Head  finely  punctured,  with 
thin,  short,  grey  pubescence.  The  thorax  is  a  little  more  strong!}^ 
punctured  than  the  head,  the  scutellum  short,  broadly  rounded 
at  the  apex;  the  median  segment  obliquely  depressed  at  the  apex, 
smooth  and  shining  at  the  base,  delicately  punctured  on  the 
apical  portion.  Abdomen  subpetiolate,  smooth  and  shining; 
epipygium  strongly  punctured.  Hypopygium  with  a  small  spine 
on  each  side,  thence  gradually  narrowed  to  the  apical  spine. 
Black;  the  apex  of  the  sixth  abdominal  segment  and  the  pygidium 
fuscous;  spines  of  the  tibiae  testaceous.  Wings  hj^aline,  irides- 
cent, nervures  black.     Length  8  mm. 

^.  Head  quadrate,  linely  punctured;  a  short  sulca  between  the 
antenn*,  broader  than  the  prothorax.  Prothorax  a  little  longer 
than  wide,  with  a  deep  excavation  on  each  side  of  the  anterior 
portion,  divided  by  a  prominent  median  carina;  the  mesothorax 
small;  the  median  segment  subtriangular,  abruptly  truncate  pos- 
teriorly, flat  above  and  sparsely  punctured.  Abdomen  sub- 
cylindrical,  shining,  very  delicately  punctured,  the  fifth  segment 
emarginate  at  the  apex,  epipygium  lanceolate,  with  a  strong 
longitudinal  median  carina.  Entirely  light  castaneous-brown. 
Length  5  mm. 

y/rt6._Tweed  River,  N.  S.W. 

Types  in  Coll.  Froggatt,  without  locality,  but  the  locality  on 
another  male  is  as  given. 

A.  RIGIDULUS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  with  a  median  longitudinal  carina,  narrowly  pro- 
duced anteriorly  and  truncate  at  the  apex,  clothed  w4th  grey 
pubescence;  front  coarsely  rugulose,  occiput  shallowly  punctured. 
Prothorax  short,  shining,  depressed  anteriorly;  mesothorax  and 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNER.  275 

scutellura  strongly  punctured.  Median  segment  short,  rounded, 
shining,  with  small  shallow  punctures.  Abdomen  petiolate, 
smooth  and  shining,  the  second  segment  depressed  at  the  base. 
Hypopygium  shorter  than  in  most  of  the  species  of  the  genus, 
with  a  lateral  spine  near  the  base,  then  gradually  narrowed  to  the 
base  of  the  apical  spine,  which  is  slightly  recurved.  Black;  the 
mandibles  dark  rufo-testaceous-black  at  the  apex;  antennae,  except 
the  basal  half  of  the  scape,  the  legs,  except  the  coxae  and  tro- 
chanters, the  first,  second  and  basal  half  of  the  third  and  the 
whole  of  the  two  apical  abdominal  segments  bright  rufo- testaceous. 
Wings  pale  flavo-hyaline,  nervures  testaceous,  the  stigma  fuscous. 
Length  12  mm. 

Hah. — Melbourne,  Vic. (French). 

A.  TRYPHONOIDES  Sm. 

Thynnus  tryphonoides  Sm.,  Cat.Hym.B.M,vii.34,n.86,1859((J); 
Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p.68,  1859(9). 

(J.  Smith's  description  does  not  refer  to  the  sculpture.  The 
clypeus  has  a  carina  from  the  base  not  reaching  the  apex, 
which  is  smooth,  thinly  clothed  with  long  cinereous  pubescence. 
The  head  densely  punctured.  Prothorax  very  shallowl}', 
mesothorax  more  strongly,  median  segment  finely  and  densely 
punctured.  Abdomen  shining,  the  hypopygium  with  a  spine  on 
each  side  near  the  base,  thence  sharply  narrowed  into  the  apical 
spine,  which  is  long  and  slightly  recurved.  The  six  or  seven 
apical  joints  of  the  antennae  are  produced  and  narrowed  beneath 
at  the  base.  The  cubital  nervure  is  bent  at  the  point  of  recep- 
tion of  the  first  recurrent  nervure,  having  beyond  that  point 
almost  the  appearance  of  being  a  continuation  of  the  first  recurrent 
rather  than  of  the  cubital  nervure.  The  division  of  the  first 
cubital  cell  is  indicated  by  a  faint  scar  only. 

9.  Head  quadrate,  much  broader  than  the  thorax,  punctured, 
the  projection  between  the  antennae  divided  by  a  median  suture, 
a  small  tubercle  at  the  base  of  the  mandibles,  which  are  simple. 
The  anterior  portion  of  the  prothorax  depressed,  with  a  median 
carina,  and  the  lateral  margins  slightly  raised,  having  a  depres- 


276  REVISION  OP  THE  THyNXID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

sion  oil  each  side  of  the  carina;  the  prothorax  posteriorly  much 
elevated  and  somewhat  narrowed,  forming  a  subtubercular  pro- 
minence as  high  as  the  mesothorax.  Median  segment  punctured, 
short,  much  broadened  and  vertically  truncate  posteriorly. 
Abdomen  shining,  finely  punctured:  epipygium  broadly  truncate 
at  the  apex.  Entirely  ferruginous-brown.  Length  7  mm. 
Hah. — Adelaide,  S.A.;  Victoria. 

A.   PALLIDULUS,  n.sp. 

^.  Clypeus  narrowly  produced  to  the  apex,  finely  punctured, 
with  an  indistinct  carina  from  the  base  not  quite  reaching  the 
apex.  Head  strongly  punctured,  with  a  well  developed  median 
froatal  sulca.  Prothorax  very  short  and  depressed:  mesothorax 
strongly  punctured,  the  scutellum  short  and  broadly  truncate  at 
the  apex.  Median  segment  shining,  sparsely  punctured,  the 
punctures  very  minute  and  shallow.  Abdomen  flattened  above 
and  beneath,  smooth  and  shining,  subpetiolate,  the  second  seg- 
ment depressed  at  the  base.  Hypopygium  with  a  spine  on  each 
side  near  the  base,  thence  very  suddenly  narrowed  and  produced, 
very  slender,  with  parallel  sides  to  the  base  of  the  apical  aculeus, 
which  is  rather  long.  Testaceous-brown,  the  clypeus,  front, 
marnns  of  the  prothorax,  and  postscutellum  testaceous-yellow: 
the  antennie,  except  the  scape  and  two  basal  joints  of  the 
flagellum,  black.     Length  9  mm. 

^.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Cairns,  Q. 

Genus  T  a  c  h  y  n  o  m  y  i  a  Guer. 

Tachynomyia  Guer.,  Mag.  de  Zool.  xii.  1842  (nee  Ashmead). 

Aelurus  Westw  ,  (nee  Klug)  Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  p.  122,  1844. 

Aelurus  ^m.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  .53,  1859. 

Pseudaelurus  Ashm.,  Canad.  Ent.  xxxv. 

g.  Head  broad,  the  sides  with  a  beard  of  long  curled  hair.s, 
beneath  strongly  concave.  The  clypeus  is  moderately  advanced, 
more  broadly  than  in  Ariphron;  the  cheeks  are  produced  into  a 
spine  or  tubercle  at  the  base  of  the  mandibles.     The  maxillae  are 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  -J,  i 

fringed  with  long  hairs,  the  maxillary  palpi  have  the  basal  joint 
veiy  short  and  the  three  apical  joints  much  elongated,  not  quite 
as  long  and  slender  as  in  Aelurus.  The  division  of  the  galea  is 
obsolete.  The  labium  has  a  tuft  of  very  long  hairs  at  the  apex, 
and  the  first  joint  of  the  labial  palpi  is  long,  swollen  at  the  apex 
and  furnished  with  a  cluster  of  very  long  hairs  (nearly  absent  in 
some  Queensland  species).  The  abdomen  is  subpetiolate  and  the 
hypopygium  armed,  the  latter  varying  much  in  shape.  Labrum 
small,  borne  on  a  long  petiole. 

^.  Rugose  or  coarsely  punctuied,  the  head  more  or  less  convex, 
the  mandibles  simple,  the  labial  palpi  four-jointed,  the  basal  joint 
the  longest;  maxillae  and  maxillary  palpi  very  minute,  rudi- 
mentary; pygidium  usually  simple;  tarsal  ungues  simple  in  some 
species,  bifid  in  most. 

Type  T.  ahdominalis  (ruer. 

This  genus  is  amply  distinct  from  Aelurus  Klug,  with  which 
it  was  confused  by  West  wood  and  Smith.  Ashmead  has  perceived 
the  marked  differences,  but  has  got  into  confusion  by  a  wrong 
identification  of  T.  spiiiolcp,  which  he  erroneously  regards  as  the 
type  of  Tachynomyia.  T.  abdominalis  is  described  in  Guerin's 
w  ork  before  T.  sjjinolce,  and  should  therefore  be  the  type  of  the 
new  genus  proposed  for  the  two,  which  are  in  my  opinion  varieties 
of  the  same  species.  Ashmead's  genus  Pseudaelurus  must  sink 
in  any  case. 

Kty  to  the  Species  of  Tachynomyia. 

J  (J .  A.  Hypopygium  with  parallel  sides,  subcorneal  at  apex,  with 
a  central  spine  at  the  apex. 

a.  Abdomen  bright  ferruginous. 

a'~.  Scutellum  and  postscutellum  marked  with  yellow. 

T.  abdominalLs  Goer. 

b.  Thorax  and  abdomen  entirely  ferruginous-brown.     T.  concolor,  n.sp. 
B.  Hypopygium  with  parallel  sides,  subconical  or  subtruncaie  ai 

the  apex,  with  two  small  notches  on  one  or  both  sides  of  the 

apical  spine. 
a.  Second  and  third  abdominal  segments  ferruginous. 
a2,  Clypeus  with  a  strong  median  carina.  T.  iKt-ah'-^  Sm. 

b^.  Clypeus  without  or  almost  without  a  carina.  T.  ruhtUa  Sm. 


278  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF   AUSTRALIA,  I., 

6.  entirely  black. 
a.2.  Abdominal  segments  constricted.  T . 'paradelx)ha^  n.sp. 

6"2.  Abdominal  segments  not  constricted. 

a^.  Pubescence  on  head  fulvous.  T.  ohliterata,  n.sp. 

6^.  Pubescence  on  head  grey.  T.  senex  Sm, 

c.  Tibiae  and  tarsi  ferruginous,  T.  2^u)ictata,  Sm. 

C.  Hypopygium  emarginate  at  the  apex,  with  an  apical  spine, 
a.  Second  and  third  abdominal  segments  ferruginous. 

a-.  Postscutellum    black ;      mesothorax     shining,    sparsely 

punctured.  T.  sedidoides,  n.sp. 

b'^.  Postscutellum  yellow;  mesothorax  opaque,  closely  punc- 
tured. T.  volatUis  Sm. 
h.  Black,  with  ferruginous  legs. 

rtt.  Anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  and  the  postscutellum 

yellow .  T.  fervens  Sm. 

D.  Hypopygium  broadened  from  the  base  to  the  apex,  where  it  is 

emarginate  with  a  long  apical  spine, 
a.  Black,  the  legs  ferruginous.  T.  abstinens^  n.sp. 

E.  Hypopygium  subtriangular,   the  sides  serrate;    apical  spine 

very  short, 
a.  Black,  the  legs  ferruginous. 
a"2.  Abdomen  coriaceous,  clothed  with  fine  pubescence. 

T.  'piloHula  Sm. 

F.  Hypopygium  rounded,  with  a  short  apical  spine. 

a.  Second  and  third  abdominal  segments  ferruginous. 

a'^.  Pubescence  on  the  front  pale  golden.  T.  anrifrons  Sm. 

h.  Sides  of  all  the  abdominal  segments  ferruginous. 

a^.  Anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  yellow.  T.  comhusta  Sm. 

c.  Black,  the  legs  ferruginous  or  fuscous  from  near  the  base  of 

the  femora.  T.  moerens  Westw. 

G.  Hypopygium  with  a  lateral  spine  on  each  side  near  the  base 

or  with  prominent  angles,  thence  gradually  narrowed  to  the 
base  of  the  apical  spine. 
a.  Hypopygium  rounded  at  the  base  of  the  apical  spine, 
a^.  Wings  hyaline,  crossed  with  a  fuscous  band. 

a^.  Scutellum  with  an  apical  emargination  and  a  small 
tubercle  on  each  side. 
aA.  Postscutellum  and  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax 

white.  T.  fascipennis,  n.sp. 

5=^  Scutellum  without  tubercles  or  emargination. 

a^.  Wholly  black.  T.  anthracina  Sm. 

6"2.  Wings  hyaline,  iridescent. 

a'^.  Postscutellum  and  anterior  margin  of  the  prothorax  white. 

T.  Jlavojncto.  Ritsema. 


BY  ROWLAND  E.    TURNER.  279 

$  $  .  A.  First  abdominal  segment  with  a  distinct  transverse  carina 
before  the  apex. 

a.  Head  black,  thorax  and  legs  ferruginous.      Sparsely  punc- 

tured. T,  abdominalis  Guer. 

b.  Black,  thorax  and  legs  ferruginous.     Closely  punctured. 

T.  punctata  Sm. 

B.  The  carina  before  the  apex  of  the  first  abdominal  segment 

either  absent  or  indistinct. 
a.  Tarsal  ungues  bifid. 
a'^.  Abdominal  segments  closely  and  finely  punctured.     T.  adusta  Sm. 
62.  Abdominal  segments  sparsely  punctured,  the  punctures 

large.  T.  incana  Sm. 

h.  Tarsal  ungues  simple. 
a'^.  Strongly  punctured.     Second  abdominal  segment  broadly 
emarginate  on  the  apical  margin, 
a^.  Head  not  much  narrowed  posteriorly.  T.  anfhracina  Sm. 

6^,  Head  much  narrowed  posteriorly.  T.fascipennis,  n.sp. 

C.  Pygidium  contracted  at  the  base. 

a.  Sparsely  punctured.     Second  abdominal  segment  not  emar- 
ginate on  the  apical  margin.  T.  Jlavopicta  Ritsema. 

T.  ABDOMINALIS  Guer. 

Agriomyia  {Tachynomyia)  abdominalis  Guer.,  Mag.  de  Zool.  xii. 
p.5,  1842((J). 

Aelurus  abdominalis  Westw.,  Arc.  Ent.  ii.  2,  p. 122,  1844{(J). 

Agriomyia  {TacJiynomyia)  spinolce  Guer.,  Mag.  de  Zool.  xii.  p. 6, 
18-t2(^). 

Thynnus  ftrvidus  Erichs.,  Arch.f.Naturgesch.  viii.  Pt.l,  p.263^ 
11.237,  1842(^). 

ThyiDius  abdominalis  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  100,  1897((J)  [nee 
Fabr.]. 

This  species  may  be  recognised  by  the  light  ferruginous  colour 
of  the  abdomen  with  the  basal  segment  black.  T.  spinolca  Guer., 
seems  to  be  merely  a  colour-variety,  as  Guerin  himself  suggests. 
In  spite  of  this  Ashmead  makes  the  two  forms  the  types  of  dis- 
tinct genera,  erroneously  choosing  spi7iohe  as  the  type  of  Tachyno- 
m,yia.  I  have  seen  specimens  in  which  the  black  colour  of  the 
thorax  is  replaced  by  a  ferruginous-red  as  noticed  by  Smith,  and 
also  intermediate  forms. 


280  REVISION  OP  THE  THYNNID^  OP  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

9.  Head  convex,  subquadrate,  shining  and  sparsely  punctured, 
a  faint  median  sulca  on  the  front;  prothorax  broader  than  long, 
the  sides  parallel;  mesothorax  narrowed  posteriorly;  median  seg- 
ment broadened  posteriori}^  and  obliquely  truncate;  thorax  and 
median  segment  sparsely  punctured.  First  abdominal  segment 
with  a  transverse  depression  just  before  the  apex,  the  apical 
margin  recurved,  forming  a  raised  carina;  second  segment  with  a 
transverse  carina  close  to  the  base,  a  transverse  depressed  line 
following  it;  the  apical  margin  depressed,  with  a  transverse  row 
of  fine  punctures.  All  the  segments  punctured,  the  three  basal 
sparsely,  the  three  apical  finely  and  densely.  Abdomen  beneath 
finely  punctured,  the  first  segment  with  an  acute  tubercle  at  the 
base.  Tarsal  ungues  simple.  Fuscous;  the  head  black:  thorax, 
median  segment  and  legs  ferruginous;  antennae,  except  the  scape, 
and  the  two  apical  abdominal  segments  f usco-ferruginous.  Length 
9  mm. 

Hah. — Victoria;  Tasmania. 

The  female  is  described  from  a  specimen  in  the  Oxford  Uni- 
versity Museum  collected  by  Bake  well. 

T.  CONCOLOR,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  punctured,  with  a  median  carina  from  the  base  to 
near  the  middle,  a  smooth,  longitudinal,  median  line  below  the 
carina,  the  apex  smooth  and  rather  narrow^  truncate,  the  sides 
densely  covered  with  long  fulvous  pubescence.  Head  finely 
rugulose,  with  fulvous  pubescence  on  the  front  and  a  beard  of 
long  fulvous  hairs  on  the  sides.  Prothorax  almost  smooth,  the 
anterior  margin  raised,  mesothorax  and  scutellum  punctured,  the 
scutellum  broadly  truncate  at  the  apex.  Median  segment  long, 
shining,  almost  smooth,  very  slightly  depressed  at  the  base. 
Abdomen  slender,  subpetiolate,  almost  smooth:  the  first  segment 
with  a  deep  median  sulca  from  the  base  not  reaching  the  apex. 
Epipygium  punctured.  Hypopygiuni  prominent;  the  sides 
curving  upwards,  nearly  parallel,  slightly  diverging  to  the  apex; 
the  apical  margin  subconical,  ciliated,  the  apical  spine  slightly 
recurved.      Ferruginous-brown,    the   head    and   flagellum  of   the 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNER.  281 

antennae  black;  the  clypeus  ferruginous,  its  apical  margin  dull 
yellow.     Length  14  mm. 

Q.  Unknown. 

Hab. — Berwick,  Vic. 

Type  in  Coll.  Ftoggatt. 

T.   BASALIS  Sm. 

Aelurus  basalis  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p. 55,  n.8,  1859((J). 
Thynnus  sennhoferi  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  1 15,  1897. 
Hah. — Australia. 

T.   RUBELLA  Sm. 

Aelurits  rubellus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  56,  n.ll,  1859((J). 

Thynyius  friedrichii  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  107,  1897. 

The  type  of  this  species  seems  to  be  lost.  It  is  very  near  the 
last  species,  but  has  no  central  carina  on  the  clypeus,  and  the 
sculpture  of  the  abdomen  appears  to  be  different.  It  is  also  a 
smaller  species. 

Hab.—Ijowev  Plenty,  Vic.(Bakewell). 

T.   PARADELPHA,   H.sp. 

^.  Clypeus  densely  clothed  with  cinereous  pubescence,  advanced 
and  broadly  truncate  at  the  apex.  Head  and  thorax  rugulose, 
the  cheek  produced  into  a  short  blunt  spine  at  the  base  of  the 
mandibles  and  with  a  long  beard  of  curled  cinereous  hairs.  The 
pubescence  pale  fulvous  and  thin  on  the  front  and  the  mesonotum, 
cinereous  and  thick  on  the  occiput,  prothorax  and  median  seg- 
ment. Median  segment  delicately  reticulate,  finely  punctured  at 
the  extreme  base.  Abdomen  subpunctate,  first  segment  short 
and  stouter  than  is  usual  in  the  genus,  a  strong  median  sulca 
from  the  base  not  reaching  the  apex,  and  a  very  obscure  carina 
from  the  end  of  the  sulca  to  the  apex.  Second  segment  with  a 
faint  median  carina  from  near  the  base  to  the  apex;  a  similar 
carina,  scarcely  visible,  on  the  third  segment.  Segments  2-4  with 
a  rounded  elevation  on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin;  tlie 
second  strongly,  the  third  and  fourth  slightly  constricted  near 


*282  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

the  base.  Hypopygium  almost  truncate  at  the  apex,  with  a 
strong  apical  spine,  the  apical  angles  produced  into  very  short 
spines,  and  the  margiy  notched,  giving  it  a  serrated  appearance. 
Antennae  rather  shorter  than  in  the  allied  species.  Entirely 
black.     Wings  hyaline,  nervures  fuscous.     Length  14  mm. 

Hah. — Victoria  (French). 

Somewhat  resembles  some  species  of  Thynnoides^  but  tlie  mouth- 
parts  show  it  to  be  a  true  Tachynomyia. 

T.   OBLITERATA,   n.Sp. 

(J.  Head  finely  rugulose,  densely  clothed  with  long  fulvous 
pubescence,  and  a  long  beard  of  the  same  colour  on  the  sides;  a 
short,  sharp  spine  at  the  base  of  the  mandibles.  Clypeus  clothed 
with  long  golden  pubescence,  with  a  carina  from  the  base  to  the 
apex.  Prothorax  finely,  mesothorax  and  scutellum  more  coarsely 
rugulose;  the  scutellum  short,  broadly  truncate  at  the  apex;  the 
prothorax  thickly,  the  mesothorax  more  thinly  clothed  with 
fulvous  pubescence.  Median  segment  finely  reticulate,  punctured 
at  the  extreme  base,  with  long  griseous  pubescence  on  the  sides. 
Abdomen  subpunctate,  ovoid,  the  sculpture  very  shallow  and 
indistinct,  a  sulca  on  the  first  segment  from  the  base  almost 
reaching  the  apex,  second  segment  depressed  at  the  base,  the 
pubescence  on  the  sides  of  the  abdomen  griseous,  on  the  epipy- 
gium  pale  fulvous.  Hypopygium  with  a  slightly  recurved  apical 
spine,  a  short  blunt  tooth  on  the  apical  margin,  close  to  the  base 
of  the  apical  spine,  and  another  at  the  apical  angle  rather  longer 
and  more  acute,  giving  the  apical  margin  the  appearance  of  being 
doubly  notched  on  each  side.  Black;  the  mandibles  fuscous  at 
the  apex,  the  tegulae  and  the  spines  of  the  tibise  and  tarsi  fusco- 
ferruginous.     Length  11mm. 

9.  Unknown. 

Hab. — S.  Australia. 

Type  in  Coll.  Froggatt. 

T.  SENEX  Sm. 

Aeleurus  senex  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p. 54,  n.5,  1895((J). 

Thyn7ius  schroederi  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  115,  1897((J). 

Hab.— Waggs,,  N.  S.W.;  Melbourne,  Vic. 


I 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNER.  283 

T.  PUNCTATA  fSm. 

Thynnus  jmnctatus  Sm.,  Cat  Hym.B.M.vii.p.44,n. 127, 1859(9). 

Aelurus  dentatus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.vii,p.57,n.l4, 1859((J9). 

Aelurus  incaitus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  69,  1859(9  nee  ^). 

Thynnus  kalteiibrunneri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  109,  1897. 

g.  The  median  segment  is  very  finely  rugulose  and  the  nervures 
are  testaceous-brown. 

9.  Head  subquadrato,  slightly  convex,  broader  than  long,  finely 
punctured,  rather  sparsely  on  the  occiput.  Thorax  and  median 
segment  rather  strongly  punctured,  the  median  segment  much 
shorter  than  the  prothorax  and  obliquely  truncate.  The  two 
basal  abdominal  segments  rugose,  the  first  with  a  transverse 
carina  before  the  apex;  the  second  and  third  with  a  smooth  mark 
on  each  side  near  the  apical  margin.  Third,  fourth  and  fifth 
segments  finely  punctured,  the  punctures  at  the  base  of  the  seg- 
ments very  minute.  Epipygium  rugulose,  narrowl}^  rounded  at 
the  apex,  with  fulvous  pubescence.  Head  and  abdomen  black; 
thorax,  median  segment,  legs,  antennae,  mandibles  and  epipygium 
dull  ferruginous.     Length  9  mm. 

Hab. — Adelaide,  S.A. 

The  type  of  T.  punctatus  Sm.,  has  the  parts  which  are  ferru- 
ginous in  some  specimens  dark  fuscous,  and  has  a  faint,  short 
sulca  on  the  front.  It  is  in  very  bad  condition,  but  I  think  I 
am  right  in  identifying  it  with  T.  dentatus  Sm. 

T.   SEDULOIDES,  n.sp. 

(J.  Clypeus  advanced,  narrowly  truncate  at  the  apex,  with  a 
delicate  carina  from  the  base  to  the  centre,  clothed  with  cinereous 
pubescence,  punctured.  Head  coarsely  and  densely  punctured; 
a  prominent  almost  straight  carina  between  the  antennae  and 
covering  their  base.  The  sides  of  the  head  with  a  long  beard  of 
fulvous  hairs.  Prothorax  smooth  and  shining,  the  anterior 
margin  raised.  Mesothorax  sparsely  punctured  on  the  disc, 
finely  and  closely  on  the  sides  between  the  sulcse.  Scutellum 
large,  broadly  rounded  posteriorly.  Median  segment  densel}' 
punctured.     Abdomen  with  large  shallow  punctures;  the  hypo- 


284  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID^E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

pygium  with  parallel  sides,  strongly  emarginate  at  the  apex,  the 
apical  angles  slightly  produced  and  the  apical  spine  long. 
Beneath  the  first  segment  has  a  longitudinal  carina  from  the 
base  and  is  obliquely  truncate  at  the  apex.  Black;  the'mandibles, 
apex  of  the  clypeus,  the  carina  between  the  antennae,  the  pro- 
notum,  tegul?e,  the  apical  half  of  the  first,  the  whole  of  the  second 
and  third  abdominal  segments,  and  the  sides  of  the  fourth  at  the 
base  and  the  legs,  except  the  base  of .  the  coxse,  ferruginous. 
Wings  hyaline,  nervures  fuscous,  the  costa  testaceous. 

Hah. — Berwick,  Yic. 

Type  in  Coll.  Froggatt. 

Near  T.  basalis  Sm.,  in  colour,  but  the  sculpture  is  quite 
different. 

T.  VOLATILIS  Sm. 

Aelurus  volaiilis  Sm.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  London^  1868,  p.237((J). 
Thy7inus  mayri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  HI,  1897(J^). 

Hah. — S.  Australia. 

T.  AGiLis  Sm. 

Aelurus  agilis^m.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.Lond.(3)ii.  5,p.390,1865(^). 
Thynnus  ivildaneri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  118,  1897(^). 
Hah. — Swan  River,  W.A. 

I  have  not  seen  this  species.  Smith  does  not  refer  to  the  shape 
of  the  hypopygiuin. 

T.  FERVENS  Sm. 

Thynnus  fervens  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p.58,  n.l5,  1859((J). 

Thijnnus  pernteri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  118,  1897((J). 

I  have  seen  only  one  specimen  of  this  species.  It  agrees  well 
with  Smith's  description,  but  the  abdomen  is  covered  with  large 
shallow  punctures,  not  "  fine,  very  shallow."  The  scutellum  is 
large  and  very  broadly  truncate  at  the  apex. 

Hah. — Victoria. 

T.   ABSTINENS,  n.sp. 

(J.  Head  coarsely  punctured,  rugulose  on  the  front,  clypeus 
densely  covered  with  pale  fulvous  pubescence,  produced  and 
rather  narrowly  truncate  at   the  apex.      The  cheeks  produced 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TUKXEK.  285 

into  a  blunt  tubercle  at  the  base  of  the  mandibles,  and  with  a 
long  curled  beard  of  pale  fulvous  hairs.  Prothorax  short,  the 
anterior  margin  slightly  raised,  sparsely  and  shallowly  punctured. 
Mesothorax  and  scutellum  coarsely  punctured;  median  segment 
very  finely  punctured  at  the  base,  finely  reticulate  on  the  apical 
portion,  with  grey  pubescence  on  the  sides.  Abdomen  shining, 
subpunctate,  the  first  segment  with  a  median  sulca  from  the 
base,  not  quite  reaching  the  apex;  second  segment  depressed  and 
slightly  constricted  at  the  base.  Hypopygium  prominent,  witli 
a  median  carina  beneath,  strongly  narrowed  near  the  base,  then 
gradually  widened  to  the  apex,  which  is  strongly  emarginate  on 
each  side  of  the  long  apical  spine,  which  is  slightly  recurved,  the 
apical  angles  are  produced  into  short  spines.  Black;  the  man- 
dibles on  their  inner  margin  and  the  legs,  except  the  coxae  and 
trochanters,  ferruginous.  The  pubescence  on  the  head  and  disc 
of  the  thorax  pale  fulvous,  elsewhere  grey.  A  few  fulvous  hairs 
on  the  apical  margin  of  the  hypopygium.      Length  10-14  mm. 

9.  Unknown. 

Ilab. — Victoria  (French). 

T.  PiLOSULA  Sm. 

Aelurus  pilosulus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  p. 56,  n.lO,  1859((J). 

The  clypeus  is  finely  punctured,  with  a  delicate  carina  from 
the  base  to  the  apex;  the  head  and  thorax  are  finely  rugulose, 
the  scutellum  punctured,  the  median  segment  delicately  reticu- 
late. The  abdomen  is  finely  coriaceous,  the  epip3^gium  shallowly 
punctured.  The  hypopygium  is  subtriangular  with  two  or  three 
small  lateral  notches  and  a  short  apical  spine. 

Hab. — Victoria;  Sydney,  N.  ►S.W. 

T.  COM  BUST  A  Sm. 
Aelurus  combustus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  55,  n.9,  1859((J). 
Hub. — Moreton  Bay. 

T.  AURIFRONS  Sm. 
Aelurus  aurifroiis  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  55,  n.9,  1859((J). 
The  head  and  thorax  are  rugose  and  opaque,  the  prothorax 
and  median  segment  shining  and  rugulose.     Abdomen  shining, 
21 


286  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.^  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

with  shallow  punctures,  the  segments  smooth  at  extreme  base 
and  apex.     The  scutellum  is  broadly  truncate  at  the  apex. 
Hab.—A\ha.ny,  W.A. 

T.  MOERENs  Westw. 

Aelurus  moerens  "Westw.,  Arc.  Eut.  ii.  2,  124,  1844((J). 

Aelurus  incanus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p.53,  n.4,  1859((J). 

Aelurus  vulpinus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  p.54,  n.7,  1859((J). 

Thynnus  schoberi  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  115,  1897. 

(^.  The  clypeus  has  the  anterior  region  narrowly  pale  yellow; 
the  colour  of  the  legs  varies  from  fuscous  to  ferruginous. 

9.  Head,  thorax,  median  segment  and  two  basal  abdominal 
segments  coarsely  rugose,  the  head  slightly  convex,  much  broader 
than  long,  with  a  deep  depression  on  each  side  between  the  eye 
and  the  base  of  the  antenna.  Prothorax  broader  than  long; 
median  segment  short,  obliquely  truncate  posteriorly,  the  surface 
of  the  truncation  finely  rugulose.  The  tarsal  ungues  bitid.  The 
apical  margin  of  the  first  abdominal  segment  raised,  forming  a 
transverse  carina,  and  a  well  marked  transverse  carina  near  the 
base  of  the  second  segment.  The  remaining  segments  punctured, 
most  sparsely  on  the  sides,  almost  smooth  at  the  base.  Epipygium 
finely  rugulose,  narrowly  rounded  at  the  apex.  Fuscous,  antennae 
and  legs  ferruginous.     Length  13  mm. 

Hab. — Shoalhaven,  Bombala,  N.S.W.;  Melbourne,  Vic. 

The  female  described  by  Smith  (Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii.  69)  is  that 
of  7\  dentatus  Sm. 

T.  ADUSTA  Sm. 

Thynnus  aduatus  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M. vii.p.43,n.l22, 1859(9). 

9.  Head  and  thorax  coarsely  puuctured,  the  punctures  con- 
fluent; the  head  convex,  much  broader  than  long,  very  strongly 
rounded  at  the  posterior  angles.  Median  segment  longer  than 
usual  in  the  genus,  broadened  posteriorly  and  obliquely  truncate. 
The  two  basal  abdominal  segments  rugose,  the  apical  margin  of 
the  basal  segment  forming  a  strongly  raised  carina  with  a 
depressed  transverse  line  in  front  of  it.  Second  segment  with  a 
transverse  carina  close  to  the  base,  nearly  covered  by  the  first 


BY  ROWLAND  E.  TURNPJR.  287 

segment.  The  remaining  segments  finel}'  and  densely  punctured, 
i-ather  more  sparsely  and  deeply  on  the  apical  portion  of  the 
segments.  A  smooth,  shining  mark  on  each  side  of  the  third 
and  fourth  segments  near  the  apical  margin.  Pygidium  rugulusp, 
smooth  at  the  extreme  apex,  with  a  faint  median  longitudinal 
carina.  Tarsal  ungues  bifid.  Fuscous;  legs,  mandibles,  clypeus 
and    antennae   fusco-ferruginous.      Length  1.3  mm. 

(J.  Unknown. 

Hah. — Australia. 

T.   ANTHRACINA  Sm. 

Aelurus  aathracinus  Sm.,  Descr.  n.sp.  Hym.  p.l74,  1879((J9). 

Thymius  milUeri  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  Ill,  1897((J9). 

(J.  Clypeus  subtriangularly  produced,  clothed  with  whitish 
pubescence;  and  a  median  longitudinal  carina  from  the  base  to 
the  apex.  The  head  densely  punctured,  a  beard  of  grey  hairs  on 
the  sides,  a  rounded  carina  between  the  antennse.  Prothorax 
broad  and  short,  the  anterior  margin  curved  backwaids  at  the 
sides  and  produced.  The  whole  thorax  densely  punctured,  most 
tinely  on  the  prothorax.  Scutellum  siiort,  broadly  subtruncate 
at  the  apex.  Median  segment  very  closely  and  finely  punctured, 
with  grey  pubescence  on  the  sides.  Abdomen  subpetiolate, 
smooth  and  shining,  the  two  apical  segments  with  shallow  punc- 
tures. Hypopygium  with  a  sharp  angle  on  each  side  near  the 
base,  thence  broadly  produced  and  rounded  at  the  base  of  the 
apical  spine.     Black.     Length  13-15  mm. 

9.  Strongly  rounded  to  the  hind  margin,  very  strongly  punc- 
tured, with  a  very  delicate,  short,  frontal  sulca.  Thorax  and 
median  segment  strongly  punctured;  the  prothorax  broader  than 
long,  the  median  segments  broadened  and  obliquely  truncate 
posteriorly.  Tarsal  ungues  simple.  The  two  basal  abdominal 
segments  rugose,  the  rest  longitudinally  punctured-rugose,  the 
epipygium  truncate  at  the  apex,  with  a  low  broad  median  carina. 
Segments  2-4  smooth  at  the  base.  Fusco-ferruginous.  Length 
10-12  mm. 

Hah. — Bowen,  Mackay,  Q. 


288  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNMDiE  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

T.   FASCIPENNIS  n.sp. 

(^.  Clypeus  very  nai-row]}'-  advanced  and  truncate  at  tlie  apex, 
densely  clothed  with  cinereous  pubescence,  with  a  strong  median 
carina  from  the  base  to  the  apex.  Head  strongly  and  ver}^ 
closely  punctured,  the  interantennal  prominence  very  broadly 
rounded  at  the  apex;  posterior  margin  of  the  head  straight,  iinel}^ 
and  closely  punctured  on  the  vertex  and  behind  the  eyes;  the 
sides  with  a  beard  of  long  grey  hairs.  Prothorax  short  and 
broad,  finely  punctured,  the  anterior  angles  prominent  and 
recurved.  Mesothorax  finely  punctured,  a  raised  oblique  carina 
on  each  side  above  the  tegulse.  Scutellum  prominent,  almost 
vertically  truncate  posteriorly,  the  apex  strongly  emarginate, 
the  angles  forming  a  slight  tubercle  on  each  side.  Median 
segment  rounded,  finely  reticulate,  with  grey  pubescence  on  the 
sides.  Abdomen  subpetiolate,  elongate-ovoid,  shining,  sub- 
punctate;  the  tirst  segment  narrower  at  the  apex  than  in  T. 
ardhracinus  Sm.,  with  a  very  short  median  sulca  fromthe  base. 
Third  and  fourth  segments  wider  than  the  second.  Hypopygium 
with  a  spine  on  each  side  near  the  base,  thence  gradually 
narrowed  to  the  base  of  the  apical  spine,  where  it  is  narrowly 
rounded.  Black;  the  postscutellum  white.  Wings  hyaline, 
nervures  fuscous;  a  broad  irregular  fuscous  band  cro-sing  the 
forewing  from  the  stigma.      Length  11-14  mm. 

^.  Head,  thorax,  and  median  f-egment  coarsely  rugose;  the 
head  gradually  narrowed  to  the  posterior  margin,  where  it  is 
narrower  and  not  so  strongly  rounded  at  the  posterior  angles  as 
in  T.  anthraclna  Sm.  The  protliorax  is  broadest  in  the  middle; 
the  median  segment  rather  shorter  than  the  prothorax,  much 
broadened  to  the  apex,  where  it  is  almost  vertically  truncate. 
Abdomen  longitudinally  rugulose,  rugose  on  the  two  basal  seg- 
ments. Segments  3-5  almost  smooth  at  the  base;  the  epipygium 
w4th  a  delicate,  median,  longitudinal  carina.  Dark  fuscous;  the 
mandibles,  antenna),  and  legs  f usco-ferruginous.  Length  9-1 3mm. 
Hab.  —  Cairns,  Q. 

Very  near  T.  anthraclna  Sm.,  from  which  it  differs  in  the  male 
by  the  shape  of  the  scutellum  and  the  white  colour  of  the  post- 


BY  ROWLAND  E.   TURNER.  289 

scutellum.     The  sliape  of  the  head  in  tlie  female  is  different,  and 
the  median  segment  is  more  abruptly  truncate. 

T.  FLAVOPiCTA  Uitsema. 

Aehcrus Jiavopictus  Ritsema,  Ent.  Mag.  xii.  p.  185,  1876((J). 

Thynnus  saemiiMer'i  D.T.,  Cat.  Hym.  viii.  115,  1897. 

(J.  Clypeus  narrowly  advanced,  very  finely  punctured,  smooth 
at  the  apex,  with  a  carina  from  the  base  almost  reaching  the 
apex,  thinly  clothed  with  grey  pubescence.  Head  punctured, 
the  sides  with  a  beard  of  cinereous  pubescence,  the  cheeks 
bluntly  produced  at  the  base  of  the  mandibles,  a  delicate  longi- 
tudinal carina  from  the  vertex,  almost  reaching  the  anterior 
ocellus.  Prothorax  short  and  broad,  not  produced  at  the  angles, 
very  sparsely  punctured.  Mesothorax  and  scutellum  punctured, 
the  scutellum  short,  truncate  at  the  apex;  median  segment 
opaque,  pubescent,  punctured-rugose.  Abdomen  smooth  and 
shining,  the  petiole  long  and  slender,  the  second  segment 
depressed  at  the  base.  Hypopygium  with  a  spine  on  each  side 
near  the  base,  thence  gradually  narrowed,  the  apical  spine  very 
short.  Black;  the  anterior  margin  of  the  clypeus,  two  small 
spots  between  the  antennae,  the  anterior  margin  of  the  piothorax, 
narrowly  interrupted  in  the  middle,  the  teguke  and  the  post- 
scutellum  yellowish-white.  Wings  hyaline,  faintly  iridescent, 
nervures  black.      Length  11mm. 

9,  Head,  thorax,  and  median  segment  strongly  and  rather 
sparsely  punctured;  head  subquadrate,  slightly  convex,  rounded 
at  the  posterior  angles;  prothorax  subquadrate,  rather  broader 
than  long;  mesothorax  narrowed  posteriorly;  median  segment 
short,  much  broader  at  the  apex  than  the  base,  obliquely  truncate 
posteriorly,  the  surface  of  the  truncation  very  densel}'  and  finely 
punctured.  The  thorax  narrower  than  the  head  or  abdomen. 
Abdomen  with  the  first  segment  vertically  truncate  at  the  base, 
the  three  basal  segments  strongly  and  rather  sparsely  punctured, 
the  apical  margins  slightly  depressed;  fourth  and  fifth  segments 
densely  covered  with  fine,  shallow  punctures.  Pygidium  con- 
tracted at  the  base,  narrow,  widened   to   the   apex,  where  it   is 


290  REVISION  OF  THE  THYNNID.E  OF  AUSTRALIA,   I., 

rounded,  with  a  median,  longitudinal  carina.  Dark  fuscous,  the 
head  black;  mandibles,  antenna?,  legs  and  pygidium  ferruginous. 
Length  9  mm. 

Hah. — Mackay,  Q.((J9  in  cop.),  Cairns,  Cape  York,  Q. 

Described  by  Ritsema  from  an  Aru  specimen.  In  Aru 
specimens  the  scutellum  is  rather  longer,  and  more  rounded  than 
truncate  at  the  apex. 

T.   BARBATA  Sm. 

Adurus  harhatiLs  Sm.,  Cat.  Hym.  B.M.  vii. p..57,n.I3, 1859((J9). 

I  have  not  seen  this  species,  and  the  type,  which  was  in  Bake- 
well's  Collection,  appears  to  be  lost.  The  female  seems  to  be 
distinguished  from  that  of  all  other  species  of  the  genus  by  the 
sculpture  of  the  second  abdominal  segments. 

Species  of  Tachynomyia  have  been  described  from  the  Austro- 
Malayan  region  and  not  yet  recorded  from  Australia  as  follows  : 

1.  T.  COMATA  Sm. 

Aelurus  comatus  Sm.,  Journ.  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  Zool.  vii.  p. 27, 
1863(^). 

I/ab. — Waigiou. 

2.  T.  FRAGILIS  Sm. 

Aelurus  fragilis  Sm.,  Journ.  Proc.  Linu.  Soc.  Zool.  viii.  p.78, 
1864(^). 

Hah. —Movty. 

3.  T.   INSULARIS  Sm. 

Thynnns  insularis  Sm.,  Journ.  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  Zool.  vii.  p. 26, 
1863($). 

Hah. — My  sol. 

The  following  species  which  have  been  described  as  belonging 
to  Tachynomyia  or  Aelurus  should  in  my  opinion  be  placed 
elsewhere: — Tachynomyia  caelehs  Sauss.,  Tachynom^yia  nitens 
Sauss.,  and  Aelurus  fulvifrons  Sm.  These  will  be  dealt  with  in 
a  later  paper. 


291 


CONTRIBUTIONS    TO    A    KNOWLEDGE    OF   AUSTRA- 
LIAN FORAMINIFERA.     Part  II. 

By  E.  J.  GrODDARD,  B.  A.,  B.Sc,  Junior  Demonstrator  in  Biology, 
Sydney  University,  and  H.  I.  Jensen,  B.Sc,  Linnean 
Macleay  Fellow  of  the  Society  in  Geology. 

( C oiitinued  fi'om  Proceedings,  190^,  p.  831.) 
(Plate  vi.) 

This  paper  might  be  taken  as  an  addition  to  the  work  pub- 
lished by  one  or  other  of  us  in  the  Records  of  the  Austrahan 
Museum,  Vol.  vi.,  Pt.  4,  or  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Linnean 
Society  of  New  South  Wales,  1904,  p. 8 10. 

The  recent  foraminiferal  sands  examined  have  been  obtained 
from  dredgings  made  by  Mr.  C.  Hedley,  F.L.S.,  of  the  Australian 
Museum.  The  fossil  material  has  kindly  been  supplied  by  Miss 
Mary  Lodder,  Launceston  Museum,  Tasmania. 

The  materials  recorded  in  this  and  our  previous  papers  having 
been  obtained  from  localities  on  and  about  the  Australian  coasts 
far  removed  from  one  another,  have  enabled  us  to  make  deduc- 
tions regarding  the  distribution  of  Foraminifera  in  Australian 
waters,  and  also  in  connection  with  the  conditions  of  climate  and 
deposition  at  the  time  of  the  laying  down  of  the  Table  Cape 
Beds. 

1 .  Foraminiferal  sands  from    Van  Dieynen^s  Inlet,   Gidf  of 
Carpentaria;  muddy  bottom;  depth  2  fathoms. 

Family  MILIOLID^. 
Subfamily  MILIOLININ^. 

1.  Biloculina  irregularis  d'Orb.;  diminutive. 

2.  Spiroloculina  limbata  d'Orb.;  diminutive. 

3.  S.  arenaria  Brad3^ 

4.  Miliolina  seminulum  Linn  ;  diminutive. 


292  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIPBRA,  II., 

5.  M.  ALVEOLiNiFORMis  Brady;  diminutive. 

6.  M.  RETICULATA  d'Orb. 

7.  M.  ciRCULARis  Bornem;  diminutive. 

8.  M.  UNDOSA  Karrer. 

Subfamily  HAUERININiE. 

9.  Ophthalmidium  inconstans  Brady. 

10.  Planispirina  exigua  Brady. 

11.  P.  celata  Costa. 

12.  P.  (Sigmoilina)  sigmoidea  Brady. 

Subfamily  PENEROPLIDIN^. 

13.  Orbitolites  sp.;  fragments. 

Family  LITUOLTD^. 
Subfamily  TROCHAMMININiE. 

14.  Trochammina  ringens  Brady. 
1.5.  Webbina  clavata  P.  <fe  J. 

Subfamily  LITUOLINiE. 

16.  Haplophragmium  fontinense  Terq. 

Family  TEXTULARIID^. 
Subfamily  TEXTULARIINJE. 

17.  Textularia  concava  Karrer. 

18.  T.  GRAMEN  d'Orb. 

19.  Verneuilina  spinulosa  Reuss. 

20.  Olavulina  cylindrica  Hantk. 

21.  Spiroplecta  AMERICANA  Ehrenb. 

Subfamily  BULIMININiE. 

22.  BoLiviNA  cosTATA  d'Orb. 

23.  B.  TEXTULARioiDES  Reuss. 

24.  BULIMINA  INFLATA  Seg. 

25.  ViRGULINA  SDBSQUAMOSA  Eggei". 


BY    E.    J.    GODDARD    AND    H.    I.    JENSEN. 


293 


28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 

32. 
33. 


34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 

38. 


Family  CHEILOSTOMELLID^. 

CriEILOSTOMELLA  OVOIDEA   ReUSS. 

Family  LAGENID^. 

Subfamily  LAGENIN^. 
Lagena  aspera  Reuss. 
\j.  acuticostata  Reuss. 

L.  desmophoha  Ry.  Jones  (iionapiculate  variety). 
L.  HISPIDA  Beuss. 

L.  ORBIGNYANA  Seg. 

Subfamily  NODOSARIIN.a:. 

NoDOSARiA  scALARis  Batscli,  var.  separans  Brady 
Ckistellakia  vortex  F.  tfc  M. 

Subfamily  POLYMOEPHININ^. 
POLYMORPHINA  ELEGANTISSIMA  P.  &  J. 

Uvigerina  pygm^a  d'Orb. 
U.  interrupta  Brady. 
U.  canariensis  d'Orb. 
XT.  scHWAGERi  Brady. 


Family  GLOBIGERINID^. 
39.  Globigerina  bulloides  d'Orb. 

iO.   G.   BULLOIDES  Var.  TRILOBA  RcUSS. 

41.  G.  CRETACEA  d'Orb. 

42.  G.  ^QUiLATERALis  Brady. 

43.  G.  conglobata  Brady. 

44.  G.  dubia  Egger. 

45.  G.  DIGITATA  Brady. 

46.  Orbulina  universa  d'Orb. 

Family  ROTALIID^. 
Subfamily  ROTALIIN^. 

47.  DiSCORBINA  BICONCAVA   P.  &  J. 

48.  D.  PARisiENSis  d'Orb. 


294  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFERA    II. 

49.  D.  ARAUCANA  d'Orb. 

50.  Truncatolina  haidingerii  d'Orb. 

51.  'i\  ungeriana  d'Orb. 

o'2.  Anomalina  ariminensis  d'Orb. 

53.  PuLviNULiNA  auricula  F.  &  M. 

54.  P.  MENARDii  d'Urb. 

55.  P.  PATAGONICA  d'Orb. 

56.  P.  CANARiENsis  d'Orb. 

57.  RoTALiA  CLATHRATA  Brady. 

58.  R.  PAPiLLOSA  Brady. 

59.  Carpenteria  proteiformis  Goes. 

60.  Rupertia  stabilis  Wallich. 

Family  NUMMULINID^. 
Subfamily  POLYSTOMELLINiE. 

61.  NoNIONINA  SCAPHA  F.  &  M. 

62.  POLYSTOMELLA  MACELLA  F.  tk  M. 

Subfamily  NUMMULITIN^. 

63.  Amphistegina  lessonii  d'Orb. 

Neiv  Species  and  Varieties. 

Textularia    quadrilatera  C?)  Schwager,  var. 
(Plate  vi.  fig,  1). 

The  test  is  almost  hyaline,  approaching  that  of  Bulimininae  in 
appearance,  faintly  brownish  in  tinge  from  foreign  material. 
It  is  larger  than  the  types  described  in  the  Challenger 
Reports;  the  proximal  end  is  rounded,  and  therefore  does  not 
agree  in  this  respect  with  Sch wager's  type-form,  which  is 
acutely  pointed.  The  distal  end  containing  the  aperture  is 
missing. 

The  test  is  very  flat  and  remarkable  for  its  straight  contour, 
reminding  one  of  the  appearance  of  a  pteropod  shell;  it  has  a 
thickened  rim  of  h)''aline  supplemental  skeleton. 


BY    E.    J.    GODDARD    AND    H.    I.    JENSEN.  295 

Cristellaria  variabilis  Reuss,  var.  allomorphinoides,  var.nov. 
(Plate  vi.fig.2). 

This  is  a  minute  hyaline  shell,  the  last  chamber  of  which 
envelops  the  earlier  chambers  and  is  shaped  like  Lagena  orhi- 
giiyana^  but  has  a  cristellarian  aperture.  The  enclosed  earlier 
chambers  have  an  arrangement  which  reminds  one  of  that  of  the 
internal  chambers  of  Allomorjihina  trigonula,  but  they  open  into 
one  another  by  cristellarian  necks.  In  section  the^hell  is  rather 
flattened.     Size:  length  0-35,  breadth  0-25  mm. 

Note. — The  figure  represents  the  shell  seen  by  transmitted 
light. 

Remarks. — About  20  %  of  this  material  is  made  up  of  foramin- 
ifera,  the  remaining  portion  consisting  of  sand,  shell-fragments, 
one  or  two  species  of  ostracod  shells,  polyzoa,  and  spicules  of 
sponges,  echinoderms  and  alcyonarian  corals.  A  few  pteropod 
shells  are  also  present. 

The  members  of  the  family  Miliolidse  are  not  well  represented 
in  numbers,  and  are  uniformly  diminutive  in  size.  This  is  to  be 
attributed  to  the  fact  that  the  material  was  dredged  in  muddy 
and  very  shallow  water,  whereas  members  of  the  family  thrive 
best  in  clear  water  at  a  depth  of  from  50  to  150  fathoms.  The 
great  amount  of  fresh  water  brought  down  by  rivers  to  the  Gulf 
also  brings  about  conditions  unfavourable  to  the  perfect  develop- 
ment of  the  Miliolida?. 

Members  of  the  family  Textulariidee  are  extremely  abundant 
as  regards  numbers  of  individuals,  but  are  limited  to  compara- 
tively few  species  and  those  of  a  small  size.  The  forms  present 
are  such  as  are  not  restricted  to  great  depths,  and,  like  Textularia 
gramen  and  Bolivina  costata,  usually  found  in  shallow  waters. 
Yet  all  these  species  belong  to  deeper  water  than  they  were  found 
in.  To  this  and  to  the  abundance  of  brackish  water  we  ma}^ 
attribute  the  minuteness  of  the  forms  obtained. 

The  Globigerinida?  are  extremely  abundant.  This  is  very 
remarkable,  as  this  family  is  pelagic,  and  properly  speaking, 
belongs  to  deeper  waters.  The  species  represented  are,  however, 
all  micromorphs. 


296  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFERA,   II. , 

The  Lagenidae  are  represented  chiefly  by  species  of  Uingerina. 
According  to  Carpenter  this  genus  belongs,  properly  speaking,  to 
depths  between  100  and  300  fathoms.  All  the  forms  present 
are  micromorphs.  The  genus  Lagena  is  ver}^  poorly  represented 
as  regards  number  of  individuals.  This  is  to  be  expected,  as  the 
genus  flourishes  best  at  depths  of  50  fathoms.  The  species 
present  here  are  delicate,  unstriated  and  nonapiculate. 

The  Rotaliidee  are  well  represented,  comparatively  speaking, 
both  as  regards  species  and  numbers.  The  occurrence  of  speci- 
mens of  Rotalia  clathrata  is  interesting,  as  verifying  Carpenter's 
remarks  regarding  the  adaptability  of  the  genus  Rotalia  to 
estuarine  conditions.  Although  the  water  is  shallow,  the  genus 
DisGorhina  is  represented  by  minute  forms  only. 

Nothing  is  more  noticeable  in  an  examination  of  this  sand 
than  that  the  foraminifera  in  it  are  characteristic  of  deeper  water 
than  that  in  which  they  occur,  and  show  a  marked  tendency 
towards  diminution  in  size.  We  would  suggest,  as  a  likely 
explanation  of  this,  that  the  Gulf  of  Carpentaria  is  a  remnant  of 
a  larger  Tertiary  sea,  the  floor  of  which  has  been  undergoing 
elevation,  eliminating  the  weaker  oceanic  forms  and  reducing  the 
size  of  the  hardier  ones. 

The  absence  of  forms  like  Tinoporus  and  Calcariua,  and  the 
rarity  of  Amphistegina  and  Orbitolites  might  at  first  sight  be 
taken  as  evidence  that  the  forms  present  do  not  represent  a  true, 
stationary,  littoral  fauna;  but  this  feature  might  also  be  explained 
on  the  grounds  of  brackish  and  muddy  conditions. 

A  glance  at  the  geological  map  of  Queensland  shows  the  Gulf 
to  be  surrounded  by  late  Tertiary  and  alluvial  strata. 

2.  Foraminifera  dredged  at  a  depth  of  15  fathoras  ojf^  Pabn 
Island  near  Townsville,  Q.,  by  C.  Hedley. 

The  coarser  sands  from  this  locality  were  examined  by  one  of 
us  (H.  I.J.)  in  1903,  and  a  list  of  forms  present  was  published 
in  the  Proceedings  of  this  Society  for  1904  The  eighteen  species 
already  recorded  are  omitted  in   this  list,  which  comprises  the 


BY    K.    J.    GODDARD    AND    11.    I.    JENSEN.  297 

finer  dredging.s,  except  a  few  which    are    very  abundant  in    tlie 
fine  as  well  as  coarse  sands. 

Family  MTLIOLID^. 
Subfamily  MILIOLININiE. 

1.  MiLlOLlNA   RETICULATA  d'Orl). 

2.  M.  SEMiNULUM  Linn. 

3.  M.  VALVULAKJS  Reuss. 

4.  M.  LiNN^ANA  d'Orb. 

0.  M.  scROBicuLATA  Brad}'. 

6.  Spiroloculina  tenuiseptata  Brady. 

7.  S.  TENUIS  Czjzek. 

8.  S.  limbata  d'Orb.  ' 

9.  S.  crenata  Karrer. 

10.  S.  ASPERULA  Karrer. 

11.  iS.  grata  Terq. 

1 2.  S.  excavata  d'Orb. 

13.  8.   tortuosa    Chapman   (Joiirn.  Linn.  Soc,  Zool.  Vol.  xxviii. 

p.l71,pl.l9,lig.5). 

Subfamily  HAUERININiE. 

14.  Planispikina  exigua  Brady. 

15.  Ophthalmidium    cornu    Chapman   (Journ.   Linn.  Soc.  Zooh 

Vol. xxviii.  p.408,  pi. 36,  fig.6). 

16.  O.  inconstans  Brady. 

Subfamily  PENEilOPLIDINiE. 

17.  Orbitolites  complanata  Lamk. 

18.  Articulina  chapmani,  sp.n.     (Phite  vi.,  figs. 5a,  b). 

Family  LITUOLID^. 
Subfamily  LITU0LIN5;. 

19.  Placopsilina  cenomana  d'Orb. 

Family  TEXTULARIID^. 
Subfamily  TEXTULARIINiE. 

20.  Textulakia  trochus  d'Orb. 

21.  T.  CONCAVA  Karrer. 


298  AUSTRALIAN  FORAMINIFERA,    II., 

22.  T.  SAGITTULA  Defr. 

23.  Verneuilina  propinqua  Bmdy. 

24.  V.  spiNULOSA  Reuss. 

25.  V.  variabilis  Brady 

26.  Gaudryina  pupoides  d'Orb. 

27.  Clavulina  angularis  d'Orb. 

Subfamily  BULIMININ^. 

28.  Bolivina  tbxtularioides  Reuss. 

29.  B.  punctata  d'Orb. 

30.  B.  TORTUOSA  Brady. 

Subfamily  CASSIDULININ5:. 

31.  Ehrenbergina  serrata  Reuss. 

Family  LAGENID^. 
Subfamily  LAGENINJE. 

32.  Lagena  striata  (apiculate  variety)  d'Orb. 

33.  L.  GRACiLLiMA  Seg.  (one  specimen  only). 

Subfamily  POLYMORPHININiE. 

34.  Uvigerina  interrupta  Brady. 

35.  Sagrina  australiensis,  sp.n.     (Plate  vi.,  figs.3«,  h). 

Subfamily  RAMULIKIN.E. 

36.  Ramulina  globulifera  Brady. 

Family  GLOBIGERINID^. 

37.  Globigerina  linn^ana  d'Orb. 

38.  G.  bulloides  d'Orb. 

Family  ROTALID^. 
Subfamily  SPIRILLININ^. 

39.  Spirillina  decorata. 

Subfamily  ROTALIIN.S:. 

40.  DiscoRBiNA  araucana  d'Orb. 

41.  D.  tukbo  d'Orb. 


BY    E.    J.    GODDARD    AND    H.    I.    JKNSEN.  299 

42.  D.  PATELLiFORMis  Brady. 

43.  D.  OPERCULARIS  (I'Orb. 

44.  Truncatulina  ungeriana  d'Orb. 

45.  T.  PRiECiNCTA  Kaner. 

46.  Anomalina  foveolata  Brady. 

47.  A.  polymorpha  Costa. 

48.  A.  ARiMiNENSis  d'Orb. 

49.  PULVINULINA  CANAHIENSIS  d'Orb. 

50.  p.  OBLONGA  Williamson. 

51.  P.  OBLONGA  var.  scabra  Brady. 

52.  P.  TUMIDA  Brady. 

Family   NUMMULINID^. 
Subfamily  POLYSTOMELLIN^. 

53.  NoNiONiNA  BOUEANA  d'Orb. 

54.  POLYSTOMELLA  HEDLEYI  JeilSen. 

55.  p.  VERRICULATA  Brady. 

Subfamily  NUMMULITIN^. 

56.  Operculina  ammonoides  Gron. 

Sagrina  australiensis,  n.sp.     (Plate  vi.  figs.3a,  &,  c). 

This  species  has  a  uvigerine  commencement,  after  which  it 
consists  of  a  uniserial  row  of  oval  chambers  cylindrical  in  section. 
The  character  of  the  shell  is  intermediate  between  S.  dimorpha 
and  S.  virgula.  The  shell  is  thick,  and  studded  with  large  pits 
as  in  S.  dimorpha.  There  are  also  tubercles  externally  approxi- 
mating to  the  spines  of  S.  virgida.     The  neck  is  as  in  *b\  virgula. 

There  is  a  distinct  constriction  at  the  junction  of  the  chambers, 
and  some  of  the  chambers  are  produced  outwards  into  small 
monticular  prominences  (see  fig. 3a).  The  chambers  increase 
gradually  in  size. 

Under  a  high  power  the  surface  appears  as  in  fig. 36.  On 
focussing  down,  canals  are  seen  in  the  walls,  extending  from  the 
interior  and  opening  to  the  exterior  in  the  small  tubercles. 

Size:  length  0-7  mm. 

This  species  is  fairly  common  in  the  Palm  Island  dredgings. 


300  AUSTRALIAN  FORAMINIFBRA,  II., 

Articulina  chapmani  n.sp.     (Plate  vi.  figs.5rt,  h). 

This  is  a  highly  ornamented  species.  It  consists  of  a  series  of 
chamVjers,  slowly  increasing  in  size,  and  ending  in  a  smaller 
neck-like  spherical  chamber  with  a  round  terminal  aperture. 
Unfortunately  in  the  two  specimens  found  the  proximal  extremity 
was  broken  off. 

The  test  is  distinctly  porcellanous.  Because  of  this  character- 
istic, as  well  as  on  account  of  the  nodosarine  arrangement  of  the 
chambers  and  their  high  ornamentation,  we  have  ascribed  this 
species  to  the  genus  Articulina. 

As  regards  the  ornamentation,  fig.5/j  shows  it  under  high 
power.  The  test  is  slightly  constricted  between  the  chambers. 
Each  chamber  bears  a  series  of  longitudinal  ridges,  and  in  eacii 
space  between  these  there  are  two  rows  of  minute  tubercles. 

Length  Oo7  mm. 

Remarks. — About  30  %  of  the  material  under  examination  was 
made  up  of  foraminifera,  the  rest  being  composed  of  coral  remains, 
polyzoa,  coralline  algae,  ostracods.  and  sponge  spicules.  The 
ostracods  are  particularly  well  represented,  both  in  species  and 
numbers.  Glauconite  casts  are  very  rare.  Miliolidse  and  JNum- 
mulinidte  constitute  the  main  bulk  of  the  foraminifera  present. 

The  occurrence  of  Ophthalmidium  cornu  and  Spiroloculina 
tortuosa  in  considerable  numbers  is  interesting  inasmuch  as  these 
are  new  species  described  by  Mr.  F.  Chapman  in  his  report  on 
the  "  Foraminifera  from  the  Lagoon  at  Funafuti."*"  Polysto- 
mella  hedleiji  is  very  abundant  and  characteristic. 

Bolivina  is  fairly  well  represented;  other  Textiilariid?e,  except- 
ing Veriieuilina,  are  extremely  rare. 

Operculitiq,  ammonoides  is  a  very  abundant  form. 
On  the  whole,  the  material  is  typical  of  coral  reef  conditions. 
Globigerinidse  and  Lagenidse  are  very  rare. 

*  Journ.  Linn.  Soc.  Lond.  Zoology.  Vol.  xxviii. 


BY    E.    J.    GODDAK])    AND    II.     \.    .JENSEN.  301 

3.  Fhie  Foraniiniferal  Sand  dredged  at  a  (hjith  of  300 Jatltomx, 
27^  miles  ea>^t  of  Sydiiey  Heads,  by  Mr.  C.  Hedley. 

Pcin.ily    MILr(>LlL)^. 
Subfamily  MILIOLININ^. 

1.  MiLiOLiNA  CULTHATA  Brady, 

2.  Spiroloculina  fragilissima  Brady. 

3.  S.  GRATA  Terq. 

4.  S.  IMPRESSA  Terq. 

5.  S.  EXCAVATA  d'Orb. 

6.  8.  LixMBATA  d'Orb. 
7.8.  NiTiDA  d'Orb. 

Subfamily  KAUERININ^. 

8.  Oerviciferina  hilli,  sp.n.     (Plate  vi..  figs.7«,  b). 

9.  Planispirina  exigua  Brady. 

Subfamily  PENEROPLIDINJE. 

10.  CoRNusPiRA  carinata  Costa. 

11.  C.  involvens  Reuss.  -- 

Family   ASTRORHIZID^. 
Subfamily  RHABDAMMININiE. 
\'l.  Mar8IPELLA  cylindrica  Brady. 

Family  TEXTULARIID^. 
Subfamily  TEXTULARIIN^. 

13.  Textularia  concava  Karrer. 

14.  T.  quadrilateralis  8c1i wager. 

15.  Spiroplecta  AMERICANA  Ehreiib. 

Subfamily   BULIMININ^. 
10.    BULIMINA  ACULEATA  d'Orb, 

17.  VlRGULINA  SUBSQUAMOSA  Fgger. 

18.  BOLIVINA   PUNCTATA  d'Orb. 

Subfamily.  CASSIDULININJE. 

19.  Cassidulina  crassa  d'Orb. 

22 


302  AUSTRALIAN  FORAMINIFERA,  II., 

Family  CHEILOSTOMELLID.E. 

20.  Cheilostomella  ovoidea  Reuss. 

21.  Allomorphina  trigonl^la  Reu8s. 

Family  LAGENID^. 
Subfamily  LAGENIN7E. 

22.  Lagena  sulcata  W.  &  J. 

23.  L.  SULCATA  var.  interrupta  Williamson  (apiculate  and  non- 

apiculate  forms). 

24.  L.  HispiDA  Reuss. 

25.  L.  striata  d'Orl). 

26.  L.  orbignyana  Seg. 

27.  L.  globosa  Montagu,  var.GRAXDiPORA,  var.n.    (Plate  vi.,fig.  10). 

Subfamily  NODOSARIIN^. 

28.  NoDOSARiA  communis  d'Orb. 

29.  N.  costulata  Reuss. 

30.  N.  inflexa  Reuss. 

31.  N.  sCALARis  Batsch  (apiculate  and  nonapiculate,  striated  and 

nonstriated  forms). 

32.  N.  simplex  Silv. 

33.  LiNGULiNA  carinata  d'Orb. 

34.  Cristellaria  sp. 

35.  C.  CALCAR  Linn,  (nonspinous  variety). 
35.  C.  VARIABILIS  Reuss. 

37.  Cristell\ria  sp. ;    a  young   form   intermediate    between    C. 

crepidula  and  C.  tricarinella. 

38.  Cristellaria  haswelli  Goddard,   Records  of  the  Australian 

Museum,  Vol.  vi.,  Part  4. 

39.  Vaginulina  sp. 

40.  Rhabdogonium  tricarinatum  d'Orb. 

Subfamily  POLYMORPHININ^. 

41.  Uvigerina  canariensis  d'Orb. 

42.  U.  interrupta  Brady. 

43.  XJ.  SCHWAGERI  Brady. 


BY    E.    J.    GODDAUD    AND    II.    I.    JENSKX.  303 

44.  Sagrina  columellaris  Brady. 

45    S.  sydnevensis,  uov.sp.      (Plate  vi.,  figs. 4a,  6,  c). 

Family  GLOBIGERINID^. 

46.  Globigerina  bulloides  d'Orb. 

47.  G.  bulloides  var.  triloba  Reuss. 

48.  G.  DUBIA  Egger. 

49.  G.  ^quilateralis  Brady. 

50.  G.  SACCULiFERA  Brady. 

51.  Orbulina  universa  d'Orb. 

52.  O.  POROSA  Terq. 

53.  Pullenia  obliquiloculata  P.  &  J. 

54.  Hastigerina  pelagica  d'Orb. 

Family  ROTALIID^E. 

Subfamily  SPIRILLININ-ffi. 

55.  Spirillina  vivipara  Ehrenb. 

Subfamily  ROTALIIN.a:. 

56.  Discorbina  araucana  d'Orb. 

57.  D.  bertheloti  d'Orb. 
5S.  D.  biconcava  P.  &  J. 

59.  D.  orbicularis  Terq. 

60.  D.  PARisiENSis  d'Orb. 

61.  D.  saulcii  d'Orb. 

62.  D.  VALVULATA  d'Orb. 

63.  D.  vilardeboana  d'Oi-b. 

64.  Truncatulina  haidingerii  d'Orb. 

65.  T.  PRiECiNCTA  Karrer. 

QQ.  T.  wuellerstorfii  ScliNvager. 

67.  T.  tenuimargo  Brady. 

QS.  Anomalina  ariminensis  d'Orb. 

69.  A.  AMMONOiDES  Reuss. 

70.  A.  grosserugosa  Giimb. 

71.  Pulvinulina  haueri  d'Orb. 

72.  P.  MENARDii  d'Orb. 


304  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFERA,   II., 

73.  P.   MICHELINIANA  d'Orb. 

74.  P.  PAUPERATA  P.  i\:  J. 

75.  p.  PROCERA  Brady. 

76.  P.   CANARIENSIS  d'Olb. 

77.  p.  CRASS  A  d'Orb. 

78.  p.  EXIGUA  Brady. 

79.  RoTALiA  PAPiLLOSA  Brady,  var.  compressiuscula  Brady,  C.  R. 

pl.cviii. 

Family  NUMMULINID^. 
Subfamily  POLYSTOMELLIN^. 

80.  NONIONINA  BOUEANA  ReUSS. 

SI.  N.  depressula  W.  &J. 

82,  N.  POMPiLioiDis  F.  &M. 

83.  X.  SCAPHA  F.  Oc  M. 

Sagrina  sydneyensis,  11. sp.      (Plate  vi.,  figs.4«,  b). 

This  species  has  a  straight  cylindrical  test.  The  commence- 
ment is  a  large  hemispherical  chamber  which,  however,  contains 
one  septum,  indicating  a  iivigerine  commencement.  The  sub- 
sequent chambers  are  short  and  cylindrical,  and  do  not  at  first 
increase  in  diameter.  Subsequent!}^  they  increase  slowly  in 
diameter  as  well  as  in  length  (tig. 4a).  The  surface  of  each 
chamber  is  ornamented  with  minute  spines,  and  two  or  three 
extraordinaril}'  large  oval  pores.  The  latter  are  irregularly  dis- 
tributed, l)ut  are  chiefly  found  towards  the  proximal  end  of  each 
segment.      Size:  length  0*57  mm. 

Cerviciferina  hilli  gen.  et  sp.nov.     (Plate  vi.,  figs.7rt,  b). 

This  remarkable  form  is  circular  in  outline,  and  very  depressed, 
nevertheless  slightly  biconvex,  and  surrounded  by  an  equatorial 
keel(fig.7«).  The  initial  chamber  in  the  specimen  figured  is 
distinctly  oval  in  outline  and  has  an  entosolenian  neck.  The 
succeeding  chamber  envelops  the  one  lirst  formed,  and  is  dis- 
tinctly flask-shaped.  After  this  the  chambers  become  more  and 
more  rounded,  and   the  distal  end  of  the  one  chamber  is  at  the 


J5Y    K.    J.    r40DDARD    AND    II.     I.    JKNSBN  305 

proximal  end  of  the  next  (see  fig.7«).  The  shell  is  porcellanous 
and  imperforate.  It  is  surrounded  l)y  a  keel  having  a  peculiar 
terminal  appendage. 

The  genus  is  most  closely  allied  to  the  genera  OphfJudinidium 
and  Hauerina,  from  which  it  is  distinguished  by  the  characteristic 
generic  features  that  the  chambers  have  no  trace  of  spiral  com- 
mencement but  are  arranged  in  an  alternating  manner,  and 
each  chamber  possesses  a  well  marked  neck.      Diam.  038  mm. 

(Jristellaria  variabilis  Reuss,  var.     (Plate  vi.,  fig.8). 
The  variety  figured  is  sufficiently  near  the  type  to  be  assigned 
to  that  species.     The  figure  shows  the  irregular  arrangement  of 
the  chambers  and  the  possession  of  a  keel. 

Chistkllaria  sp.,  intermediate  between  C.  lata  and  C.  crepidula 
(Fichtel  &  Moll).     (Plate  vi.,  fig.9). 
The  specimen  is  a  very  flattened  minute  form  whicli  has  the 
arrangement  of   chambers  of    C.  crepidnla   (Challenger    Report, 
pl.67,fig.l9). 

Cristellaria  haswelli  Goddard,  var.      (Plate  vi.,  fig.6). 

This  form  so  closely  approaches  C.  HasweHi  in  general  contour, 
size  and  arrangement  of  the  chambers  that  there  seems  no 
necessity  to  give  it  a  separate  varietal  name.  As  varietal  dis- 
tinctions between  this  form  and  the  type,  we  might  mention  that 
the  septal  line  shows  Vjut  the  faintest  trace  of  a  recurving;  also 
the  front  peripheral  margin  of  the  shell  has  a  wavy  contour 
unlike  the  even  outline  of  the  t3^pe.  The  shell  is  also  broader 
than  in  the  type-form  (Records  of  the  Australian  Museum, 
Vol.  vi.,  Partiv.). 

Lagena  globosa  Montagu,  var.  grandipoha,  var.no\ . 
(Plate  vi.,  fig.  10). 
This  form  has  the  entosolenian  neck  and  ovoid  shape  of    L. 
ylohosa,  and  differs  only  from  the   type  in  possessing  a  number 
(about  8)  of  irregularly  distributed  large  pores. 

The  forms  represented  in  this  list  overlap  to  a  great  extent 
those  diedged  by  H.M.C.8.   "Miner"   22   miles  east  of  Sydney 


306  AUSTRALIAN    FOKAMINIFKKA,   II., 

Heads,  at  a  depth  of  80  fathoms,  and  described  by  one  of  us 
(E.  J.  G.)  in  the  Records  of  the  Australian  Museum  (Vol.  vi., 
Partiv.).  The}^  also  show  considerable  affinity  to  those 
dredged  at  a  depth  of  100  fathoms,  16  miles  east  of  WoUongong. 
The  similarity  is  striking  in  connection  with  the  Globigerinidm, 
Discorhina  and  Pulvirtidiiia,  which  aie  very  abundant  in  all  these 
dredgings.  The  WoUongong  material,  however,  differs  from  the 
other  materials  in  the  abundance  of  arenaceous  and  semi- 
arenaceous  foraminifera. 

I'ruacatidina  pi'aechicta,  which  is  characteristic  of  warm 
Avaters  and  occurs  on  our  coasts  in  all  localities  north  of  Sydney-, 
is  present  in  these  dredgings,  but  is  absent  in  the  shallower 
water  off  WoUongong.  The  differences  between  the  material 
dredged  off  WoUongong  and  off  Sydney  Heads  is  probably  to  be 
ascribed  to  the  different  nature  of  the  bottom  in  the  two  places. 
Off  WoUongong  the  bottom  is  largely  basaltic,  and  off  Sydney 
it  is  sandstone. 

In  the  Sydney  Heads  material  about  70  %  is  foraminiferal. 
Glauconitic  casts  are  fairh'  abundant,  but  not  to  the  same  extent 
as  in  the  WoUongong  material.  The  foreign  material  consists  of 
fragments  of  gastropod  shells,  pteropod  .shells,  ostracods,  spicules, 
and  polyzoa. 

The  Mollusca  from  300  fathoms  off  Sydney  Heads  have  been 
described  by  Mr.  C.  Hedley  in  the  Records  of  the  Australian 
Museum  (Vol.vi.,  Part  3). 

4.  Foraminifera  from  Lyell  Bay,    Xeiv  Zealand,  collected  on   the 
beach  by  Mr.  A.  Ilamiltori. 
The  material  consifsts  chiefly  of  gastropod  shells,  lamellibranch 
shells,  polyzoa  and  coralline  alga3.      The  following  foraminifera 
were  noticed  : — 

Family  ASTRORHIZID^. 
Subfamily  RHABDAMMININ^. 

1.  Brachysiphon    corbuliformis   Chapman,    Trans.  X.  Z.  Inst. 

xxxviii.  1905,  pi.  iii.,  figs  2a,  26,  3. 

2.  ASCHEMONELLA  CATENATA  Norman. 


BY    E.    J.    GODDARD    AND    H.    I.    JENSEN.  307 

Family  ROTALIID^. 
Subfamily  ROTALIINiE. 

3.  DiSCORBINA  VESICULARIS  Lamk. 

4.  D.  RUGOSA  d'Orb. 

5.  Truncatulina  rosea  d'Orb.;  rare. 

Only  a  few  specimens  of  Br  achy  siphon  corhuliformis  and 
Aschemonella  catenata  were  obtained.  Brachysiphon  is  a  new 
genus  described  by  Chapman  in  his  paper  on  the  Foraminifera 
and  Ostracoda  obtained  off  Great  Barrier  Island,  New  Zealana. 

Discorhina  vesicularis  is  the  most  plentiful  form. 

5.  Foraminifera  ohtained  in  shore  (shell)  sands  at  Kelso  on  the 
north  coast  of  Tasmania. 

Family  MILIOLTD^. 
Subfamily  MILIOLININ^. 

1.  BiLOCULiXA  RiNGENS  Lamk. 

2.  B.  DEPRESSA  d'Orb.  var. 

3.  MiLiOLiNA  ciRCULARis  Bornem. 

4.  M.  SEMiNULUM  Linn. 

5.  M.  TRiOARiNATA  d'Orb. 

6.  M.  TRiGONULA  Lamk. 

7.  M.  BicoRNis  W.  &  J.,  var.nov. 

Family  LAGENID^. 
Subfamily  POLYMORPHININiE. 

8.  PoLYMORPfllNA  ROTUNDATA  Bornem. 

Family  TEXTULARIID^. 
Subfamily  TEXTULARIIN^. 

9.  Clavulina  parisiensis  d'Orb.     (Plate  vi.,  tig.  11). 

Family  ROTALIID^. 
Subfamily  IlOTALIIN.ffi. 

10.  DiscoRBiNA  ROSACEA  d'Orb. 

11.  D.  VESICULARIS  Lamk. 

12.  Carpenteria  proteifor.mis  Goes. 


308  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFERA,   II., 

Family  NUM  MULINID^. 
Subfamily  POLYSTOMELLIN^. 
13.   POLYSTOMELLA  IMPERATRIX   Brady. 

This  material  was  submitted  to  us  b}^  Miss  M.  Lodder. 
Accompanying  the  foraminifera  there  are  several  species  of 
polyzoa. 

The  Miliolina  which  we  have  referred  to  M.  hicornis  is  a  new 
variety  which  has  the  striations  and  ornamentation  of  M.  pul- 
chella  but  the  outline,  aperture,  and  tootli  of  M.  hicornis.  The 
tooth,  however,  is  rather  more  slender  than  that  of  typical  M. 
hicornis. 

Discorhina  rosacea  and  D.  vesicularis  are  the  most  abundant 
forms  in  the  material,  and  they  attain  greater  dimensions  and 
more  perfect  development  than  those  found  in  the  Lyell  Bay 
material,  and  other  foraminiferal  sands  which  we  have  examined. 

It  might  be  remarked  that  Discorhina  vesicularis  appears  to 
thrive  best  in  shallow  water  of  the  south  temperate  zone, 
especially  where  the  waters  are  cold,  as  in  Bass  Strait  where  we 
have  the  Antarctic  drift  entering  from  the  south-west. 

Although  specimens  of  this  species  occur  in  Port  Jackson,  they 
do  not  attain  the  grand  development  which  they  exhibit  in  Bass 
Strait.  No  doubt  it  will  be  found  in  increasing  abundance  south 
of  Sydney,  as  we  approach  the  cold  current  entering  the  Pacific 
Ocean  through  Bass  Strait. 

6.  Fossil  Foraminifera  kindly  suhmitted  hy  Miss  M.  Lodder^ 
of  the  Launceslon  Museum. 

Tilts  material  was  obtained  from  the  debris  of  fossil  mollusca 
collected  at  Table  Cape. 

Family  MILIOLID^. 
Subfamily  MILIO LINING. 

1.  BiLOCULiNA  SPH^RA  d'Orb. 

2.  B.  IRREGULARIS  d'Orb. 

3.  B.  ELONGATA  d'Orb. 

4.  B.  RiNGENS  Lamk. 


BY    E.    J.    GODDAKD    AND    H.    I.    .JENSEN.  309 

5.  MiLiOLiNA  ALVEOLiNiFOKMis  Brady. 

6.  M.  BUCCULENTA  Brady. 

7.  M.  ciRCULARis  Bornem. 

8.  M.  FERUssACii  d'Orb. 

9.  M.  LINN.EANA  d'Oi'b.;  only  one  specimen  with  small  neck. 

10.  M.  KUPERTiANA  Biady. 

11.  M.  SEPARANS  Brady. 

12.  M.  SEMiNULUM  Linn. 

13.  M.  TRiGONULA  Lamk. 

14.  M.  TRICARINATA  d'Orb. 

15.  Spiroloculina  limbata  d'Orb. 

16.  S.  acutimargo  Brady. 

17.  S.  FRAGiLissiMA  Brady. 

18.  S.  TENUiSEPTATA  Brad3^ 

19.  S.  TENUIS  Czjzek. 

•20.  8.  ANTILLARUM  d'Orb. 

21.  8.  NiTiDA  d'Orb. 

22.  S.  PLANULATA  Lamk. 

.  Subfamily  HAUERININ^. 

23.  Planispirina  celata  Costa. 

24.  P.  CONTRARIA  d'Orb. 

25.  P.  exigua  Brady. 

26.  P.  (Sigmoilina)  sig.>joidea  Brady. 

27.  Ophthalmidium  inconstaks  Brady. 

Subfamily  PENEROPLIDIN^,' 

28.  CoRNUspiRA  carinata  Costa. 

29.  C.  FOLIACEA  Phil. 

30.  C.  iNVOLVENs  Reuss. 

Family  ASTRO RHIZID^. 
Subfamily  ASTRORHIZINiE. 

31.  ASTRORHIZA  CRASSATINA  Brad3^ 

Subfamily  RKABDAMMININ^. 

32.  Hyperammina  subnodosa  Brady. 


310  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFEUA,   II., 

Family  LITUOLID^. 
Subfamily  LITUOLIIf^. 

33.  Reophax  scokpiurus  Mcntf. 

34.  R.  LODDKRiE,  n.sp. 

35.  Haplophragmium  emaciatum  Brady. 

36.  H.  meridionale  Chapman.      (Plate  vi.,  fi^".12). 

Subfamily  TROCHAMMININiE. 

37.  Thurammina  compressa  Brady  (?). 

38.  T.  papillata  Brady. 

Subfamily  LOFTUSIIN^. 

39.  Cyclammixa  (?)  cancellata  (1)  Brady. 

Family  TEXTULARIID^. 

Subfamily  TEXTULARIINiE. 

40.  Textularia  sp. 

Subfamily  BULIMININ.®. 

41.  BULIMINA   PYRULA  d'Orb. 

42.  YlRGULINA  SUBSQUAMOSA  Egger. 

Subfamily  CASSIDULININiE. 

43.  Cassidulina  subglobosa  Brady. 

44.  C.  PARKERIANA  Brady. 

Family  CHEILOSTOMELLID^. 

45.  Cheilostomella  ovoidea  Reuss. 

Family  LAGENID^. 
Subfamily  LAGENIN^. 

46.  Lagena  sulcata  W.  &  J. 

47.  L.  ASPERA  Reuss. 

48.  L.  FAVOSOPUNCTATA  Brady. 

49.  L.   TRIGONOMARGINATA  P.  &  J. 

50.  Lagena  sp. 

Subfamily  NODOSARIIN.S;. 

51.  NoDOSARiA  ROEMERi  Neugeb. 

52.  N.  SOLUTA  Reuss. 


BY    E.    J.    GODDARD    AND    11.    I.    JKNSEX.  311 

53.  X.  ROEMERi  Reiiss,  var.  SEMrcosTATA,  ii.var.      (Plate  vi.,fiiv.  1  4). 

54.  N.  FILIFORM  IS  d'Orb. 

55.  N.  OBLIQUA  Linn 

56.  Rhabdogonium  tricarixatum  d'Orb. 

57.  Froxdicularia  trimorpha,  n.sp.    (Plate  vi.,  fig. lo). 

Subfamily  POLYMORPHININ^. 

58.  POLYMOKPHINA  ELEGAXTISSIMA  P.  &  J. 

59.  P.  coMMUXis  d'Orb. 

60.  P.  soRORiA  Reuss. 

61.  p.  COMPRESSA  d'Orb. 

62.  P.  ROTUND  AT  A  Bornem. 

63.  P.   LANCEOLATA   ReUS.^. 

64.  p.    REGIXA  B.P.  &J. 

65.  Sagrina  raphaxus  P.  &  J. 

Family  GLOBIGERINID^. 

66.  Globigerixa  linn.eaxa  d'Orb.  _^ 

67.  G.  cretacea  d'Orb. 

68.  Orbulixa  uxiversa  d'Orb. 

Family  ROT  ALII  D^. 
Subfamily  ROTALIINiE. 

69.  DiscoRBiXA  turbo  d'Orb. 

70.  D.  bertheloti  d'Orlx 

71.  D.  globularis  d'Orb. 

72.  D.  parisiensis  d'Orb. 

73.  D.  rugosa  dOrb. 

74.  D.  vilardeboaxa  dOrb. 

75.  Truxcatulina  haidixgerii  d'Orb. 

76.  T.  lobatula  W.&  J. 

77.  T.  refulgens  Montf. 

78.  T.  rostrata  Brady. 

79.  T.  rosea  d'Orb. 

80.  T.  ungeriaxa  d'Orb. 

81.  v.  wuellerstorfii  »Schwag. 


312  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFERA,   II., 

82.  Anomalina  ammonoides  Reuss. 

83.  A.  GROSSERUGOSA  Gumb. 

84.  Planorbulina  larvata  P.  &  J. 

85.  p.  ACERVALis  Brady. 

86.  Pl'lvinulina    carpenteri     Reuss    (Chapman,    Jouin.    Roy. 

Micr.  Soc.  1898,  p.8,  pi.  i.,  figs.llrt-c). 

87.  P.  ELEGANS  d'Orb. 

88.  P.  FAVUS  Brady. 

89.  J*.  MENARDii  d'Orb. 

90.  P.   CANARIENSIS  d'Ol'b. 

91.  p.  TUMIDA  Brady. 

92.  Cymbalopora(?)  POEYi  d'Orb.  (1) 

93.  RoTALIA  BECCARIl  Lillll. 

94.  R.  ORBICULARIS  d'Orb. 

95.  R.  soLDANii  d'Orb. 

Family   NUMMULINID^. 
Subfamily  POLYSTOMELLINiE. 

96.  NoNioNiNA  BOUEANA  d'Orb. 

97.  N.   POMPILIOIDES  F.  tfe  M. 

98.  N.   DEPRESSULA   W.  &  J. 

99.  POLYSTOMELLA  CRATICULATA   F.  &  M. 

100.  p.   MACELLA  F.  &M. 

101.  P.   STRIATOPUNCTATA  F.  ct  M. 

102.  P.  SUBNODOSA  Miiiist. 

103.  p.  VERRicuLATA  Brady. 

Subfamily  CYCLOCLYPEINiE. 

104.  Cycloclypeus  sp. 

JVew  Species  and  Varieties. 
Haplophragmium  meridionale  (?)  Chapman,  var. 
Only  one  specimen  of  this  species  was  obtained.  Tlie  test  wa.s 
thin,  diaphanous  and  subelliptical,  but  the  sutures  were  not 
well  marked.  We  refer  it  to  Mr.  Chapman's  new  species  on 
account  of  its  resemblance  to  the  shell  figured  by  him  in  Ann. 
S.  Afr.  Mus.  Vol.  \y.,  pi.  xxix.,  fig.2. 


r»Y    E.    J.    GODDARD    AND    H.    I.    .TENSKN.  313 

Frondicularia  trimorpha,  n.sp.     (Plate  vi.,  fi.<;'.13). 

This  species,  as  shown  in  fig.  13,  has  the  earliei-  chauibers 
arranged  as  in  the  genus  Cristellavia;  tliree  or  four  chanil)ers 
arranged  as  in  Frondiciilaria  inceqnaliH  follow,  and  the  final 
chambers  are  irregularly  disposed  as  in  PolymorpJuiui.  Size  : 
length  138  mm. 

Nodosakia  rokmeri  Neugeboren,  var.  semicostata,  var.now 
(Plate  vi.,  fig.14). 

This  varietal  form  has  the  shape,  size,  and  aperture  of  the  type, 
but  the  earlier  chambers  bear  well  marked  longitudinal  costte 
which  have  a  tendency  to  run  spirally  round  the  shell.  This 
character  links  the  variety  to  Nodosaria  prismatica  (Reuss). 
Size  :  length  4  mm. 

Reophax  lodder.e,  sp.n.     (Plate  vi.,  fig.15). 

This  is  a  large  form  consisting  of  a  linear  series  of  chambers 
whose  tests  are  composed  of  sand  grains  ^nd  spicules.  The 
spicules  are  large,  derived  from  echinoids,  and  are  placed  with 
the  greatest  regularity,  one  row  corresponding  to  each  chamber 
of  the  test,  and  overlapping  the  row  belonging  to  the  next 
chamber.      Length  (incomplete);  diameter  0  75  mm. 

The  Table  Cape  material  was  forwarded  to  one  of  us  (H.  I.  J.) 
by  Miss  M.  Lodder,  an  Associate  Member  of  this  Society,  and 
Honorary  Curator  of  the  Launceston  Museum.  She  has  very 
kindly  also  supplied  us  with  particulars  how  the  material  was 
collected.  She  writes  as  follows  : — "  I  collected  the  specimens 
(foraminifera)  from  the  debris  of  the  matrix  (molluscan  shells), 
as  well  as  from  the  inside  of  a  large  number  of  shells  collected 
by  various  people  from  the  Tertiary  beds  at  Table  Cape."  The 
mollusca  include  Terebra,  Voluta,  Bela,  Ancilla,  Marginella, 
Tj'phis,  Murex,  Cyprsea,  Natica,  Lima,  Pecten,  Area,  Cucullaea, 
Glycimeris,  Cardita,  Crassatellites,  Chione,  Solenocurtius, 
Tel  Una,  ite. 

Miss  Lodder  believes  that  most  of  the  above  fossils  were  taken 
from  tlie  sea-side,  or  broken  face,  of  Table  Cape. 


314  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFKRA,   II., 

Ill  response  to  an  enquiiy  made  by  the  authors  as  to  the 
supposed  age  of  the  beds  from  which  the  fossils  were  taken,  Mis.s 
Lodder  has  kindly  furnished  the  following  information  :  —  "I  can 
onl}^  quote  the  words  of  Mr.  J.  Dennant  and  Mr.  A.  E.  Kitson 
in  their  Catalogue  of  the  '  Described  Species  of  Fossils  (except 
Bryozoa  and  Foraminifera)  in  the  Cainozoic  Fauna  of  Victoria, 
S.  Australia,  and  Tasmania,'  published  in  the  Records  of  the 
•Geological  tSurvey  of  Victoria  (Vol.  i.  pt.2,  1903,  p.  189). 

"  '  Group  C.  records  the  fossils  belonging  to  the  Table  Cape 
and  Spring  Creek  Deposits.  By  Tate  they  have  been  named 
Post-Eocene  (Oligocene?),  while  by  Messrs.  Hall  and  Pritchard 
they  are  placed  on  a  lower  horizon  than  the  distinctlj'  Eocene 
Mornington  Beds.  Their  separate  grouping  in  this  catalogue  of 
species  is  intended  to  imply  that  no  opinion  is  expressed  con- 
cerning the  relative  age  of  the  beds  in  question.  Those  interested 
in  the  matter  should  consult  original  memoirs.'" 

In  the  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Victoria,  Yol.viii. 
(New  Series;  Mr.  G.  B.  Pritchard  publishes  "  A  Revision  of  the 
Fossil  Fauna  of  the  Table  Cape  Beds,  Tasmania,  with  Descrip- 
tions of  New  Species  "  His  inferences  regarding  the  age  of  the 
beds  are  almost  identical  with  our  conclusions  from  a  study  of 
the  Foraminifera. 

The  Foraminifera  contained  in  the  Table  Bay  material  have 
a  decidedl}^  Eocene  or  Palaeogene  character,  agreeing  closely  with 
those  enumerated  for  the  Eocene  by  Howchin.* 

The  occurrence  of  forms  answering  to  the  description  of  Pul- 
vinulina  carpentei'i  and  Haplophragmiiiin  meridionale  figured 
by  Chapman  in  his  account  of  the  foraminifera  of  Pondoland 
Westf  serves  as  corroborative  evidence  of  the  old-Tertiary  age  of 
the  material. 

Nodosaria  zipj^ei  and  Rotalia  soldctnii  occur  here  as  well  as  in 
Mr.  Chapman's  Pondoland  material  which,  however,  is  Cretaceous. 


"  Report  Aust.  Assoc.  Adv.  Sc.  Vol.  v.  Adelaide,  S.A.,  1893. 
t  Ann.  South  African  Mus.  Vol.  iv.  Part  v. 


BY    E,    J.    GODDARD    AND    H.    I.    .TKN8KN.  315 

Numerous  ostracods  having  the  appearance  of  forms  figured 
by  Chapman  in  the  above-mentioned  report  were  observed  in  tlie 
material. 

In  general  it  may  be  stated  that  the  richness  of  the  foramini- 
feral  fauna  is  indicative  of  warm  water  conditions  of  deposition. 
Further,  it  is  certain  that  the  material  was  laid  down  at  a  depth 
of  from  50  to  150  fathoms.  These  conclusions  are  based  on  the 
occurrence  of  forms  which  are  restricted  to  warm  zones  and 
shallow  water,  and  to  the  complete  absence  of  cold-water  forms 
such  as  Discorbina  vesicularis  which  now  flourishes  in  the  same 
latitude. 

There  is  a  close  correspondence  between  the  Miliolidse  of  the 
Table  Cape  fossil  material  and  recent  dredgings  from  Sydney 
Heads  and  Byron  Bay.  The  Table  Cape  fossil  Nodosariinse 
correspond  closely  with  Howchin's  Eocene  list  and  those  occurring 
at  Byron  Ba)^  The  abundance  of  Polymorphininaj  indicates 
deposition  in  shallow  water  (less  than  200  fathoms).  The 
abundance  of  Polystomellinaj,  and  especially  so  of  species  which 
<]o  not  occur  at  Sydney  or  B3^ron  Bay  now,  but  are  restricted  to 
strictly  tropical  waters,  as  at  Torres  Strait  and  the  Barrier  Reef, 
is  itself  conclusive  evidence  of  warm-water  conditions  at  the  time 
of  deposition. 

Certain  species  found  in  the  Table  Cape  fossil  material  deserve 
.special  mention  in  support  of  these  statements;  they  are  : — 

(a)  Biloculina  irregularis  is  a  tropical  species,  which  has  only 
been  observed  by  us  elsewhere  in  the  Gulf  of  Carpentaria  material. 

(b)  Miliolina  alveoliniformis  is  a  coral-reef  species  confined  to 
shallow  water.     Occurs  also  in  the  Gulf  of  Carpentaria. 

(c)  Miliolina  rupertiana  occurs  only  in  shallow  water  in  warm 
latitudes. 

(d)  Spirolomdina  antillarum  is  a  common  form  off  the  coast  of 
Brazil. 

(e)  Spirolocnlina  planulata  and  S.  niticla  are  closely  allied 
species,  the  former  being  characteristic  of  temperate  zones,  the 
latter  replacing  it  in  the  tropical  zone.  Both  are  shallow  water 
forms,  and  both  occur  at  Table  Cape. 


316  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFERA,   II., 

[The  Miliolida^  in  general  flourish  )>est  in  tropical  seas,  from 
the  shore  to  deptiis  of  150  fathoms;  and  this  family  is  exceedingly 
well  represented].  ..    , 

(f)  Cassidulina  j^'ifkeriana  is  characteristic  of  tropical  seas  at 
depths  of  45-175  fathoms. 

(g)  LagpAia  favoso punctata  is,  according  to  the  Challenger 
Report,  restricted  to  the  shores  of  New  Guinea  and  Torres  Strait 
at  a  depth  of  17  to  155  fathoms. 

(h)  Polymorphina  regina  is  a  shallow  water  form  occurring 
round  the  islands  of  the  Pacific,  to  be  found  in  Howchin's  list  of 
Eocene  foraminifera,  but  not  in  later  Tertiary  Australian 
deposits. 

(i)  The  Rotaliid^  of  our  Table  Cape  material  exhibit  a  striking 
parallelism  to  the  forms  now  occurring  off  Sydney  Heads  and 
Byron  Bay,  especially  as  regards  Truncatulina.  Discorbina  is 
not  an  abundant  form,  and  the  species  present  are  forms  which 
thrive  best  in  warm  latitudes. 

From  a  study  of  this  material,  the  conclusion  is  unavoidable 
that  the  material  was  deposited  in  Eocene  times  in  a  shallow  sea; 
and,  furthermore,  that  in  this  period  climatic  conditions  were 
much  warmer  in  the  Tasman  region  than  now. 

In  conclusion  it  is  necessary  to  mention  that  our  attention  has 
been  drawn  by  Mr  F.  Chapman,  F.R.M.S.,  to  the  fact  that 
recent  forms  resembling  Biloculina  rinyens  and  B.  bulloides  are 
referred  to  other  genera  on  account  of  their  internal  structure 
differing  from  the  fossil  forms  for  which  the  above-mentioned 
names  have  been  retained.^*'  We  have  however  not  sectioned 
any  of  the  forms  of  Miliolidie  enumerated  in  our  lists,  and  have 
therefore  retained  the  well-known  names  of  Biloculina  ringens 
and  B  bulloides;  the  retention  of  these  names  in  our  paper  has 
the  advantage  of  making  these  lists  consistent  with  other 
lists  of  Australian  Foraminifera  such  as  Whitelegge's  list  in 
"  Invertebrate  Fauna  of    Port  Jackson  and  Neighbourhood,"  f 

*  Schlumberger,  Mem.  Soc.  Zool.  France.     Vol,  iv.  1891. 
t  Joui-n.  Proc.  Koy.  Soc.  N.S.Wales.     Vol.xxiii.  1889. 


BY    E.    J.    GODDARD    AND    11.    I.    JKNSEN.  317 

Howchin's  "  Census  of  the  Fossil  Foraminifera  of  Australia,"'*' 
and  our  own  previously  published  notes,  as  well  as  with  the 
Challenger  Report  and  Flint's  "  Recent  Foraminifera." 

We  are  also  indebted  to  Mr.  F.  Chapman  for  pointing  out  to  one 
of  us  that  Miliolina  hucculenta  in  this  and  in  our  previous 
papers  should  read  Planispirina  hucculetita,  Biloculina  sphoira 
d'Orbigny,  should  likewise  read  Planispirina  sphmra;  and  Plani- 
spirina sigmoidea  should  read  Sigmoilina  sigmoidea.  We  retain 
the  commoner  names  for  the  sake  of  consistency  and  because  we 
have  not  had  access  to  the  papers  in  which  the  proposed 
changes  and  the  reasons  for  them  are  given. 

In  his  "  Notes  on  Prosobranchiata  No.  i.,"t  discussing  Aus- 
tralian fossil  species  of  the  geuus  Lotorium,  Mr.  H.  L.  Kesteven 
remarks: — ''  Lotoriuin pai'kijisoniayium  is  the  recent  representa- 
tive of  L.  radiale,  abbotti,  textile,  woodsii,  and  torti7'ost7'is."  A 
glance  at  Dennant's  "  Catalogue  of  the  Described  Species  of 
Fossils," I  show^s  that  three  of  these  species,  namely,  Lotorium 
(Lampusia)  abbotti,  ivoodsii,  and  tortirostris  occur  at  Table  Cape. 

On  p.  455  of  the  same  paper  Mr.  Kesteven  goes  on  to  say  : — 
"  Thus,  if  we  compare  this  genus  (Lotorium)  as  it  occurs  in  the 
Lower  Australian  strata  with  European  Miocene  representatives, 
we  are  presented  with  two  entirely  different  types  of  the  genus. 
The  predominating  feature  of  the  Australian  section — that  of  the 
extinct  Antarctic  group — finds  expression  in  only  one  European 
fossil  ( L.  tarbellianum).  Again,  if  the  two  groups  be  compared 
with  the  recent  representatives  it  w^ill  be  seen  that  the  European 
section  has  the  general  facies  of  recent  species,  whilst  the  Aus- 
tralian fossils  can,  with  one  exception,  be  only  compared  inter  se. 
These  facts  ....  assuredly  point  to  the 
greater  antiquity  of  the  Australian  fossils." 

From  the  large  number  of  specimens  which  had  their  apices 
complete  (over  70  per  cent.)  Mr.  Kesteven  infers  (op.  cit.  p.  465) 
that  the  beds  were  deposited  below  the  tidal  limit. 

*  Report  Aust.  Assoc.  Adv.  Sc.     Vol.  v.  Adelaide,  1893. 
t  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.Wales,  1902,  p.  454. 
Z  Records  Geol.  Surv.  Victoria,  Vol.  i,  Part  2,  p.  107. 
23 


318  AUSTRALIAN    FORAMINIFERA,  II. 

It  is  very  interesting  to  notice  that  our  conclusions  as  regards 
the  age  of  the  deposits,  and  the  depth  at  which  they  were  laid 
down,  agree  so  closely  with  those  of  Mr.  Kesteven  based  on  a 
study  of  the  mollusca. 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATE  VI. 

Fig.  L  — Textularia  quadrilatera  var.  (  x  90). 

Fig.2. — Cristellaria  variahilU  var.  allomorphinoides,  n.var.(x90). 

Fig.3a. — Sagrina  australiensis  n.sp.(  x  90). 

Pig.3&. — Sagrina  [australiensis,   n.sp.,  showing  appearance  by  transmitted 

light  under  higher  power. 
Fig. oc. — Sagrina  australiensis,  n.sp.,  showing  tubules  in  walls. 
FigA.  — Sagrina  sydneyensis,  n.sp.(  x  90). 

Fig.4&. — Sagrina  sydneyensis,  n.sp.,  showing  pores  and  structure  of  wall. 
Fig.5«. — Articulina  chapmani,  n.sp.(x90). 
Fig. 56. — Articvlina  chapmani,  n.sp.,  showing  ornamentation  under  higher 

power. 
Fig.6. — Cristellaria  hasicelli  var.(  x  90). 

Fig. 7a. — Cerviciferina  hilli,  n.sp.;  seen  by  reflected  light  (  x  90). 
Fig.7&. — Cerviciferina  hilli,  n.sp.;  seen  by  transmitted  light  (  x  90). 
Fig.8. — Cristellaria  variabilis  var.(  x  90). 

Fig.9. — Cristellaria  sp.,  intermediate  between  C.  lata  a,nd  C.  crepidula  (  x  90). 
Fig.  10. — Lagena  globosa  var.  grandipora,  n.var.  (  x  90). 
Fig.ll. — ClavuUna  parisiensis  (  x  30). 
Fig.  12.  — Haplopliragmium  meridionale  var.(  x  30). 

Fig.  13. — F rondicnlaria  trimorpha,  n.sp.;  seen  by  transmitted  light  (  x  30). 
Fig.l4. — Nodosaria  roemeri  var.  costata,  n.var.  {  x  30). 
Fig. 15.— i?eo^/?a.r  lodclene,  n.sp.(  x  30). 


319 


THURSDAY,  MAY  23rd,  1907. 


SPECIAL  GENERAL  MEETING, 

A  Special  General  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  in  the 
Linnean  Hall,  Ithaca  Road,  Elizabeth  Bay,  on  Thursday  evening, 
May  23rd,  1907,  to  mark  the  occasion  of  the  Bicentenary  of  Carl 
von  Linn^  (1707-1778). 

Mr.  A.  H.  S.  Lucas,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  President  offered  a  hearty  welcome  to  the  guests  of  the 
evening — Count  Birger  Morner,  Consul  for  Sweden;  President 
David  Starr  Jordan,  of  the  Leland  Stanford  University;  Mr.  L. 
W.  Marcker,  Consul  for  Denmark;  Mr.  P.  Board,  M.A.,  Under- 
Secretary  for  Public  Instruction;  Mr.  Alexander  Mackie,  M.A., 
Director  of  the  Training  College;  Mr.  Henry  Deane,  M.A.,  F.L.S., 
&c.,  President,  and  Mr.  F.  B.  Guthrie,  E.C.S.,  Hon.  Secretary  of 
the  Royal  Society  of  New  South  Wales;  Mr.  J.  H.  Maiden, 
F.L.S.,  &c.,  President  of  the  Historical  Society  of  New  South 
Wales. 

Programme. 

Introductory  Remarks  by  the  President, 

Mr.  A.  H.  S.  Lucas,  M.A.,  B.vSc. 


The  Invitations  received  from  the  Royal  University  of  Upsala  and  the 
Royal  Swedish  Academy,  Stockholm,  and  the  Replies  thereto. 

SOCIETATlj  I^TNNAENANAE 

quae  in  urbe  Sydney  est 

S.P.D. 

UNIVERSITAS   R^GIA   UPSALIENvSIS. 

Praeterierunt  hoc  anno  duo  saecula,  postquam  natus  est 

CAROI^US  IvINNAKUS, 

decus  illud  Universitatis  Upsaliensis  et  totius  patriae  nostrae.  Con- 
sentaneum  est  hoc  potissimum  tempore  grate  animo  nos  ea  recordari, 
quae  vir  ille  ad  arcana  naturae  revelanda  et  maxime  quidem  ad 
botanices  scientiam  adaugendam   atque   promovendam  felici  labore 


320  BI-CENTENARY  OF  CARL  VON  LINNE. 

perpetravit,  eamque  ob  rem  in  aniiiio  habenms  diebus  xxiii  et  xxiv 
mensis  Mali  huius  anni  iiiemoriani  natalis  clarissimi  viri  ea,  qua  par 
est,  pietate  renovare  atque  celebrare.  Spes  autem  est  fore,  ut  Vos, 
Viri  Doctissimi  et  Illnstrissimi,  hoc  consilium  nostrum  benigne  appro- 
betis  et  sollemnibus,  quae  instituere  decrevimus,  interesse  velitis. 
Itaque  rogamus,  ut  unum  aliquem  ex  Vestro  numero  legetis,  qui 
hospitio  nostro  usus  festos  illos  dies  nobiscum  agat.  Quem  legaveritis, 
ante  Idus  Martias,  si  placet,  rescribite. 

Valete  et  nobis  favete. 

Dabamus  Upsaliae  die  x  m.  Januarii  a.  1907. 

SenaTus  Academici  nomine 

Hexrik  Schuck. 

Universitatis  Upsaliensis  h.t.  Rector. 

Johax  v.  Bahr, 

Univ.  Upsal.  Secretarius. 

(Reply). 

societas  linneaxa 

in  Nova  Cambria  Constituta 

regiae  universitati  upsaeensi 

S.P.D. 
Perbenigne  fecistis,  viri  spectatissimi,  quod  natalem  Caroli  I^innaei 
ducentesimum  celebraturi  Societatem  nostram  quamvis  longo  locorum 
intervallo  divisam  ut  legatum  mittat  invitastis.  Cuius  Societatis  sedes 
baud  iniuria  videtur  esse  collocata  in  urbe  totius  Australiae  vetustissima 
prope  ipsum  locum  ubi  primuni  comites  illi  Jacobi  Cook,  Banksius  et 
Solander,  quorum  hie  Linnaei  discipulus  fuerat,  cum  animantes  novos 
turn  eas  res  quas  nova  nostra  terra  gignit  aspexere.  Hie  igitur,  quasi 
in  ipsis  ut  gentis  ita  scientiae  nostrae  cunabulis,  obscura  naturae  loca 
ilia  illustrare  luce  conamur  quani  princeps  Linnaeus  vester  mortalium 
animo  effudit.  Cui  studio  intentis  quod  cum  nobis  vestrorum  fructus 
studiorum  communicare  soletis,  gratias  vobis  et  agimus  et  habenms 
maximas. 

Legavimus  autem  Socium  nostrum  Jacobum  Petruni  Hill,  in  Collegio 
IvOndinensi    Universitati    Affini    Zoologiae    Professorem,     qui    vobis- 
sollemnia  ex  pio  animo  gratuletur. 
Dabamus  Sydneiae  die  xiv.  mensis  Aprilis  anni  MCMVII. 

Arturus  H.  S.  Lucas, 

Praeses. 

JOSEPHUS  J.    FeETCHER, 

Secretarius. 


SPECIAL  C4KNERAL  MEETING.  321 

RKGIA  ACADEMIA  SCIKXTIARUM  SUKCICA 
SOCIKTATI  LINNKANAP:, 

quae  in  urbe  S3"dne3'  est, 

S.P.D. 
Sub  lineni  Maii   huius  antii  duo  secula  erunt,  postquam  homen  illud 
scientiae  carolus  linnaeus 

in  vitani  est  ingressus.  Cuius  nomen  cum  universae  patriae  illus- 
trissimae  memoriae  sit,  turn  Academiae  nostrae  praecipue  celebrandum 
erit,  quippe  quae  eius  studio  atque  operae  originem  suam  magnam 
partem  debeat.  Itaque  constituimus  natalem  eius  bisecularem,  quo 
par  est,  honore  prosequi. 

Qui  ut  rite  liabeatur,  opus  erit  adesse,  si  non  corporibus,  at  certe 
animis  exteros  eos,  qui,  Linnaeus  quid  contulerit  ad  rerum  natnralium 
scientiam  perficiendam,  penitus  perspexerint  eiusque  memoriam  pie 
servent.  Fuit  ille  quidem  civis  noster,  sed  idem  universe  generi 
humano  vixit  et  e  floribus  totius  orbis  terrarum  sedulae  apis  modo 
congessit,  quidquid  posset  rerum  naturae  ordinem  habitiimque  in- 
vestigantibus  lucem  afferre.  Et  est  certe  inter  eos,  qui  ubique 
doctrinae  literisque  operam  dant,  societas  quaedam  studiorum,  quae 
locorum  distantia  eos  impediri  non  sinit,  quominus  coniunctis  viribus 
eodem  tendant  eademque  promoveant.  Quod  cum  ita  sit,  speramus 
fore,  ut  vos  etiam  nobis  Linnaei  memoriam  celebraturis  mente  ac 
voluntate  faveatis  atque,  si  modo  fieri  poterit,  unum  aliquem  e  Vestro 
numero  mittatis,  qui  coram  adsit  sollennibus  nataliciis,  quae  agentur 
Holmiae  die  xxv  Maii.  rogamusque  velitis  ante  Kalendas  x\priles. 
nobiscum  per  literas  communicare,  quem  adlegaveritis. 

Valete  nobisque  favete. 

Dabamus  Holmiae  die  i  m.  Februarii  a.  1907. 

Academiae  Scientiarum  nomine 
Peter  Klason 
Academiae  scient.  h.  t.  Praeses. 

Chr   Aurivillius 

Secretarius  perpetuus. 

(Reply). 

SOCIETAS  LINNAEANA 

quae  in  Urbe  Sj'dneia  est 
regiae  academiae  sciextiarum  suecicae 

S.P.D. 
Permagno  gaudio,  viri  ornatissimi,  accepimus  litteras  vestras,  quibus 
ut  vobiscum  natalem  Caroli  Linnaei  ducentesimum  coram  celebremus 
nos  invitare  voluistis,  quippe  quae  cum  sanctum  illud   communium 


322  BI-CENTENARY  OF  CARL  VON  LINNE. 

studioruni  vinculum  quo,  quamvis  longo  spatioruni  intervallo  divisi, 
cum  cultis  veteris  orbis  gentibus  simus  coniuncti,  tum  communem 
nostram  divini  illius  hominis  venerationem  testificentur. 

Nos  quidem  nostram  debemus  originem  Alexandro  Macleay,  homini 
A'ere  Linnaeano,  Academiae  vestrae  Socio,  per  annos  septem  et  viginti 
Societatis  Linnaeanae  apud  Londinenses  Secretario,  qui,  cum  anno 
demum  MDCCCXXV.  hue  advenisset,  semina  sparsiteorum  studiorum 
quae  nos  praecipue  colimus,  quaeque  iam  per  totam  Australiam  florent. 
Quorum  studiorum  fructus  cum  lyinnaeo  vestro,  qui  primus  veras 
naturae  animantis  rationes  per  orbem  terrarum  propagavit,  iure  refer- 
amus  acceptos,  dies  festos,  quos  in  maiorem  illius  gloriam  celebraturi 
estis,  faustis  omnibus  pio  gratoque  animo  prosequemur. 

Legavimus  autem  Socium  nostrum  Jacobum  Petrum  Hill,  in  Collegio 
Londinensi  Universitati   Affini   Zoologiae   Professorem,  qui  feriarum 
sit  particeps  et  nostris  suique  verbis  bona  omnia  vobis  comprecetur. 
Dabamus  S3^dneiae, 

Id.  Apr.  MCMVII. 

Arturus  H.  S.  Lucas, 

Praeses. 

JosEPHus  J.  Fletcher, 

Secretarius. 


ADDRESSES. 
The  Predecessors  of  Linneeus  -        -        -   The  President. 
The  Personal  History  of  Linnaeus   -  Mr.  H.  I.  Jensen,  B.Sc. 

i  Professor  HasweIvI.,  D.Sc, 
Linnaeus,  the  Man  of  Science   ■]  F.L.S.,   F.R.S. 

/  Mr.  J.  H.  Maiden,  F.L.S. 
The  'Systema  Naturae,'  &c.  - '  -  Mr.  C.  Hedley,  F.L-S. 
The  Contemporaries  of  Linnaeus     - 

Professor  Wilson,  M.B.,  Ch.M. 
The  immediate  Successors  of        ^  The  Secretary. 

Linnaeus  I        Dr.  H.  G.  Chapman. 

Sir  J.  E.  Smith  and  the  Linnean  Society 
of  London,  as,  "  in  a  sense,  the  heirs 
of  Linnaeus"    (Fries) 

Mr.  Henry  Deane,  M.A.,  F.L.S.,  &c. 

The   Linnean    Society    of    New    South 

Wales — the  choice  and  significance 

of  the  name    -        -      Prof.  David,  B. A.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.S. 

Concluding  Remarks       -         -         -  By  the  President. 

Address    -        -        -        -  By  the  Consul  for  Sweden. 

Professor  Jordan,  who  arrived  in  Sydney  after  the  details  of 
the  programme  had  been  settled  and  printed  off,  ver}^  kindly 
acceded  to  the  President's  invitation  to  address  the  Meeting. 


323 


WEDNESDAY,  MAY  SOth,   1907. 


ORDINARY  MONTHLY  MEETING. 

The  Ordinary  Monthly  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  in 
the  Linnean  Hall,  Ithaca  Road,  Elizabeth  Bay,  on  Wednesday 
evening,  May  30th,  1907. 

Mr.  A.  H.  S.  Lucas,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Messrs.  Thomas  Harvey  Johnston,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  Technical 
College,  Sydney;  Robert  Kaleski,  Liverpool,  N.  S.  W.; 
Alexander  Mackie,  M.A.,  Director  of  the  Training  College, 
Sydney;  and  Frank  H.  Taylor,  Technological  Museum,  Sydney, 
were  elected  Ordinary  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  President  announced  that,  under  the  provisions  of  Rule 
XXV.,  the  Council  had  elected  Mr.  Henry  Deane,  M.A.,r.L.S.,&c., 
Mr.  J.  H.  Maiden,  F.L.S.,  &c..  Dr.  T.  Storie  Dixson,  and  Mr. 
Thomas  Steel,  F.C.S.,  F.L.S.,  &c.,  to  be  Vice-Presidents;  and 
Mr.  J.  R.  Garland,  M.A.  (Bull's  Chambers,  14  Moore  Street)  to 
be  Hon.  Treasurer,  for  the  current  Session. 

A  courteous  letter  from  Count  Morner,  Consul  for  Sweden, 
thanking  the  Society  for  its  tribute  to  the  memory  of  Carl  von 
Linne,  and  for  the  opportunity  of  attending  the  Special  Meeting 
arranged  to  commemorate  the  Bicentenary;  and  also  expressive 
of  the  pleasure  which  it  had  aflbrded  him,  as  the  representative 
of  the  fatherland  of  Linne,  to  take  part  in  the  proceedings,  was 
read  from  the  Chair. 

An  invitation  from  the  New  York  Academy  of  Science  to 
participate  in  its  celebration  of  the  Bicentenary  of  Carl  von  Linne 
was  announced.  The  letter  unfortunately  did  not  arrive  until 
May  29th. 

An  invitation  to  Members  to  attend  a  Meeting  of  the  Sydney 
Section  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry  on  12th  June,  at 
which    Mr.   H.   G.   Smith,   F.C.S.,  &.c,,  will  contribute   a   paper 


324  ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

"  On  recent  work  on  the  Eucalypts  and  what  it  teaches,"  was 
communicated. 

The  President,  in  referring  to  the  recent  death  of  Mr.  Alexander 
Morton,  Secretary  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Tasmania  and  Curator 
of  the  Hobart  Museum,  said  that  everyone  who  had  attended  the 
Meetings  of  the  Australasian  Association  in  Hobart,  who  had  had 
occasion  to  consult  the  collections  in  the  Hobart  Museum,  or  was 
otherwise  interested  in  the  flora  or  fauna  of  Tasmania,  had  had 
opportunities  of  appreciating  Mr.  Morton's  kindness,  his  freely 
rendered  help,  and  his  capacity  for  organising  arrangements  for 
the  benefit  of  visiting  naturalists. 

Professor  David  spoke  in  support  of  the  President's  testimony; 
and,  upon  his  motion,  it  was  resolved  that  a  letter  of  sympathy 
be  sent  to  Mrs.  Morton. 

The  Donations  and  Exchanges  received  since  the  previous 
Monthly  Meeting,  amounting  to  5  Vols,  80  Parts  or  Nos.,  48 
Bulletins,  2  Reports,  and  3  Pamphlets,  received  from  58 
Societies,  &c.,  and  2  Individuals,  were  laid  upon  the  table. 

The  President  invited  discussion  upon  the  papers  by  Messrs. 
E.  C.  Andrews,  T.  G.  Taylor,  Dr.  W.  G.  Woolnough,  and  Mr. 
G.  H.  Halligan  in  Parts  3  and  4  of  the  Proceedings  for  1906, 
recently  published.  As  there  was  much  to  be  said  in  the  time 
available,  the  discussion  resolved  itself  chiefly  into  criticism  of 
the  theoretical  considerations  brought  forward  in  Mr.  Andrews' 
paper  entitled  "  The  New  Zealand  Sound  (and  Lake)  Basins  and 
the  Canons  of  Eastern  Australia  in  their  bearing  on  the  Theory 
of  the  Peneplain,"  and  in  Mr.  Halligan's  paper  "On  Sand- 
Movement  on  the  New  South  Wales  Coast."  Dr.  Woolnough 
opened  the  discussion,  and  Messrs.  J.  E.  Carne,  G.  H.  Halligan, 
the  President,  and  Mr.  Andrews  took  part. 


325 


THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD,  A  STUDY  OF 

THE  EVOLUTION  OF  LAKES  GEORGE  AND 

BATHURST,  N.S.W. 

By.  T.  Griffith  Taylor,  B.Sc,  B.E.,  Assistant  Demonstrator 
IN  Geology  and  Lecturer  in  Commercial  Geography  at 
THE  University  of  Sydney. 

(Plates  vii,-x.) 

CONTENTS. 
Part  i.     Lake  George. 

PAGE 

i.  Introduction 325 

ii.  General  Topography ...  326 

iii.  The  Cullarin  Fault  Plane      329 

iv.  Changes  in  Topography  since  the  Period  of  Faulting     ...  333 

V.  Economic  Aspect  OF  the  Senkungsfeld         336 

vi.  Age  OF  the  Subsidence 338 

vii.  Summary 33^ 

Part  ii.     Lake   Bathurst. 

1.  General  Physiography 340 

ii.  Origin  OF  the  Lake         ...  ...         343 

Parti.     Lake  George. 

i.  Introduction. 

The  lakes  of  New  South  Wales  are  conspicuous  by  their  rarity. 
Undoubtedly  the  most  important,  and  perhaps  the  largest,  is 
Lake  George,  which  lies  in  the  angle  between  the  Southern  and 
Cooma  railway  lines.  It  is  25  miles  south-west  of  Goulburn, 
but  is  most  accessible  from  Bungendore,  on  the  Cooma  line. 
With  the  exception  of  the  meteorological  investigations  instituted 
24 


326  THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 

by  the  late  Mr.  H.  C.  Russell,  little  research— certainly  none  of 
a  physiographic  nature — has  been  carried  out  in  this  district. 

The  following  statement  embodies  the  current  opinion  as  to 
the  lake's  environment,  and  is  in  itself  sufficient  to  indicate  a 
very  promising  field  of  research  on  the  lines  of  modern  physio- 
graphy. The  quotation  runs  as  follows: — "Lake  George  occupies 
the  southern  portion  of  a  depression  in  the  Cullarin 
Range,  called  the  Lake  George  Basin,  490  square  miles  in  extent, 
and  (is)  the  solitary  exataple  in  the  colony  of  a  j)urely  inland 
drainage  area,  watered  as  it  is  by  several  small  screams,  but 
having  no  visible  outlet."^' 

Paradoxical  as  it  may  sound,  a  lake  is  to  a  certain  extent  an 
unnatural  natural  feature.  At  any  rate,  especially  in  mountainous 
regions,  its  presence  often  implies  abnormal  conditions.  Thus  the 
great  lakes  of  America  are  due  to  the  somewhat  erratic  arrange- 
ment of  the  drifts  of  the  Ice  Age.  The  great  lakes  of  Africa 
are  due  to  a  huge  crustal  rift.  The  small  lakes  of  Kosciusko 
are  geologically  ephemeral,  and  the  moraine  barriers  which  clam 
back  the  waters  are  rapidly  vanishing  as  the  streams  cut  down  to 
base  level,  vfhich.  is  indeed  their  "aim  in  life."  Any  complete 
interruption  of  a  large  drainage  area,  such  as  obtains  in  the  case 
of  the  Lake  George  Basin,  points  to  important  late  geological 
changes;  which  changes  will,  it  is  hoped,  be  clearly  demonstrated 
in  the  succeeding  account  of  the  Lake  George  Senkungsfeld 
(^suhside7ice  area). 

ii.  General  Topography. 

A  reference  to  the  stereogram  (Plate  viii.)  will  convey  a  clear 
idea  of  the  topography  of  Lake  George.  The  lake  proper  extends 
about  15  miles  in  a  north  and  south  direction,  and  may  be  closely 
€ompared  in  outline  to  a  how  (variety  Cupid's);  the  string  sym- 
bolising the  straight,  even  western  shore,  while  the  double-curved 
eastern  boundary  resembles  the  wooden  bow.     This  contrast  of 

*  Geography  of  New  South  Wales,  3rd  Ed.,  by  J.  M.  Taylor,  p.  81.  (The 
italics  are  mine.  — T.G.T. ). 


BY  T.   GRIFFITH  TAYLOR.  327 

boundary  is  of  great  importance  in  the  pliysiography  of  the  lake, 
so  that  the  above  analogy  will  perhaps  be  found  of  assistance. 

At  the  northern  extremity  a  series  of  gravel  banks  separate 
the  lake  from  Murray's  Lagoon,  which  latter  at  present  (February, 
1907)  is  a  dry  area  about  one  mile  in  diameter  covered  thickly 
with  rushes.  Beyond  this  the  country  consists  of  a  flat  expanse 
extending  towards  Breadalbane.  The  Divide  between  the  Wollon- 
dilly  River  system  and  the  Lake  George  area  is  not  well  defined 
and  seems  to  lie  just  north  of  the  main  Southern  Railway. 

On  the  eastern  shore  the  lake  outline  is  somewhat  irregular. 
Ondyong  Point,  Rocky  Point,  Currandooley  Point  and  Native  Dog 
mark  the  spurs  projecting  from  the  Gourock  Range  into  the  lake 
(Plate  vii.).  In  broad  valleys  between  these  spurs  lie  the  streams 
which  water  Lake  George;  Murray's  Creek  (the  name  on  the  map, 
Allianoyonyiga,  one  is  not  surprised  to  find  unknown  in  the 
district);  Taylor's  Creek  at  the  foot  of  Governor's  Hill,  the  most 
prominent  landmark  round  Lake  George;  Deep  Creek  and  Turallo 
Creek.  It  will  be  noticed  that  these  creeks  converge  on  the 
locality  known  as  Geary's  Gap  (vide  stereogram). 

Reverting  to  the  western  shore,  we  are  struck  by  the  absolute 
dissimilarit3\  Standing  at  the  level  of  the  lake  we  seem  to  be 
confronted  by  a  giant  wall  extending  northwards  for  over  twenty 
miles  from  the  Molonglo  Plain.  No  broad  valley  breaks  its  con- 
tinuity. Indeed,  to  one  cycling  along  the  foot  of  the  Cullarin 
Range,  it  seems  unbroken  by  any  definite  gap,  while  for  a  large 
part  it  presents  a  steep  face  500  feet  high  to  the  lake.  From 
the  opposite  shore  (Governor's  Hill),  however,  one  is  able  to  see 
a  well  defined  gap  about  half-way  along  the  western  shore  where 
the  old  Southern  Road  crossed  the  Cullarin  Range.  This  depres- 
sion— Geary's  Gap — was  well  known  in  the  days  before  the  rail- 
way, but  is  now  practically  unused  by  travellers.  Less  than  two 
miles  south  of  Geary's  Gap  a  stream  (Grove  Creek)  rushes  down 
to  the  lake.  Contrast  its  course  with  that  of  Taylor's  Creek  on 
the  eastern  shore.  The  latter  stream  flows  through  a  broad 
valley,  a  mile  or  two  wide,  scooped  out  of  the  granite,  and  shows 
the  even  grade  of  a  mature  or  senile  type  of  river.     The  Grove 


328  THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 

Creek  is  barely  a  mile  long,  yet  descends  nearly  three  hundred 
feet.  Its  course  is  interrupted  by  falls  25  feet  high,  and  finally 
it  emerges  from  a  gorge,  or  miniature  canon,  with  steep  sides 
200  feet  high.  Evidentl}'-  it  is  a  stream  which  has  barely  reached 
the  youthful  stage.  The  hollows  carved  out  of  the  slate  bear 
witness  to  the  violence  of  the  stream  upon  occasions,  but  for  the 
greater  part  of  the  year  it  dwindles  to  a  succession  of  rocky  pools. 

Travelling  south,  we  arrive  at  a  stream  of  some  importance, 
the  Molonglo  River,  about  12  miles  south  of  the  lake.  This  cuts 
across  the  Cullarin  Range  near  Hoskin's  Town  (see  Plate  vii.). 
Suspecting  that  this  river  might  have  participated  in  the  abnor- 
malities characteristic  of  the  Lake  George  Basin,  I  wrote  to  Mr. 
A.  E.  Tuckwell,  of  Hoskin's  Town,  who  amply  confirmed  my 
anticipations,  as  the  following  extract  will  show: — "The 
Molonglo  River  leaves  the  flat  country  5  miles  to  the  west  of 
Hoskin's  Town  Public  School,  and  flows  through  a  7iarrow  gorge 
bounded  by  hills,  some  of  them  apj)roaching  mountains." 

An3^one  who  has  enjoyed  a  trip  up  the  Nepean  from  Penrith  to 
Mulgoa,  will  remember  that,  at  the  latter  place,  the  river  leaves 
the  plains  and  abruptly  enters  a  steep  gorge.  The  Nepean  Gorge 
is  due  to  the  river  gradually  eating  doivn  its  bed  as  the  Blue 
Mountain  scarp  was  elevated.  This  is  the  key  to  the  Lake 
George  problem.  The  Molonglo  River  (see  Plate  viii.,  at  the 
lower  rim  of  the  model)  has  kept  to  its  bed  in  spite  of  the  fact 
that  its  basin  at  one  period  of  its  existence  experienced  a  differ- 
ential movement,  the  upstream  portion  sinking  with  respect  to 
the  lower.  Subsequently  (28th  March,  1907)  I  visited  the 
Molonglo  Water  Gap  and  found  that  the  river's  course  is  con- 
cordant with  the  above  account.  Immediately  at  the  entrance 
of  tlie  gorge,  the  slates  and  laminated  quartzites  are  much 
crumpled  and  overfolded.  This  is  the  only  locality  where  I 
observed  such  phenomena;  the  Silurian  (?)  strata,  for  the  most 
part,  being  folded  on  a  large  scale  and  not  crumpled  locally. 
This  local  action  occurring  just  at  the  plane  where  upthrow  and 
downthrow  meet,  would  seem  to  suggest  that  some  considerable 
secondar}'  folding  has  been  supei  imposed  on  the  ancient  Silurian 


BY  T.  GRIFFITH  TAYLOR.  329 

synclines  and  anticlines.  In  fact  here  we  may  have  positive 
evidence  of  the  Tertiary  folding  into  which  the  CuUarin  or  Lake 
George  Fault  has  passed  at  its  southern  extremity. 

iii.  The  Cullarin  Fault. 

Leaving  the  description  of  the  central — true  lake-bottom — 
portion  of  the  area  to  a  later  section,  an  explanation  of  the 
above  phenomena,  together  with  further  evidence  of  a  convincing 
nature  will  now  be  given.  To  anyone  versed  in  geology,  the 
thirty  mile  scarp  constituting  the  Cullarin  Range,  especially 
when  seen  from  an  elevation  at  some  distance,  is  inexplicable 
€xcept  as  a  fault  scarp.  Probably  the  scarp  originated  as  a 
succession  of  small  faults  along  the  same  plane,  extending  over  a 
considerable  period.  Indeed  the  northern  scarp  is  much  more 
-abrupt  (having  slopes  reaching  45°  in  places)  than  the  southern, 
Bungendore,  portion.  One  may  reasonably  suppose  that  the 
tectonic  action  was  more  vigorous  to  the  north  and  extended  to 
a  later  geological  period. 

The  geological  features  of  the  district  are  comparatively  simple. 
With  the  exception  of  a  few  square  miles  of  country  near 
Governor's  Hill  (east  of  the  Lake)  where  there  is  an  interesting 
series  of  eruptive  rocks,*  the  rock  consists  of  slates  and  phyllites 
having  a  fairly  uniform  strike  nearly  north  and  south,  the  dip 
being  nearly  vertical  sometimes  to  the  west  (Geary's  Gap  70°)  or 
again  to  the  east  (Native  Dog  63°).  On  the  eastern  shore  these 
rocks  outcrop  within  the  edge  of  the  Lake,  but  on  the  west  the 
slates  end  abruptly  at  the  silt.  A  certain  amount  of  talus  from  the 
hills  is  distributed  at  intervals  along  the  western  shore,  but  wells 


*  This  area  is  roughly  indicated  on  the  map  (Plate  vii.).  Rocks  of  two 
types  are  present.  Granite  of  a  somewhat  porphyritic  nature,  showing  some 
evidence  of  regional  metamorphism  in  the  shape  of  banded  felspars,  etc.,  is 
fringed  (see  fig.  1)  by  a  complex  series  of  basic  and  ultrabasic  rocks  ranging 
from  dolerite  to  picrites  and  serpentines.  The  latter  are  coated  with  con- 
centric layers  of  secondary  lime  (travertine).  This  outcrop  would  seem  to 
be  worthy  of  investigation  by  geologists  interested  in  differentiation. 


330 


THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 


dug  in  the  vicinity  seem  to  show  that  this  material  is  in  many 
cases  superficial,  and  lies  over  the  silt  and  clay  which  occupies 
the  lake  bed  (see  Section,  fig.  1). 


Govef-nor's 


Fig.  1. —Section  AB  (see  Plate  vii.)  showing  the  Senkungsfeld  and  Fault 
Plane,  also  the  High-level  Gravels  of  the  old  outlet. 

Assuming  a  strike  fmdt  as  being  the  cause  of  Lake  George,  let 
us  endeavour  to  reconstruct  the  topography  of  the  country  before 
the  faulting.  If  the  Lake  George  Basin  were  raised  some  300 
feet,  the  four  creeks  (Murray,  Taylor,  Deep  and  Turallo)  would 
evidently  unite  into  one  river,  which  would  flow  towards  the  west 
and  ultimatel}'  reach  the  Yass  River  above  Gundaroo.  Some 
trace  of  this  old  river  (which  we  ma}'-  conveniently  call  Lake 
George  River)  should  remain  in  the  form  of  an  old  valley,  which, 
owing  to  later  erosion  on  a  different  system  of  drainage,  should 
appear  much  like  a  ivater-gap.  In  addition,  it  is  nob  too  much 
to  expect  tiiat  some  of  the  old  river  boulders  shall  have  remained, 
no  longer  necessarily  in  the  lowest  portions  of  the  area  of  eleva- 
tion (since  the  latter  has  been  since  modified  by  later  stream- 
action).  If,  as  is  often  the  case,  the  fault  has  diminished  in 
extent  towards  its  extremities,  we  may  expect  that  some  (ante- 
cedent) river-systems  have  been  able  to  keep  their  old  path  in 
spite  of  tectonic  obstructions. 

All  these  phenomena  are  abundantly  shown  in  the  Lake  George 
area.  Ascending  the  steep  hill  face,  300  yards  north  .of  Grove 
Creek,  and  \h  miles  south  of  the  jjresent  lowest  point  of  the 
CuUarin  Range,  a  deposit  of  elevated  river-gravels  is  reached. 


BY  T.  GRIFFITH  TAYLOR. 


331 


section 
like  a 


About  500  yards  due  west  from  the  Lake  at  this  point  one 
reaches  the  top  of  the  ridge  and  arrives  at  a  cluster  of  mine- 
shafts  varying  in  depth  from  5  to  40  feet.  This  patch  of  gravel 
is  oval  in  shape,  with  the  long  axis  W.N.W.  and  half-a-mile 
long  (see  Plate  vii.).  The  shafts  have  been  abandoned  for 
several  years  and  do  not  seem  to  have  yielded  much  gold.  How- 
e\ev,  they  enabled  one  to  make  the  rough  geological 
shown  at  B,  fig.  2.  The  boulders  were  shaped  much 
potato  for  the  most  part,  and 
distributed  through  a  deep  red 
clay.  They  varied  in  size  from  a 
few  inches  to  2  feet  in  diameter. 
The  junction  of  the  boulders  and 
slates  was  marked  by  a  very  hard 
layer  of  pebbles  (3")  cemented  by 
a  ferruginous  material.  At  the 
centre  of  the  field,  pipeclay  was 
struck  at  lower  levels. 

Continuing  the  traverse  to- 
wards the  west  (see  Section, 
fig.l)  slates  and  quartz  reefs  were 
crossed.  Brooke's  Creek,  which 
flows  through  a  rather  narrow 
valley,  with  steep  bluffs  (evidence 
of  youth  and  uplift)  was  reached. 
This  creek,  which  had  a  fine  flow  of  water  (February,  1907), 
is  probably  an  old  tributary  of  the  "Lake  George  River," 
which  has  been  revived  by  the  slight  uplift  which  probably 
accompanied  the  senkuugsfeld.  Enquiring  for  elevated  gravels, 
I  was  informed  of  the  Diamond  Hill  Diggings,  which  lie 
half-a-mile  from  Brooke's  Creek  in  the  sharp  bend  it  makes 
to  the  west  (see  Plate  vii.).  Here  occurs  another  patch 
of  gravels,  practically  identical  in  form  with  that  at  Grove 
Creek,  with  the  same  direction,  W.N.W.  The  area  is  about  200  x 
100  yards,  and  the  lower  15  feet  of  the  deposit  (see  A,  fig.2)  consists 
of  a  laminated  pipeclay.     Here,  again,  the  boulders  consist  chiefly 


Fig.2.— Vertical  sections  in  alluvial 
shafts.  A.  Central  portion  of 
elevated  gravels;  Diamond  Hill. 
B.  Southern  margin  of  elevated 
gravels;  Grove  Creek. 


332  THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 

of  rounded  quartz.  Returning  to  the  lake-bed  itself,  just  at  the 
mouth  of  Grove  Creek,  a  well  has  been  sunk  thirty  feet  into  the 
silt.  The  dump  consists  largely  of  pipeclay  identical  in  appear- 
ance with  that  from  the  shafts  nea^dy  300  feet  higher  on  the 
elevated  alluvials.  I  was  informed  that  boulders  of  a  similar 
nature  to  those  found  at  Diamond  Hill  were  removed,  but  the 
clay  had  covered  over  the  early  dumpings. 

We  have  no  dat  ,ufficient  to  estimate  the  length  and  drop  of 
this  fault.  It  extends  for  more  than  twenty  miles  from  Collector 
to  Bungendore.  Beyor  '  the  latter,  as  the  Molonglo  has  cut 
through  the  scarp  (see  page  334),  the  fault  was  not  so  extensive,  or 
the  movement  may  have  developed  merely  as  a  fold.  It  is  a 
matter  of  great  difficulty  to  detect  Tertiary  foldings  superimposed 
on  Palaeozoic  anticlines,  but  the  river-development  would  seem  to 
suggest  that  such  faulting  or  folding  has  occurred  near  Molonglo. 
North  of  Molonglo  River  the  streams  flowing  from  the  west  are 
obsequent,  and  flow  to  the  lake  with  short  steep  beds  in  narrow 
gorges.  Here,  undoubtedl}^,  a  fault  on  a  large  scale  has  taken 
place,  and  totally  altered  t'le  drainage  system,  the  tributaries  of 
*'Lake  George  River"  being  hetrunked  much  as  are  those  flowing 
into  Port  Phillip  (Gregory). 

Since  the  river-gravels  at  Grove  Creek  are  ele\ated  270  feet 
above  the  lake-bed,  we  require  a  minimum  dvo^  of  270  feet.  The 
well  sunk  in  the  silt  adds  30  feet.  This  well  by  no  means  reached 
rock  bottom.  There  is  an  opinion,  shared  by  the  expert  local 
engineer,  Mr.  Glover,  that  the  silt  is  100  or  200  feet  deep  on  the 
western  shore  of  the  Lake.  The  lesser  figure  agrees  closely  with 
the  slope  of  the  line  joining  the  Grove  Creek  and  Diamond  Hill 
gravels  (see  Fig.l).  Hence  it  seems  legitimate  to  place  the 
fault  drop  at  about  370  feet  at  this  locality  (Geary's  Gap). 

Comparing  this  with  the  Kurrajong  Fault,  it  would  appear  to 
be  on  a  somewhat  similar  scale.  The  fault,  as  described  by 
Professor  David,*  extends  about  twenty  miles,  and  has  a  drop  of 

*  "  An  important  Geological  Fault  at  Kurrajong  Heights,  N.  S.  Wales." 
Journ.  Proe.  Koy.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1902. 


BY  T.  GRIFFITH  TAYLOR. 


333 


about  4*23  feet  at  tlie  maximum  point.  It  has  not,  however,  led 
to  the  formation  of  any  area  of  internal  drainage  as  is  the  case  at 
Lake  George. 

iv.  Topographical  Changes  since  the  Faulting. 
These  fall  into  two  classes,  (a)  those  due  to  erosion,  (b)  those 
due  to  aggradation.  The 
former  have  affected  the 
positive  forms  (hills,  &c.); 
while  the  latter  have  tended 
to  fill  up  the  negative  land 
forms,  in  this  case  the  bed 
of  Lake  George.  The  more 
or  less  sharp  edge  left  at 
the  close  of  the  faulting  has 
been  gnawed  away;  but,  as 
noted     previously,      many 


slopes  of  45* 


itill  be 


obtained  at  the  northern 
end.  This  is  a  remarkably 
steep  face  for  a  continuous 
range,  and  points  to  the  com- 
paratively recent  character 
of  the  subsidence.  It  may 
be  estimated  that  a  wedge- 
shaped  slice  of  slate  some 
twenty  miles  long,  with  a 
base  about  300  yards  wide, 
and  a  depth  of  500  feet  has 
been  removed  by  erosion  of 
the  scarp.  This  wedge  of 
eroded  material  might  be 
made  the  basis  of  a  calcu-  pjg^  3._Map  showing  evolution  of  the 
lation  as  to  the  age  of  the  river-system  in  the  Lake  George  area, 

fault,    but    a    much    more  For  topographical  names,  see  text  and 

promising  method  is  ampli-  Plate  vii.     The  area   of    subsidence  is 

fied  in  a  later  section  (vi.). 


334  THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 

The  river-courses  have  been  largely  influenced  by  the  fault. 
The  Molonglo  River  being  situated  toward  the  southern  extremity 
of  the  fault  plane — where  the  latter  was  probably  of  much 
smaller  dimensions,  possibly  only  a  fold — has  defied  the  tectonic 
changes  to  alter  its  course,  and  it  has  eroded  a  deep  gorge  in  the 
"  uplift "  side  of  the  fault,  and,  its  course  being  independent  of 
present  land  contours,  the  stream  is  of  the  antecedent  type  (see 

rig.3). 

The  small  streams  running  down  the  face  of  the  fault 
are  typically  obsequent,  since  they  flow  directly  against  the  main 
slope  of  the  country  (which  normally  falls  to  the  west).  Grove 
Creek,  Geary's  Creek,  &c.,  are  of  this  character.  As  pointed  out 
previously,  the  small  rivers  of  the  east  coast  of  the  Lake  (Murray, 
Taylor,  Deep  Creek,  ttc.)  were  originally  united,  but  their  lower 
portions  are  now  buried  deep  in  the  silt,  and  therefore  they 
belong  to  the  betrunked  class  of  rivers.  Brooke's  Creek  for 
much  of  its  path  flows  through  fairly  deep  gorges.  This  tends  to 
support  the  theory  that  the  western  side  of  the  fault  has  partici- 
pated .slightly  in  the  earth-movements.  Not  unusually  the  scarp 
of  a  large  fault  has  been  elevated  absolutely  as  well  as  relatively, 
and  this  would  appear  to  be  the  case  at  Lake  George.  If  so, 
then  Brooke's  Creek  is  a  revived  river.  Yass  River,  flowing 
normally  to  the  west,  maybe  taken  as  a  specimen  of  a  conseq^ient 
river.  To  the  north  of  the  Lake,  the  Currawang  Creek  flows 
nortii-west  for  most  of  its  course,  and  then  bends  back  to  the 
south.  It  is  extremely  probable  that  this  creek  originally 
formed  portion  of  the  Wollondilly  system,  but,  owing  to  the 
depression  of  Lake  George,  it  has  been  captured  by  the  Windera- 
deen  Creek,  and  now  runs  into  Lake  George.  As  this  deviation 
is  due  to  causes  that  acted  subsequently  to  tiie  establishment  of 
the  main  slope,  this  river  may  be  said  to  be  subsequent.  In  brief, 
in  this  comparatively  small  area  we  have  examples  of  the  six 
main  river-types,  consequent  {Yass),  obsequent  {Grove  Creek), 
subsequent  {Currawang),  betrunked  {Murray,  d'c.),,  revived 
{Brooke's),  and  antecedent  {Molonglo).  Finally,  the  "  Lake 
George  "  is  a  splendid  example  of  what  has  been  termed  a  daad 
river. 


BY  T.   GRIFFITH  TAYLOR.  335 

Reverting  at  this  somewhat  late  stage  to  the  condition  of  the 
actual  bed  of  the  Lake,  the  latter  is  at  present  in  a  very 
favourable  state  for  examination,  since — with  the  exception  of 
the  small  patch  in  the  S.E.  corner  shown  in  Plate  vii. — it  is  now 
(Februar}^,  1907)  absolutely  dry.  The  bed  therefore  presents  a 
unique  appearance.  A  level  plain,  apparently  as  flat  as  a  billiard 
table,  extends  for  over  15  miles,  unrelieved  by  any  islets  or 
undulations  as  is  the  case  with  Lake  Bathurst.  Indeed,  the 
plain  extends  for  over  30  miles  without  obstruction,  which  fact 
may  have  helped  to  determine  the  choice  of  Bungendore  for  the 
primary  base-line  in  New  South  Wales.  Mr.  Glover*  has  carried 
out  levelling  operations,  and  finds  the  south-central  portion  to 
have  a  fall  of  4  feet  in  the  mile,  while  to  the  north  the  slope  is 
less  than  2  feet  to  the  mile.- 

SSuch  a  dead  level  seems  to  corroborate  the  theory  that  Lake 
George  never  had  an  outlet  since  it  was  first  formed.  No 
evidence  of  any  flood  more  than  30  feet  deep  can  be  traced  as 
having  occurred  for  many  hundred  years,  while  nearly  200  feet 
are  necessary  to  provide  an  outlet  north,  west  or  south. 
Probably  smce  its  inception  the  Lake  has  been  receiving  silt 
which  has  gradually  tilled  up  its  bed,  and  covered  over  all  ancient 
irregularities.  Near  Grove  Creek  there  is  an  isolated  ridge  of 
angular  quartz  grit  about  150  feet  long,  50  wide,  and  5  feet  high. 
This  may  represent  a  sort  of  Nunatak  (to  use  a  glacial  term) 
projecting  above  the  silt.  It  constitutes  practicall)'  the  only 
outcrop  on  the  western  shore.  At  either  end  of  the  Lake — near 
Murray's  Lagoon  and  near  Bungemlore — there  are  extensive 
grcivel  deposits.  The  former  extends  for  more  than  a  mile  around 
the  southern  border  of  Murray's  Lagoon  (see  Plate. vii.}.  It 
reminds  one  irresistibly  of  the  clinker  or  hurricane  banks  of  coral 
shingle  on  the  Barrier  Reef.     There  is  the  same  steep  slope  to 

*  "  Notes  upon  Floods  in  Lake  George,"  by  H.  C.  Russell,  B.A.,  F.R.S., 
etc.,  Journ.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  Dec,  1886.  In  this  paper  a  full 
account  of  the  levelling  and  contours  of  the  Lake  is  given,  together  with  the 
history  of  the  Lake  till  1886. 


336  THE  LAKE  GEOKGK   SENKUNGSFELD, 

the  water's  edge,  30  feet  high,  at  an  angle  of  26'^.  The  same 
tongues  project  out  behind  to  the  leeward  side  (indicated  in 
Plate  vii.).  Probably  a  like  origin  may  be  assigned  to  these 
gravel-banks.  They  are  due,  I  think,  to  the  action  of  the  storms 
on  the  lake  when  the  latter  is  full.  The  winds  are  confined  by 
the  gigantic  wall  of  the  fault  scarp,  and  rush  along  the  latter, 
driving  forward  the  angular  talus  with  which  the  scarp  is  littered. 
Gradually  the  angular  fragments  are  rounded  and  collect  at 
the  ends  of  the  Lake,  in  much  the  same  way  as  on  a  coral  reef 
the  clinker  gradually  accumulates  towards  the  lee  side  of  such 

reef. 

V.  Economic  Aspect  of  the  Senkungsfeld. 

Little  attention  has  hitherto  been  paid  in  Australia  to  the 
relation  between  physiography  and  economics,  which  fact  may 
justify  the  following  brief  digression.  In  the  first  place  mention 
may  be  made  of  the  gold  alluvial  rendered  available  for  human 
industry  by  the  deviation  of  water  from  the  old  Lake  George 
River.  In  1860  there  was  a  gold  rush  to  Diamond  Hill,  then 
called  the  Brooke's  Creek  Gold  Rush.  From  the  numerous  shafts 
sunk,  as  well  as  from  the  recollections  of  old  residents,  this  would 
appear  to  have  been  fairly  successful.  Several  years  ago,  a  few 
diamonds  were  washed  out  of  this  same  gravel,  and  hence  the 
change  of  name.  Grove  Creek  gravels  do  not  seem  to  have  been 
payable.  The  miners  experienced  great  difficulty  in  cutting 
througli  the  layer  of  ferruginous  cement  at  the  bottom  of  the 
gravels,  and  most  of  the  claims  were  therefore  abandoned.  Now 
the  old  wives  of  the  district  use  the  pipeclay  for  whitening  their 
hearths,  without  experiencing  much  curiosity  as  to  how  it  got 
there. 

The  graph  of  Lake-variation  is  inserted  {vide  tig. 4)  to  show 
the  periods  when  Lake  George  really  was  a  lake.  Such  were  the 
years  1816-1830,  1852,  1864,  1874-1900.  Since  1900  the  Lake  has 
been  shrinking,  and  was  practically  dry  in  1905.  A  local  flood 
has  practically  no  effect  on  the  Lake.  The  dry  silt  acts  as  a  huge 
sponge,  and  absorbs  a  covering  of  several  inches  of  water,  brought 
down  by  Deep  Creek  or  some  other  feeder,  in  the  course  of  a 


I 


BY  T.   GRIFFITH  TAYLOR. 


337 


night.     The  conditions  are  eminently  favourable  for  great  evapora- 
tion.    The  wind  will  drive  a  layer  of  water  several  miles  from 


Russell:     floiy.  £o 


— Glover  'o/ — > 


Fig. 4. — Variations  in  the  level  of  Lake  George,  1815-1907. 

the  actual  lowest  spot,  and  before  it  can  flow  back  the  sun's  heat 
has  reclaimed  it  for  the  atmosphere. 

The  Lake-bottom  is  now  covered  with  a  wiry  form  of  grass, 
with  a  marsh-loving  buttercup,  and  with  several  plants  allied  to 
the  saltbush.  These  latter  flourish  in  the  saline  soil,  and  are 
much  relished  by  sheep  after  they  become  used  to  the  new  food. 
The  saline  flora  is  a  new  importation,  I  was  assured.  The  Lake 
is  now  portioned  into  grazing  leases,  and  fences  run  nearly  across 
the  bed.  The  local  sheep-breeders  for  the  most  part  much  prefer 
the  Lake  dry,  since  many  extra  sheep  can  be  carried  on  their 
runs.  Water  of  a  very  pure  type  can  be  obtained  almost  an}-- 
where  along  the  western  shore,  at  a  depth  of  12  to  30  feet,  and 
several  wind-mills  are  now  engaged  in  raising  it  to  elevated  tanks 
for  distribution.  At  the  same  time  the  neglected  boathouses, 
jetties,  and  decaying  boats  and  launches  which  are  to  be  seen 
near  Bungendore,  recall  the  good  old  times  when  the  Lake 
teemed  with  Murray  cod,  to  be  replaced  later  by  carp;  and  when 
black  duck  and  other  game  were  in  the  habit  of  frequenting  the 
huge  sheet  of  water. 

Lately  arrived  foreigners,  in  the  shape  of  foxes  and  rabbits, 
are  hardly  calculated  to  equal  the  old  fauna  from  an  economic 
point  of  view. 

From  1828  to  1864,  the  Lake  was  only  for  one  year  (1852) 
more  than  ten  feet  deep,  so  that  the  indications  seem  to  point 
rather  to  a  continuance  of  the  present  arid  conditions,  so  far  as 
one  is  able  to  judge  from  records  not  yet  extending  over  a  century. 


338 


THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 


The  graph  (fig.  4)  is  drawn  from  that  given  in  Russell's  paper 
(quoted  above),  and  brought  up  to  date  from  information  given 
me  by  Mr.  Glover,  who  keeps  an  official  record  of  the  meteorology 
of  Lake  George. 

vi.  Age  of  the  Subsidence. 

Mr.  Russell  made  use  of  Lake  George  as  a  gigantic  rain-gauge, 
and,  from  the  data  he  obtained,  he  put  forward  some  ver}'  inter- 
esting theories  as  to  weather  cj'-cles  and  their  causes.  It  has 
occurred  to  me  that  Lake  George  may  serve  as  a  geological 
chronometer  for  much  the  same  reason,  that  it  "  keeps  all  it  gets," 
whether  water  or  silt.  The  foregoing  sections  will  demonstrate 
the  reasonability  of  stating  that  Lake  George  probably  never  had 
an  outlet.  Hence  the  silt  deposited  in  Lake  George  should  give 
us  some  idea  of  the  time  which  has  elapsed  since  the  extensive 
faulting  instanced  took  place. 

All  the  data  made  use  of  are  open  to  criticism,  but  it  is  hoped 
that  the  method  used  may  be  of  interest,  and  that  the  result  may 
represent  a  period  of  years  of  the  right  order  if  not  correct  to  a 
few  hundred  units. 

From  Russell's  textbook  on  Rivers*  I  obtained  the  following 
figures  for  the  silt-deposits  of  the  River  Po  in  North  Italy;  and 
corresponding  numbers  for  Lake  George  are  tabulated  alongside. 

Table  i. 


A. 
B. 

C. 

D. 

Area  of  Basin 

Rainfall  (H.K. Mill)     ... 

■o  ^-     silt 

Eatio  . — - —       

water 

Silt  deposited  per  annum 

River  Po. 

Lake  George. 

30,000  sq.  m. 
30  inches  p. a. 

67  million  tons. 

300  sq.  m. 
25  inches. 

^000 

3,400  mill.  tons. 
X  years. 

A.  (Area)  gives  the  amount  of  material  to  be  acted  on. 

B.  (Rainfall)  gives  the  effective  eroding  agent. 

*  River-Development.    By  I.  C.  Russell,  1898,  pp.  74-5. 


BY  T.  GRIFFITH  TAYLOR.  339 

C.  (Ratio  silt/water)  varies  with  the  different  rivers  from  1  in  2000  to  1  in 
^00.  The  former  value  would  double  the  period  in  years,  and  is  perhaps 
more  nearly  correct  as  the  Po  drains  a  glaciated  country  covered  with  debris. 

D,  The  silt  in  Lake  George  was  supposed  to  occupy  a  wedge  10  miles  long, 
5  miles  wide,  with  base  100  feet  deep.  (This  is  probably  too  small  a  bulk). 
This  gives  a  volume  of  68,500  million  cubic  feet.  Since  a  cubic  foot  of  sand 
weighs  about  100  lbs.,  this  represents  a  weight  of  3,400  million  tons  as 
deposited  during  a  period  of  x  years. 

As  the  area  in  question  is  yj^  ^^  that  drained  b}'  the  river 
Po,  and  the  rainfall  and  silt-carrying  power  less  for  Lake  George, 

,  ,             ,          67,000,000  X  25  x  900 
we  may  roughly  put  down  IQQ  x  30  x  '^000 —   ^^  amount 

deposited  in  Lake  George  in  one  year  ( =  250,000  tons). 

XT            Q^nn        -ir         ^             -ii    u      j          -^    i    •       3,400,000,000 
Hence  3,400  million  tons  will  be  deposited   in         ^      '- 

years,  or  say  roughly  14,000  years;  a  result  which  is  quite  as 
near  the  truth  as  could  be  expected.  No  account  has  been  taken 
of  the  velocity-factor,  which  is  very  important  in  connection  with 
silt-carriage.  If  the  velocity  were  lower  than  the  mean  velocity 
of  the  Po,  it  would  increase  the  period.  If  the  rainfall,  as  is 
probable,  were  heavier  in  prehistoric  times  in  Australia,  it  would 
decrease  the  period.  However,  one  may  perhaps  be  permitted  to 
set  down  this  huge  senkungsfeld  as  having  taken  place  less  tiian 
twenty  thousand  years  ago. 

vii.  Summary. 

Lake  George,  the  largest  lake  in  New  South  Wales,  occupies 
an  area  of  subsidence  (senkungsfeld)  bounded  on  the  west  by  a 
fault  plane  of  about  400  feet  drop.  The  fault  is  approximately 
parallel  to  the  strike  of  the  Palaeozoic  slates  and  phyllites.  It 
runs  north  and  south  for  thirty  miles,  and  constitutes  the  CuUarin 
Range.  The  violent  tectonic  changes  have  entirely  altered  the 
drainage-system  of  the  district.  The  Molonglo  flows  through  a 
gorge  it  has  cut  in  the  CuUarin  Range,  and  is  clearly  an  antecedent 
river.  The  feeders  of  Lake  George  once  formed  part  of  the  Yass 
River  system.  Their  lower  portions  are  buried  under  the  silt  of 
Lake  George,    and    they   thus   fall  into   the   class  of  betrunked 


340  THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 

rivers.  The  old  outlet  (Oid  Lake  George  River)  can  be  traced 
as  a  series  of  elevated  river-gravels  for  three  miles  towards  the 
Yass  River.  The  boulders,  some  over  two  feet  in  length,  cap 
hills  nearly  300  feet  above  the  present  level  of  the  lake-bed.  The 
economic  aspects  of  the  senkungsfeld  in  connection  with  elevated 
auriferous  alluvials,  and  the  pastoral  claims  on  the  lake-bed  are 
traced  out. 

From  a  comparison  with  the  known  silt-forming  capacity  of 
the  basin  of  the  River  Po  in  Italy,  an  attempt  is  made  to  give  a 
time-value  to  the  silt-contents  of  Lake  George.  A  period  of  less 
than  twenty  thousand  years  is  shown  to  be  sufficient  to  fill  up 
tlie  lake  basin  to  its  present  silt-level  under  modern  conditions. 
Hence  the  fault  and  senkungsfeld  may  be  referred  to  a  period 
contemporaneous  with  the  close  of  the  Great  Ice  Age  in  the 
northern  hemisphere,  and  probably  to  the  period  during  which 
the  Blue  Mountain  folding  at  Lapstone  Hill  took  place  in  New 
South  Wales. 

Part  ii.     LakeBathurst. 
1.  General  Physiography. 

This  Lake  lies  about  twelve  miles  to  the  east  of  Lake  George, 
on  the  further  side  of  the  Cooma  railway  line,  which  approaches 
within  a  mile  of  the  lake  near  Tarago  (see  fig.  5  and  stereogram, 
Plate  viii.).  It  is  roughly  triangular  in  outline,  with  the  base  to 
the  east.  Quartzite  hills  about  200  feet  high  border  the  east  and 
south-west  sides,  while  an  area  of  granite  extends  into  the  lake- 
bed  on  the  north-west,  forming  a  long  reef  connecting  Rabbit 
Island  to  the  bluffs  of  the  surrounding  hills. 

At  each  corner  is  an  area  of  low-lying  land.  To  the  north-east 
a  low  bank  separates  the  lake  from  the  Bonnie  Doon  Morass. 
At  periods  of  flood  the  two  areas  form  one  sheet  of  water.  The 
southern  corner  receives  the  main  feeder  of  the  lake,  known 
locally  as  Chain  o'  Ponds.  Here  is  a  considerable  extent  of 
gravels.  At  the  western  corner  of  the  lake  the  gap  between  the 
hills  is  filled  in  with  another  extensive  deposit  of  gravels  which 
has  been  tapped  by  a  railway  siding  for  ballast  purposes.     When 


BY  T.  GRIFFITH  TAYLOR. 


341 


full,  the  Lake  has  an  area  of  five  square  miles,  and  is  thus  very- 
much  smaller  than  Lake  George. 


■:.:.:::::::::-:>^^, 


Fig.  5. — Map  of  Lake  Bathurst  showing  its  physiography 
(Feb.,  1907).  The  boundary  between  the  granite  and  quartzite 
is  indicated  approximately. 

During  February,  1907,  I  made  a  careful  survey  of  the  Lake, 
for  the  purpose  of  determining  the  area  covered  by  water,  and 
the  character  of  the  dam  to  which  the  lake  owed  its  origin. 

Leaving  the  road  and  approaching  the  Lake  from  the  south,  one 
reached  a  zone  of  coarse  quartzose  sand  with  subangular  frag- 
ments of  quartzite,  evidently  derived  from  the  neighbouring  hills. 
Then  came  a  zone  of  grey  sticky  mud  about  200  yards  wide,  and 
finally  the  water  was  reached.  This  was  very  brackish  and  covered 
with  a  slight  scum.  The  mud  gave  off  a  musty  smell,  recalling 
that  of  certain  guano  reefs,  and  was  possibly  due  to  the  same 
cause,  since  a  flock  of  gulls  were  swimming  in  the  northern 
portion  of  the  lake.  Journeying  eastward  across  the  Chain  o' 
25 


342  THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 

Ponds,  one  traversed  a  sandy  mud  with  occasional  Hat-growing, 
fleshy  weeds.  The  coarse  grass  at  the  foot  of  Lake  Bathurst 
Trig.  Station  was  littered  with  dead  tortoises.  One  passed  three 
or  four  every  yard,  mostly  about  a  foot  long.  These  reptiles 
were  driven  out  of  the  lake  in  the  autumn  of  1906  by  the  increas- 
ing salinity,  and  as  there  is  no  permanent  water  on  the  eastern 
shore,  perished.  In  some  such  manner,  no  doubt,  many  of  the 
huge  deposits  of  vertebrates  found  fossil  in  various  parts  of  the 
world  took  their  origin.  From  the  Trig.  Station  a  fine  view  of 
the  lake  basin  and  surroundings  is  obtainable  (fig.T).  Rabbit 
Island  is  a  prominent  feature,  large  wattle-trees  growing  amid 
the  huge  granite  blocks  which  have  determined  the  island. 
The  well-defined  gap  to  the  south-west  at  the  gravel-siding 
shows  up  as  the  lowest  portion  of  the  lip  of  the  basin. 

Continuing  along  the  north-east  shore,  granite  outcrops  '  are 
met  with,  their  position  being  shown  on  the  map.  At  this 
northern  end  is  the  deepest  part  of  the  Lake,  about  one  foot  deep 
in  February,  1907.  Prominent  blujffs  of  granite  occur  on  the 
north-west  shore.  Completing  the  traverse  by  way  of  Rabbit 
Island  (which  is  now  merely  a  mound  in  a  thinly  grassed  paddock), 
a  series  of  detrital  fans  is  crossed.  These  bear  witness  to  the 
vigour  of  the  torrents  rushing  down  the  liillsides,  and  have  a 
bearing  on  the  origin  of  the  Lake. 

Not  man}'  years  ago  sculling  matches  took  place  on  tlie  Lake 
between  Rabbit  Island  and  the  gravel-siding,  which  latter  was 
also  used  to  convey  passengers  to  the  recreation  ground  on  the 
edge  of  the  lake.  With  the  dr^-ing  of  the  lake,  the  attraction 
of  the  recreation  ground  has  passed;  and  the  pavilion,  a  prominent 
and  useful  landmark,  has  now  degenerated  into  a  stable. 

Referring  to  the  section  across  Lake  Bathurst  (fig. 6),  the 
geological  features  near  the  gravel-siding  can  be  made  out. 
About  half-a-mile  to  the  west  of  the  lake,  the  Mulwaree  Creek 
flows  to  join  the  WoUondilly-Hawkesbury  system  at  Goulburn. 
This  stream  rises  about  ten  miles  south  of  the  Lake,  and  drains  a 
fairly  large  basin.  Between  Tarago  and  the  Lake-outlet,  the 
valley  contracts  so  that  the  stream  flows  at  the  foot  of  rather 


BY  T.   GRIFFITH  TAYLOR. 


343 


steep  quartzite  ridges,  about  300  feet  high.      These  ridges  are 
covered  with  a  loose  talus  which  is  continually  dropping  into  the 


L.      Scales 

I"  * 


Fig. 6. — Section  A  B  (see  fig. 4)  across  Lake  Bathurst, 
showing  the  gravel-dam  across  the  outlet  and  the  talus 
occupying  the  Mulwaree  Valley. 

creek.      In  the  railway  cuttings  30  feet  or  more  of  this  talus 
(mingled  with  soil)  are  evident. 

The  explanation  of  the  lake-origin  which  I  venture  to  put 
forward  is  intimately  connected  with  this  abundance  of  talus  in 
the  narrow  valley  of  the  Mulwaree. 


ChamSPonds        MulwcreaR.  LoKj^deef^C 

SOUTH         Toraao  ,         Grovel         ""^  Robb.Ms.       Gran.reRT 


Fig.  7. — Sketch  view  of  Lake  Bathurst  from  the  top  of  the  Trig.  Station 
on  the  eastern  shore.  The  black  area  indicates  the  extent  of  water  in 
February,  1907.  j  jWhen  filled,  the  Lake  covers  the  whole  fiat  expanse. 

ii.  Origin  of  Lake  Bathurst. 

In  earlier  geological  periods,  possibly  when  a  somewhat  greater 

rainfall  obtained  in   New  South   Wales,   the   Mulwaree   Creek 

received  a  pair  of  tributaries  from  the  east.     One  of  these  drained 

the  valley  now  occupied  by  the  Bonnie  Doon  Lagoon  (N.E.),  and 


344  THE  LAKE  GEORGE  SENKUNGSFELD, 

the  other  held  much  the  same  position  as  the  Chain  o'  Ponds 
(S.E.)does  now.  These  creeks  crossed  the  bed  of  Lake  Bathurst, 
and  entered  Mulwaree  Creek  near  the  gravel-siding. 

During  periods  of  drought,  these  lesser  lateral  streams  would 
probably  cease  flowing,  and  their  entrance  into  the  main  creek, 
not  being  scoured  by  any  current,  would  very  readily  be  choked 
by  material  washed  down  by  the  parent  stream  and  derived  from 
hills  in  the  immediate  vicinity. 

Thus  would  arise  a  shallow  lake  which,  given  periods  of 
increasing  aridity,  would  serve  as  a  settling  ground  for  the  water 
poured  in  by  the  two  small  tributaries  postulated  above. 

Talus  and  pebbles  brought  down  into  this  youthful  lake  would 
be  rolled  about  by  the  storms  (which  are  still  a  feature  of  the 
lake  when  flooded)  and  piled  in  the  angles,  giving  rise  to  the 
gravel  mentioned  as  occupying  those  positions.  Each  succeeding 
period  of  flood  would  but  serve  to  isolate  the  lake  more  and 
more,  by  enabling  further  material  to  be  piled  on  the  barrier, 
Avhich  would  also  be  strengthened  by  the  talus  distributed  by  the 
Mulwaree  Creek  on  the  outer  face  of  the  dam."^ 

Given  conditions  of  increasing  aridity,  a  main  stream  flowing 
through  a  narrow  talus-covered  gorge,  and  a  lateral  valley  of 
circumscribed  cross-section  receiving  the  drainage  of  a  much 
smaller  area;  these,  I  believe,  constitute  the  factors  which  have 
led  to  the  isolation  of  Lake  Bathurst. 

In  conclusion,  a  few  dates  in  connection  with  Lake  Bathurst 
may  be  noted. 

1844.  Lake  Bathurst  dry. 

1870-8.  A  "  banker,"  as  in  Lake  George. 

1873.  The  Lake  overflowed  into  the  Mulwaree  over  the  gravel- 
siding. 

1890.  The  lake  rose  to  the  lower  rails  of  the  siding.  Within  a 
few  feet  of  overflow.  Goulburn  residents  anxious  as  to 
danger  of  flood  if  the  gravel-dam  burst. 

*  Readers  of  the  National  Geographic  Magazine  will  recall  the  origin  of 
the  Salton  Sink  in  California,  due  to  damming  up  of  a  lateral  valley  by  silt 
carried  down  by  the  Colorado  River. 


I 


BY  T.  GRIFFITH  TAYLOR.  345 

1907.  One-quarter  of  the  bed  covered,  not  more  than  one  foot 
deep  in  the  larger  area. 

From  these  dates  one  can  see  that  the  floods  in  Lakes  George 
and  Bathurst  agree  sufficiently  closely.  Their  modes  of  origin 
are,  however,  entirely  dissimilar,  Lake  Bathurst  being  merely  a 
dammed-up  river  valley,  while  Lake  George  is  an  example  of  a 
huge  senkuugsfeld  and  fault-scarp  which  has  absolutely  altered 
all  the  original  drainage-scheme  of  the  area  comprised  in  its 
basin. 

In  conclusion,  I  desire  to  thank  Messrs.  J.  Barrett  (Tarago), 
Gill  (Winderadeen),  Glover  (Bungendore),  and  Donelly  (Douglas) 
for  much  help  received  while  carrying  out  my  investigations  on 
Lakes  Bathurst  and  George. 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES. 

Plate  vii. 

Map  of  the  Lake  George  "  Senkungsfeld  "  and  Fault  Scarp  (Cullarin  Range). 
The  granite  area  is  only  approximate.  The  high-level  gravels 
(making  the  old  outlet)  are  indicated  to  scale  as  black  oval  patches. 
The  extent  of  water  in  February,  1907,  is  shown  by  the  hatched 
area  on  the  east  of  the  lake, 

Plate  viii. 

Stereogram  of  Lake  George  showing  the  area  of  internal  drainage.  The 
high-level  gravels,  south  of  Geary's  Gap,  are  marked.  The 
antecedent  valley  of  the  Molonglo  appears  at  the  lower  end.  In 
the  north-east  the  main  features  of  the  Lake  Bathurst  area  are 
indicated. 

Plate  ix. 

A  view  of  the  Lake-bed  in  February,  1907.  The  Lake  has  been  practically 
dry  for  four  or  five  years,  and  is  sparsely  covered  with  a  nutritious 
salt-bush  on  which  the  sheep  may  be  observed  to  be  feeding. 

Plate  X. 

From  a  photo  taken  in  1884  when  the  Lake  was  nearly  full  of  water.  The 
irregular  eastern  coastline  culminating  in  Governor's  Hill  (to  the 
right)  appears  in  the  background. 


346 


STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY. 

No.  XV.  New  Genera  and  Species  of  CARABiDiE,  with  some 
Notes  on  Synonymy  (Clivinini,  Scaritini,  Cunipectini, 
Trigonotomini  and  Lebiini). 

By  Thomas  G.  Sloane. 

(Continued  from  Vol.  xxix.,  190 4,  p.538.) 

BIPARTITI. 

A  character  which  differentiates  the  two  tribes  of  the  Bipartiti 
(as  represented  in  the  Australian  fauna),  but  which  has  not  been 
noticed,  is  the  seta  near  the  tip  of  the  basal  joint  of  the  antennae 
on  the  upper  side;  this  is  present  in  all  Australian  species  of  the 
Clivinini,  but  absent  in  all  our  representatives  of  the  Scaritini. 
M}^  data  are  not  sufficient  to  enable  me  to  report  on  this  feature 
in  the  faunas  of  other  parts  of  the  world,  but  the  species  of 
Scarites  which  I  have  examined  have  had  no  trace  of  this  seta. 

Only  once  have  I  seen  a  member  of  the  tribe  Scaritini  in  which 
this  seta  was  present;  viz.,  one  specimen  of  Scdraphites  lenoius 
Westw.,  (a  species  in  which  the  seta  is  normally  wanting).  This 
seems  a  case  of  atavistic  reversion,  suggesting  that  the  Scaritini 
are  descended  from  a  stock  in  which  the  seta  was  present,  and  so 
strengthening  my  impression  that  the  present  day  Scaritini  are 
less  ancient  than  the  Clivinini. 

Tribe  CLIVININI. 

Genus  C  l  i  v  i  n  a. 

Clivina  banksi,  n.sp. 

Elongate.  Head  wide  before  the  eyes;  elytra  strongly  punctate- 
striate,  fourth  stria  joining  fifth  at  base,  interstices  greatly 
raised  near  base,  eighth  carinate  near  base,  narrow  and  carinate 
on  apical  curve;  anterior  tibiae  strongly  3-dentate,  paronychium 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  347 

long,  obtuse;  prosternal  episterna  almost  Isevigate  (hardly  substrio- 
late  and  subrugulose  anteriorly);  peduncle  with  lateral  cavities 
impunctate.  Black  (elytra  sometimes  with  an  obscure  ferruginous 
stripe  on  apical  curve  above  eighth  interstice),  legs  ferruginous. 

Head  smooth  between  facial  carinas,  a  few  punctures  on  each 
side  near  posterior  extremity  of  facial  carina;  clypeus  with  median 
part  lightly  emarginate,  strongly  bordered,  "wings"  not  divided 
from  median  part,  rounded  externally,  lightly  concave,  rugulose> 
supra-antennal  plates  wide,  rounded  and  bordered  externally, 
decidedly  divided  from  "wings"  of  clypeus.  Prothorax  convex, 
laevigate,  a  little  longer  than  broad  (255  x  2-4  mm.),  widest  a 
little  before  posterior  angles,  decidedly  narrowed  anteriorly 
(1-9  mm.);  anterior  line  deep;  median  line  well  marked.  Elytra 
convex,  widest  a  little  behind  middle  (5-3  x  2*7  mm.);  base  trun- 
cate; striae  very  deep  anteriorly,  shallow — but  marked — pos- 
teriorly; interstices  convex,  very  strongly  so  towards  base. 
Prosternum  with  intercoxal  part  wide  anteriorly,  transversely 
sulcate  on  posterior  declivity.     Length  10,  breadth  2*7  mm. 

Hab. — Q.:  Normanb}'-  River,  40  miles  south-west  from  Cook- 
town  (Sloane;  two  specimens  on  the  river-bank;  June,  1906); 
Cooktown  (Olive;  Coll.  Sloane). 

Though  so  closely  resembling  C.  australasice  Bohem.,  that  it 
might  be  taken  for  that  species  at  the  first  glance,  it  is  really  more 
allied  to  C.  leai  SI.,  from  which  it  is  at  once  differentiated  by  its 
much  larger  size,  elytra  not  with  the  whole  apical  fourth  reddish, 
etc.  From  C.  australasice  it  differs  (apart  from  its  less  opaque 
black  colour)  by  its  almost  smooth  prosternal  episterna;  peduncle 
with  lateral  cavities  impunctate;  anterior  tibiae  with  fourth 
(upper)  tooth  obsolete,  paronychium  longer,  obtuse  at  apex;  head 
smoother,  much  less  punctate  on  gulae;  elytra  with  interstices 
much  more  raised  near  base;  wide  basal  part  of  inflexed  margin 
without  a  longitudinal  punctate  stria,  etc. 

Clivina  planifrons,  n.sp. 

Convex,  parallel;  head  depressed,  clypeus  emarginate  as  in  C, 
australasice  (but  a  little  more  deeply  so);  elytra  with  fourth  stria 


348  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

joining  fifth  at  base ;  prosternum  as  in  C.  australasice  (but 
episterna  not  perceptibly  transversely  striolate);  anterior  femora 
short,  wide,  with  lower  side  rounded  and  bordered  on  posterior 
margin;  anterior  tibiae  strongly  4-dentate.  Head,  prothorax,  and 
anterior  legs  piceous-red ;  elytra  piceous-black ;  body  piceous 
beneath;  four  posterior  legs  testaceous. 

Head  with  vertex  and  front  flat,  this  depressed  area  extending 
on  each  side  to  eyes  and  backwards  in  a  curve  behind  level  of  eyes; 
front  without  the  usual  facial  carina  on  each  side  near  eyes. 
Prothorax  Isevigate,  convex,  quadrate  (2  2  x  2-25  mm.),  very  little 
narrowed  to  apex;  median  and  anterior  lines  well  marked. 
Elytra  a  little  wider  than  prothorax  (4-75  x  2-5  mm),  parallel  on 
sides,  widely  rounded  at  apex;  base  truncate;  striae  not  deep, 
punctulate,  seventh  not  interrupted  posteriorly;  interstices  lightly 
convex.     Length  6-5-8-5,  breadth  1  •75-2-5  mm. 

Hah. — Q.:  Brisbane  (Hacker;  Colls.  Hacker  and  Sloane). 

This  species  was  sent  to  me  by  Mr.  Henry  Hacker  ticketed 
'*  Brisbane."  It  is  allied  to  C.  cava  Putz.,  which  is  the  only 
Australian  species  with  which  it  can  be  confused,  but  it  differs 
from  C.  cava  by  colour;  head  more  depressed,  the  depressed  area 
occupying  all  the  space  between  the  eyes,  so  that  the  supraorbital 
setae  rise  under  its  lateral  edge,  and  the  facial  carinae  become 
altogether  lost  (in  C.  cava  the  facial  carinae  are  well  developed 
and  distinct). 

Clivina  hackeri,  n.sp. 

Robust,  oval;  head  small;  prothorax  subtrapezoid,  narrowed 
anteriorly ;  elytra  convex,  shortly  oval  ;  metasternum  small, 
hardly  more  than  half  the  length  of  posterior  cox^e  between  inter- 
mediate and  posterior  coxae;  peduncle  with  lateral  concavities 
small,  smooth;  legs  short,  stout,  anterior  tibiae  strongly  3-dentate 
with  a  slight  protuberance  above  upper  tooth. 

Head  as  in  C.  nyctosyloides  Putz.;  clypeus  with  median  part 
truncate,  the  "wings"  lightly  advanced  beyond  median  part, 
gently  oblique  on  inner  side;  mandibles  short,  stout;  labrum 
short,  7-setose.      Mentum  large;  lobes  wide,  obtuse,  oblique  on 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  349 

inner  side;  sinus  shallow;  a  very  wide,  prominent,  roundly  obtuse, 
median  process  in  sinus.  Antennae  stout;  second  joint  longer 
than  third;  joints  4-11  moniliform,  compressed.  Prothorax 
convex,  transverse  (2-8  x  3*5  mm.;,  widest  just  before  posterior 
angles,  greatly  narrowed  to  apex  (2-1  mm.);  sides  oblique;  apex 
emarginate;  anterior  angles  widely  obtuse,  subprominent;  pos- 
terior angles  obtuse  but  marked ;  basal  curve  short ;  border 
narrow,  entire  on  basal  curve;  anterior  line  well  marked  near 
anterior  margin;  median  line  distinct.  Elytra  short,  oval 
(6  X  4mm.),  very  convex,  deeply  but  roundly  declivous  to  peduncle; 
shoulders  quite  rounded  off;  striae  strongly  impressed,  finely 
punctate  at  bottom,  seventh  as  strongly  impressed  as  otliers  and 
continuous  to  apex;  interstices  convex,  first  with  a  very  short 
striole  at  base,  third  4-punctate,  eighth  entire,  wide  and  convex 
on  apical  curve;  lateral  channel  closely  catenulate  (with  punctate 
tubercles)  at  bottom.  Presternum  with  intercoxal  part  wide, 
shortly  channelled  between  coxae;  posterior  declivity  transversely 
impressed,  but  not  sulcate.  Tarsi  short,  anterior  with  first  joint 
as  long  as  four  succeeding  joints  together;  intermediate  tibiae 
stout,  incrassate,  outer  edge  denticulate,  external  spur  stout, 
long,  placed  a  little  above  apex,  another  short  spur  a  little  above 
it.      Length  11,  breadth  4  mm. 

Hah. — Q.:  Coen  (Colls.  Hacker  and  Sloane). 

A  very  distinct  species  without  any  close  relationship  to  any 
other  Australian  species.  Its  short  broad  form,  with  short  oval 
elytra  (not  truncate  at  base)  distinguish  it  from  all  our  species. 
It  is  one  of  a  few  species  with  short  metasternal  episterna; 
probably  it  may  be  placed  near  C.  nyctosy hides  Putz.,  which  it 
resembles  generally  in  form  of  head,  prothorax,  "and  peduncle, 
but  it  is  very  distinct  by  its  smaller  metasternum  with  shorter 
episterna;  elytra  not  truncate  on  base,  eighth  interstice  distinct 
from  seventh  and  hardly  reduced  in  width  near  apex.  It  has  the 
elytra  soldered  together  and  the  underwings  reduced  to  a  mere 
narrow  membrane,  characters  which  seem  to  differentiate  it 
from  all  other  species  of  the  genus.  Mr.  Henr}''  Hacker 
informed  me  that  he  obtained  only  three  specimens  one  morning 


350  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

(18th  Jan.,  1906)  after  rain,  crossing  a  track  in  open  forest  land; 
from  this  it  would  appear  that  it  is  not  a  riparian  species  like  the 
typical  species  of  Clivina. 

Tribe  SCARITINI. 

Genus  Scaraphites. 

ScARAPHiTES  HiRTiPES  Macleay. 

By  a  vexatious  error  in  my  Check-List  of  the  Australian 
Carabidse,  Pt.  i.  (1905),  Sc.  hirtipes  Macl.,  has  been  placed  as  a 
synonym  of  Sc.  latipennis  Macl.  The  differences  between  these 
species  and  their  synonymy  have  been  dealt  with  by  me  in  these 
Proceedings  (1905,  pp.  Ill  and  112),  and  I  still  hold  the  views 
there  expressed. 

Scaraphites  len^eus  Westwood. 

Since  dealing  with  Sc.  lenceus  Westwood,  in  these  Proceedings 
(1905,  p.  Ill),  I  have  received  from  Mr.  J.  A.  Kershaw  of 
Melbourne,  a  specimen  ticketed  Scaraphites  martini  Cast.,  which 
agrees  more  closely  with  Westwood's  figure  than  the  specimen  of 
Sc.  latipennis  Macl.,  which  I  formerly  identified  as  Sc.  lenceus, 
Mr.  Kershaw's  specimen  has  the  prothorax  with  the  sides  more 
strongly  sinuate  posteriori}^  and  the  basal  angles  far  more 
strongly  marked  than  in  Mr.  Lea's  specimen  (in  which  these 
features  are  feebly  developed);  thereby  showing  a  stronger 
resemblance  to  Westwood's  figure,  though  to  me  both  specimens 
seem  forms  of  one  species — this  suggests  that  Sc.  latipenyiis 
Macl.,  from  King  George's  Sound,  is  probably  a  slightly  differen- 
tiated form  or  variety  of  Sc.  lenceus,  the  typical  form  being  from 
the  West  Coast.  The  ticket  on  Mr.  Kershaw's  specimen  is  an 
old  one,  and  seems  to  offer  a  clue  to  the  identity  of  Sc.  martini 
Cast.,  with  Sc.  lenceus  Westw.,  rather  than  with  Sc.  silenus 
Westw.,  as  conjectured  by  me  (these  Proceedings,  1905,  p. 111). 

Genus  Euryscaphus. 

In  these  Proceedings  (1905,  p.  113)  I  have  said  that  the  type 
of  Euryscaphus  carhonarius  Cast.,   is    no   longer   in    existence. 


I 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOAN  E.  351 

Mr.  J.  A.  Kershaw  informs  me,  however,  that  there  is  a  specimen 
(which  1  must  have  overlooked)  in  the  Howitt  Collection — at 
present  in  his  charge — ticketed  Scaraphites  carhonarius  Cast. 
It  is  to  be  hoped  the  vexed  question  of  the  identity  of  this  species 
may  be  settled  authoritatively  sooner  or  later  by  an  examination 
of  the  type. 

Genus  Laccoscaphus. 

Laccoscaphus  quadriseriatus,  n.sp. 

Elliptical-oval,  robust,  convex;  head  with  two  supraorbital 
punctures  on  each  side;  each  elytron  with  four  rows  of  deep 
fovepe;  anterior  tibiae  3-dentate.  Black,  margin  of  prothorax  and 
elytra  and  bottoms  of  elytral  fovea?  cupreous. 

Head  transverse-quadrate  (4*9  mm  across  eyes);  frontal  sulci 
hardly  divergent  backwards,  connected  behind  by  a  rounded 
impression;  three  subequal  frontal  spaces  clearly  defined  from 
occiput;  eyes  small,  lightly  convex,  not  prominent.  Prothorax 
convex,  transverse  (4-25  x  6-3  mm.);  sides  subparallel,  rounded 
at  posterior  angles,  lightly  sinuate  on  each  side  of  the  wide  basal 
lobe;  anterior  angles  roundly  obtuse,  a  little  advanced  but  not 
prominent;  border  thick,  refiexed,  a  little  narrower  on  sides  than 
on  each  side  of  basal  curve,  not  refiexed  in  middle  of  basal  lobe; 
median  line  distinct;  a  transverse  line  defining  basal  area;  a  wide 
shallow  rounded  impression  before  each  side  of  basal  lobe;  four 
marginal  punctures  on  each  side,  anterior  puncture  just  behind 
anterior  angle.  Elytra  convex,  ovate  (10  x  6-3  mm.),  widest 
behind  middle,  a  little  narrowed  to  base;  sides  slightly  rounded; 
base  lightly  truncate-emarginate  behind  lobe  of  prothorax;  four 
rows  of  large  deep  fovete  on  each  elytron,  and  a  row  of  ocellate 
punctures  placed  in  foveiform  depressions  along  sides ;  border 
refiexed,  upturned  (but  roundly  obtuse)  at  humeral  angles. 
Length  18*5,  breadth  6-3  mm. 

Hah. — Australia  (type  in  Coll.  Deutsche  Entomologische 
National  Museum,  Berlin). 

In  these  Proceedings  (1905,  p.  116  )I  have  given  a  synoptic 
table  of  the  species  of  Laccosca^phns,  following  which  the  position 


352  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

of  L.  quadriseriatus  would  be  next  to  L.  foveigerus  Chaud.  The 
described  species  of  Laccoscaphus  with  four  rows  of  fovese  on 
each  elytron  and  the  lateral  ocellate  pores  placed  in  foveiform 
depressions  are  L.  foveigerus  Chaud.,  L.  quadriseriatus  Macl., 
L.  lacunosus  MacL,  and  L.  macleayi  SI.;  these  species  are  all  so 
closely  allied  to  one  another  that  it  seems  probable  they  are 
colour-varieties  of  one  variable  and  widely  distributed  species 
rather  than  distinct  species.  L.  quadriseriatus  differs  from  all  the 
species  mentioned  above  by  the  margins  of  the  pronotum  and 
elytra  and  the  bottoms  of  the  elytral  foveae  being  cupreous;  size 
larger;  form  more  convex;  pro  thorax  with  anterior  angles  more 
obtuse  and  less  prominent,  sides  more  decidedl}^  rounded  to 
anterior  angles,  base  less  strongly  sinuate  on  each  side — owing  to 
the  basal  lobe  being  less  developed;  elytra  more  convex,  with 
more  numerous  fovece  in  all  the  rows.  L.  quadriseriatus  is  the 
same  size  as  L.  spencei  Westw.,  from  which  it  differ.s  by  colour,  the 
presence  of  a  juxtasutural  row  of  foveae  on  the  elytra,  ifec.  A 
single  specimen  was  sent  to  me  by  Herr  Sigismund  Schenkling, 
ticketed   "  New   Holland ";    I   should   expect  its   habitat  to  be 

tropical  Australia. 

Genus  C  a  r  e  n  u  m  . 

Carenum  formosum,  n.sp. 
Elliptical-oval,  Isevigate;  head  convex,  frontal  sulci  parallel, 
suborbital  channel  single,  lower  edge  forming  a  ridge;  prothorax 
convex,  transverse,  lobate,  anterior  angles  strongly  advanced, 
lateral  margins  wide,  bipunctate;  elytra  ovate,  convex,  bipunctate 
towards  apex;  anterior  tibiae  3-dentate,  posterior  tibiae  slender. 
Head  black  with  a  faint  violaceous  tinge  posteriorly  above  and 
below;  prothorax  widely  margined  with  green  (including  anterior 
margin),  disc  deep  purple-black  ;  elytra  violet  with  green 
reflections,  becoming  green  near  margins;  inflexed  margin  of 
prothorax  and  elytra  green;  prosternum  black  with  episterna 
viridescent;  body  black;  mes-  and  metepisterna  and  ventral 
segments  laterally  viridescent;  legs,  antennae  and  palpi  black, 
antenn£e  on  sides  of  apical  joints  and  apex  of  palpi  reddish- 
piceous. 


f 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  353 

Head  transverse  (4*3  mm.  across  eyes);  anterior  margin  truncate 
between  intermediate  angles,  arcuate  outside  intermediate  angles; 
frontal  sulci  parallel,  not  deep;  preocular  sulcus  lightly  marked- 
preocular  process  small,  rounded;  eyes  reniform,  lightly  convex. 
Prothorax  transverse  (32  x  5*7  mm.),  much  wider  than  head, 
convex,  declivous  to  base  ;  sides  lightly  rounded  ;  posterior 
angles  rounded  off';  anterior  angles  strongly  advanced,  roundly 
obtuse;  basal  lobe  well  developed,  rounded;  a  strong  sinuosity  on 
each  side  of  basal  lobe;  border  widely  reflexed,  most  strongly  so 
at  posterior  angles;  marginal  channel  wide;  median  line  lightly 
marked.  Elytra  ovate  (7-7  x  5-5  mm.),  lightly  rounded  on  sides; 
base  obliquely  declivous,  punctate;  lateral  channel  wide;  border 
reflexed,  strongly  upturned  at  humeral  angles;  a  row  of  closely 
placed  ocellate  punctures  along  lateral  margins.  Prosternum 
with  intercoxal  part  lightly  and  widely  channelled,  truncate  at 
base;  two  marginal  punctures  on  each  side.  Legs  light;  anterior 
femora  not  swollen  in  middle;  anterior  tibiae  with  upper  external 
tooth  very  small,  surmounted  by  two  small  denticulations. 
Length  15-5,  breadth  5*7  mm. 

Hah. — N.W.Australia  :  Carnot  Bay  (type  Coll.  Sloane). 

I  owe  this  species  to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  C.  French;  it  belono-s 
to  the  C.  amaragduhmi  group  and  is  allied  to  C.  virescens  SI.,  but 
differs  by  smaller  size;  lighter  form;  eyes  more  convex,  more 
lightly  inclosed  in  smaller  orbits  posteriorly;  lateral  channel  much 
narrower  at  sinuosities  on  each  side  of  prothoracic  basal  lobe 
(border  not  reflexed  at  these  sinuosities);  elytra  narrower,  and 
less  rounded  on  sides,  disc  of  a  beautiful  metallic-blue  colour. 
In  general  appearance  it  closely  resembles  C.  froggatti  SI.,  but 
differs  decidedly  by  head  wider,  more  convex,  anterior  angles  less 
prominent,  anterior  margin  not  sloping  forward  on  each  side  to 
summit  of  intermediate  angles,  frontal  sulci  parallel,  ejes  less 
prominent;  prothorax  more  transverse;  elytral  margin  wider; 
prosternum  with  intercoxal  part  not  deeply  longitudinally 
channelled. 


354  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOxMOLOGY,  »V., 

Carenum  rutilans,  n.sp. 

Elongate-oval,  convex,  laevigate  ;  head  with  frontal  sulci 
strongly  divergent  posteriorly,  two  supraorbital  setigerous  punc- 
tures on  each  side;  pro  thorax  with  posterior  angles  rounded, 
base  lobate,  marginal  channel  narrow,  •2-punctate;  elytra  oval, 
2-punctate  on  apical  third;  anterior  tibiae  3-dentate.  Pronotum 
and  elytra  nitid-green  with  purple  tints  on  discal  parts  in  some 
lights;  inflexed  margins  of  elytra  green;  head  black,  occiput 
virescent  on  each  side  at  posterior  extremity  of  frontal  sulci, 
under-surface  with  purple  tints  behind  mentum ;  prosternum 
nigro-virescent;  body  black,  mes-  and  metepisterna  virescent; 
legs  black,  tarsi  and  an  tennse  piceous,  palpi  reddish-piceous. 

Head  large  (3 "5  mm.  across  eyes),  convex,  smooth;  anterior 
margin  with  intermediate  angles  small,  triangular,  arcuate  out- 
side intermediate  angles;  clypeus  truncate  and  declivous  between 
intermediate  angles;  frontal  sulci  deep,  strongly  divergent  and 
defining  lateral  frontal  spaces  posteriorly;  preocular  sulcus  short, 
distinct;  preocular  process,  small,  rounded  externally;  supra- 
orbital sulcus  not  extending  downwards  behind  eyes  to  join 
suborbital  channel;  eyes  convex,  prominent;  orbits  not  prominent 
behind  eyes.  Prothorax  not  much  wider  than  head  (■2'75  x  4mm.), 
evenly  convex,  roundly  and  strongly  declivous  to  base;  sides 
hardly  rounded  in  middle,  very  lightly  narrowed  to  anterior 
angles,  widely  and  evenly  rounded  posteriorly;  anterior  angles  a 
little  advanced,  obtuse;  basal  lobe  strong]}^  developed,  rounded; 
border  narrow^  reflexed,  sharply  sinuate  on  each  side  of  basal 
lobe,  thicker  on  basal  lobe;  marginal  channel  narrow,  a  little 
wider  round  posterior  angles;  median  line  narrow.  Elytra  oval 
(6"3  X  425  mm.),  convex,  evenly  rounded  on  sides;  base  strongly 
declivous  to  peduncle;  margin  explanate  at  apex;  border  roundly 
reflexed,  prominent  at  humeral  angles;  inflexed  maigin  wide, 
widely  vertical  at  apex;  a  row  of  closely  placed  ocellate  punctures 
along  sides;  basal  declivity  punctate.  Length  12-5,  breadth 
4-25  mm. 

Hah. — Central  Australia  :  Tennant's  Creek  (unique;  Coll. 
French). 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  355 

Belongs  to  the  C.  smaragdulum  group;  by  its  head  with  two 
supraorbital  punctures  it  shows  an  affinity  to  C.  odewahni  Cast., 
and  C.  distinctum  Macl.,  but  it  is  at  once  difterentiated  from 
these  species  by  the  prothorax  with  only  two  lateral  setse,  in  this 
resembling  C.  frougatti^  SI.,  to  which,  however,  it  has  no  close 
affinity,  differing  by  its  very  widely  securiform  apical  joint  of  the 
labial  palpi,  prothorax  with  marginal  channel  and  border  not 
wide,  &c. 

Carenum  morosum,  n.sp. 

Elongate-oval,  convex,  l?evigate;  head  with  one  supraorbital 
seta  on  each  side;  prothorax  transverse,  lateral  margins  without 
setigerous  punctures,  base  sinuately  subtruncate  without  median 
lobe;  elytra  cordate,  impunctate  on  disc  and  on  basal  declivity; 
anterior  tibiae  2-dentate,  intermediate  tibi?e  stout,  incrassate,  with 
a  well  marked  spiniform  spur  at  outer  apica  langle.      Black. 

Head  large,  convex  (6  mm.  across  eyes);  frontal  sulci  deep, 
subparallel,  reaching  back  as  far  as  base  of  eyes;  eyes  rather 
prominent,  strongly  inclosed  in  orbits  at  base.  Prothorax 
transverse  (5x7  mm.),  convex;  sides  lightly  rounded,  subparallel 
in  middle,  very  lightly  narrowed  to  anterior  angles,  these 
prominent,  obtuse,  more  strongly  narrowed  to  posterior  angles, 
these  rounded  but  marked;  border  strongly  reflexed,  narrow  on 
middle  of  sides,  much  wider  near  anterior  angles,  widelyexplanate 
at  posterior  angles,  widely  subsinu ate  on  each  side  of  base  behind 
posterior  angles,  narrowed  and  emarginate  on  middle  of  base; 
median  line  deeply  impressed;  a  well  marked  foveiform  impression 
on  each  side  of  base  about  half-way  between  posterior  and  median 
line.  Elytra  hardly  wider  than  prothorax  (9-6  x  7*2  mm.);  base 
widely  emarginate,  truncate;  sides  gently  narrowed  to  apex; 
border  reflexed,  strongly  so  towards  base,  upturned  at  humeral 
angles;  lateral  channel  wide  behind  humeral  angles;  lateral 
ocellate  punctures  widely  placed   (about   twelve  on  each  side). 

*  In  the  original  description  of  C.  froggatti  the  anterior  tibise  are  twice 
mentioned,  the  first  time  erroneously  as  bidentate;  they  are  trideutate.— 
T.G.S. 


356  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

Prosternum  with  intercoxal  part  longitudinally  channelled  and 
with  one  setigerous  puncture  on  each  side.  Posterior  coxae  with 
one  setigerous  puncture;  posterior  trochanters  with  a  setigerous 
puncture  on  inner  side  near  base.     Length  19*5,  breadth  7*2  mm. 

Hab. — Victoria  :  Grampian  Mountains  (unique;  Coll.  French). 

Belongs  to  the  C.  Icevipenne  group,*  which  includes  C.  Icevi- 
penne  Macl.,  C.  ineditum  Mac].,  (I  have  doubts  as  to  the 
distinctness  of  these  two  species),  C.  co7'dipenne  SI.  (remarkable 
for  having  the  paragense  setigero-punctate  beneath  suborbital 
scrobe),  and  C.  politulumj  Westw.  C.  morosum  is  allied  to 
C.  Icevipenne^  but  differs  by  colour  wholly  black;  prothorax  more 
parallel  on  sides,  much  more  lightly  narrowed  to  anterior  angles, 
posterior  angles  more  prominent  and  marked,  border  much  more 
widel}'  reflexed;  base  of  elytra  without  ocellate  punctures  near 
humeral  angles;  intermediate  tibiae  stouter  and  with  a  more 
decided  spine  at  outer  apical  angle.  It  is  remarkable  to  find  in 
C.  morosum  the  basal  declivity  absolutely  without  punctures; 
another  black  Victorian  species,  viz.,  C.  ainplipenne  SI.,  has  only 
one  puncture  on  each  side,  and  C.  lepidum  SI.,  has  sometimes  the 
base  with  one  puncture,  sometimes  with  none;  C.  lepidiim  has  no 
affinity  to  C.  morosum  and  C  amplijyenyie,  and  these  two  latter 
species  differ  decidedly  from  one  another. 

Genus  Carenidium. 

Carenidium  longipenne,  n.sp. 

Elongate,  depressed,  Isevigate.  Labrum  deeply  emarginate; 
prothorax  very  little  broader  than  long,  two  marginal  setigerous 
punctures  on  each  side;  elytra  long,  narrow,  impunctate,  strongly 
bimucronate   at    apex,    border  not    dentate    at   humeral   angles; 


*Cf.  these  Proceedings,  1900,  p.366. 

1 1  believe  from  Westwood's  figure  of  C.  politulum  that  it  exactly 
resembles  G.  Icevigatiim  Macl.,  in  form  of  legs,  shape  of  prothorax  and 
colour;  in  fact,  I  have  always  inclined  to  think  Westwood's  description  was 
founded  on  a  form  conspecific  with  C.  Icevigatum,  in  which  the  two  discal 
elytral  punctures  were  absent. 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  357 

anterior    tibiae    bidentate.      Black,  prothorax  and  elytra  widely- 
margined  with  green. 

Head  5-2  mm.  across  eyes,  subdepressed,  smooth;  frontal  sulci 
long,  deep,  diverging  backwards,  anterior  part  turning  outwards 
in  a  light  linear  course;  clypeus  with  median  part  emarginate, 
declivous,  intermediate  angles  strong,  dentiform;  eyes  convex, 
not  prominent;  orbits  large,  rising  gently  from  sides  of  head,  as 
prominent  as  and  enclosing  eyes;  two  supraorbital  punctures  on 
each  side.  Prothorax  a  little  broader  than  long  (5  x  55  mm.) 
depressed  on  disc,  not  declivous  to  base  in  middle;  sides  sub- 
parallel;  narrowed  gently  anteriorly  before  marginal  seta,  widely 
.rounded  at  posterior  angles,  lightly  sinuate  on  each  side  of  base; 
anterior  margin  truncate;  border  narrow,  hardly  produced  at 
anterior  angles,  stronger  and  continuous  between  posterior 
marginal  setae.  Elytra  hardly  as  wide  as  prothorax,  elongate- 
parallel-oval  (12x5-4  mm.),  lightly  depressed  towards  base; 
strongly  and  subobliquely  declivous  on  sides;  humeral  angles 
rounded;  base  truncate;  each  elytron  terminating  in  a  strong 
cylindrical  sharply  pointed  mucro;  a  row  of  separate  punctures 
along  sides;  four  punctures  on  base  of  each  elytron.  Ventral 
segments  3-5  bipunctate;  apical  segment  with  reflexed  edge 
foveate  on  each  side  of"  apex.  Legs  light;  posterior  coxae  and 
trochanters  impunctate.     Length  23*5,  breadth  5*5  mm. 

Hah. — W.A.:  ISorseman  (W.  A.  Sayer;  Coll.  French;  unique). 

This  species  is  characterised  by  its  long  narrow  parallel  form; 
it  belongs  to  the  C .  mucroiiatum  group,  in  which  the  elytra  are 
bimucronate  at  the  apex.  From  C  mucronatum  Macl.,  it  is  at 
once  distinguished  by  its  smaller  size,  much  more  narrow  and 
elongate  form,  longer  apical  mucrones,  &c.  It  is  more  allied  to 
C.  leal  SI.  (the  other  species  of  the  group),  with  the  description 
of  which  it  agrees  in  the  general  characters  of  head  and  prothorax, 
but  from  which  it  is  evidently  distinct  by  its  more  slender  form; 
elytra  with  margins  of  depressed  discoidal  area  not  "sharply 
defined  "  nor  ending  in  a  subtuberculate  elevation  on  each  side. 
The  apical  declivity  slopes  evenly  to  the  long  pointed  apical 
mucrones,  and  the  disc  is  only  depressed  (slightly)  on  the  anterior 
half. 

26 


358  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

Tribe  CUNEIPECTINI,  n.trib. 

Head  not  narrowed  behind  eyes,  one  supraorbital  seta  on  each 
side;  eyes  round,  distant  from  buccal  fissure,  not  inclosed  at  base. 
Antennae  with  three  basal  joints  glabrous.  Mentum  deeply 
emarginate,  toothed.  Prothorax  widely  margined;  posterior 
marginal  seta  on  explanate  border  just  before  basal  angle. 
Elytra  not  bordered  on  base,  strongly  punctate-striate,  dorsal 
interstices  without  setigerous  punctures ;  margin  decidedly 
interrupted  posteriorly  and  with  a  strong  internal  plica.  Pro- 
sternum  with  intercoxal  part  shortly  prolonged  backwards  in  a 
wedge-shaped  process.  Mesosternuui  wide  and  deeply  excavate 
between  intermediate  coxse;  epimera  not  attaining  coxse.  Meta- 
sternum  and  first  ventral  segment  meeting  and  rather  widely 
dividing  posterior  coxae;  episterna  short,  wide.  Ventral  segments 
4-6  with  a  strongly  defined  and  wide  raised  margin  or  '*  collar  " 
along  anterior  margin.  Legs  stout;  tibiae  wide  at  apex,  anterior 
emarginate  on  inner  side  towards  apex,  inner  spur  above  emargin- 
ation;  posterior  coxae  3-setose. 

I  would  place  the  tribe  Cuneipectini  at  the  beginning  of  the 
Trigonotomid  series  of  the  subfamily  Harpalinae. 

CuNEiPECTUS,  n.gen. 

Head  stout,  convex,  not  narrowed  behind  eyes;  one  supra- 
orbital seta  opposite  middle  of  eye  on  each  side.  Antennce 
setaceous,  short,  reaching  to  base  of  prothorax;  three  basal  joints 
glabrous,  first  stout,  not  long  (Imm.j,  second  shortest  (0"65mm.), 
third  longest  (1-4  mm.).  Lahrum  large,  subquadrate;  a  longi- 
tudinal median  line  from  base  to  near  apex;  anterior  margin 
lightly  emarginate  in  middle  and  rounded  on  each  side.  Clyi^eus 
large;  anterior  margin  widely  subemarginate,  a  strong  puncture 
near  each  anterior  angle.  Mandibles  stout,  not  long,  without  a 
seta  in  outer  scrobe.  Mentum  deeply  excavate,  with  broad  pro- 
minent median  tooth;  sinus  with  sides  parallel.  Palpi  stout : 
labial  with  penultimate  joint  a  little  longer  than  apical,  2-setose 
in  front;  apical  joint  club-shaped,  shortly  and  roundly  angustate- 
truncate  :    maxillary   long;    second   joint   longest  (1  mm.);    two 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  359 

apical  joints  shorter  (07  mm.),  equal;  apical  truncate.  Maxillce 
with  outer  lobe  longer  than  inner,  2-articulate;  inner  lobe  stout, 
hooked  at  apex,  inner  side  closely  beset  with  bristles.  Ligida 
short,  corneous,  with  two  widely  placed  setse  at  apex.  Prothoracc 
transverse;  three  or  four  widely  placed  setae  along  lateral  margins, 
the  posterior  seta  near  edge  of  explanate  margin  just  before  basal 
angles.  Elytra  widely  oval,  strongl}'-  punctate-striate,  not 
bordered  at  base;  margin  interrupted  and  with  an  internal  plica 
near  apex;  a  short  striole  at  base  of  first  interstice.  Body  sub- 
pedunculate;  scutellum  wide.  Abdomen  with  a  strongly  raised 
wide  border  along  anterior  margin  of  segments  4-6;  first  segment 
meeting  metasternum  and  dividing  posterior  coxse.  Prosternn/m 
with  intercoxal  part  wedge-shaped;  posterior  declivity  narrow, 
vertical.  Mesosternum  with  intercoxal  declivity  deeply  excavate, 
a  strong  keel-like  ridge  on  each  side.  Legs  stout;  tibiae  wide  at 
apex,  anterior  with  inner  side  emarginate  before  apex,  inner 
spur  above  emargination;  tarsi  of  moderate  length,  fifth  joint 
setulose  beneath. 

CUNEIPECTUS    FRENCHI,   n.spT~ 

Robust,  wide,  oval,  glabrous;  black.  Prothorax  transverse 
(6  X  9 "3  mm.);  apex  truncate  behind  head;  anterior  angles  shortly 
advanced,  wide,  roundly  obtuse;  sides  rounded,  more  gently 
narrowed  to  base  than  to  apex  ;  base  wide,  truncate  across 
peduncle;  basal  angles  produced  shortly  backwards,  obtuse;  disc 
convex,  canaliculate,  transversely  striolate;  posterior  marginal 
seta  on  border  near  edge  at  a  little  distance  (1  mm.)  from  basa} 
angle;  border  wide  with  edge  thick,  produced  at  anterior  and 
basal  angles  Elytra  wide,  oval  (19  x  12'6  mm.)  ;  shoulders 
rounded  off;  apex  wide,  strongly  sinuate  on  each  side;  disc  wide, 
subdepressed,  hardly  declivous  to  base  behind  scutellum,  but 
strongly  so  on  each  side  of  base;  striae  deep,  coarsely  punctate; 
interstices  wide,  lightly  convex,  seventh  more  raised,  subcosti- 
form,  forming  outer  margin  of  disc;  space  betw^een  summit  of 
eighth  interstice  and  lateral  border  depressed,  rugose-punctate. 
Length  29,  breadth  12-6  mm. 

Hah.  —  W.A.:  Norseman  District  (Coll.  French;  unique). 


360  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

There  is  a  row  of  closely  placed  deep  punctures  near  the  lateral 
border  of  the  elytra,  but  these  are  not  the  normal  setigerous 
punctures  of  the  ninth  interstice;  the  latter  are  very  small,  but 
may  be  noticed  by  a  careful  inspection  about  the  middle  of  the 
lateral  depression. 

The  facies  of  this  strange  insect,  for  which  I  have  not  only 

founded  a  new  genus,  but  have  also  felt  compelled  to  propose  a 

new  tribe,  is  almost  that  of  a  true  Carabus,  and  is  very  unlike 

that   of   any   other  Australian   carab.       Most  of   its  characters 

show  an  affinity  to  the  Trigonotomini,  but  it  seems  also  to  have 

some    remote    affinities    towards    the    Broscini,    Chlceniini    and 

Panageini.     It   is  evidently   an   ancient   and    generalised    form 

such   as  might  have   been  expected  to  be  still  in  existence  in 

Australia. 

Tribe  TRIGONOTOMINI. 

Castelnau,  Etudes  Entomologiques,  1834,  p.75. 

Under  the  law  of  priority,  which  acts  in  the  same  manner  for 

higher  groups  as  it  does  for  genera  and  species,  the  tribal  name 

Trigonotomini    must    be    given    preference    over    Pterostichini 

(Erichson,  1837)  and  Platysmatini  (Tschitscherine,  1899). 

Genus    Castelnaudia. 

Castelnaudia  sp.,  Tschitscherine. 

Trichosternus  opacij^ennis  Tschitscherine,  Hor.  Soc.  Ent.  Ross. 
XXXV.,  1902,  p.  528  (not  Homalosoma  opacipenne  Macleay). 

There  can  be  no  doubt  but  that  the  late  M.  Tschitscherine  mis- 
took another  species  for  Homolosoma  opacipenne  Macl.;  it  would 
have  been  impossible  for  a  specialist  holding  the  views  he  did  on 
taxonomy  to  have  placed  that  species  in  the  genus  Trichosternus. 
One  has  only  to  take  note  of  his  statement  in  regard  to  the 
species  he  had  before  him,  "  tete  et  pronotum  luisants,"  to  be 
convinced  that  it  was  not  H.  opacipenne  Macl.,  which  has  only 
the  head  nitid,  the  pronotum  being  opaque. 

Tschitscherine's  species  is  sufficiently  described  to  be  identified. 
It  is  unknown  to  me  in  nature;  and  "  a  specific  name  which  un- 
doubtedly rests  upon  an  error  of  identification  can  not  be  retained 
for  the  misdetermined  species  even  if  the  species  in  question  are 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  361 

afterwards  placed  in  different  genera"  (Art.31,  Internat.  Rules 
Zool.  NomencL).  Tschitsch^rine  gives  the  dimensions  as  length 
25,  prothorax  5*25x7,  elytra  13  x  8*5  mm.  His  notes  indicate 
that  it  is  closely  allied  to  C.  wilsoni  Casteln.,  from  which  it  differs 
by  its  colour  wholly  black. 

Genus  Notonomus. 

NOTONOMUS    CARTERI,    n.Sp. 

Oval,  robust.  Head  small  (2-5  mm.  across  eyes);  prothorax 
subcordate,  basal  angles  obtuse,  marked,  posterior  marginal  seta 
just  before  basal  angle  in  marginal  channel;  elytra  oval,  deeply 
striate;  interstices  convex,  third  interstice  3-punctate  on  apical 
two-thirds,  humeral  angles  rounded.  Black;  elytra  in  ^  sub- 
viridescent  on  apical  and  lateral  declivities;  legs  piceous,  tibiae, 
tarsi  and  antennae  reddish-piceous. 

Head  convex;  eyes  round,  prominent.  Prothorax  a  little 
broader  than  long  (3*5  x  3*7  mm.),  lightly  convex,  widest  before 
middle;  sides  lightly  rounded,  obliquely  narrowed  to  base;  apex 
truncate  (2-5  mm.);  anterior  angles  subprominent;  base  narrower 
thau  apex  (2*3  mm.),  sloping  forward  on  each  side;  basal  angles 
obtuse  but  marked;  lateral  border  narrow,  subsinuate  just  before 
base;  median  line  well  marked;  lateral  basal  impressions  wide, 
elongate,  rather  deep;  space  between  them  convex.  Elytra  oval 
(8  X  4*9  mm.),  convex;  apical  sinuosities  distinct,  wide;  basal  and 
lateral  borders  meeting  at  humeral  angles  without  interruption; 
eighth  interstice  rather  narrow,  but  wider  than  ninth;  tenth 
interstice  shortly  developed  before  apical  sinuosities.  Intercoxal 
declivity  of  prosternum  rounded,  of  mesosternum  decidedly 
concave.     Length  13,  breadth  4*9  mm. 

Hah. — N.S.W.:  Mount  Kosciusko  (Colls.  Carter  and  Sloane). 

Taken  by  Mr.  H.  J.  Carter,  to  whose  good  nature  I  owe  two 
specimens  ((^9)-  ^^  ^^^^  ^  considerable  resemblance  to  N. 
howitti  ISl.,  but  differs  b}'-  head  smaller,  less  convex;  prothorax 
narrower,  particularly  at  base,  more  convex,  not  depressed 
between  lateral  basal  impressions,  lateral  border  narrower, 
especially  near  basal  angles;  intercoxal  declivity  of  mesosternum 
decidedly  concave.      Its  position  in  the  genus  is  beside  N.  mnelleri 


362  STUDIES  IX  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,   XV., 

SI.,  from  which  it  is  readily  distinguished  by  smaller  size, 
narrower  form;  head  smaller;  eyes  more  roundly  prominent; 
prothorax  more  narrowed  to  base,  border  subsinuate  just  before 
basal  angles  and  continuing  on  to  base  at  each  side;  legs  darker; 
elytra  with  a  subvirescent  tinge  in  ^,  S:c. 

NOTONOMUS    ^QUALIS,  n.sp. 

Elongate-oval,  convex.  Prothorax  subquadrate,  posterior 
angles  wide,  hardly  marked ;  elytra  oval,  strongly  striate, 
humeral  angles  rounded  (but  basal  border  decidedly  rai^ed  above 
lateral  border  at  point  of  junction),  interstices  convex,  third 
4-punctate.  Black,  nitid;  prothorax  becoming  metallic-green 
towards  sides  and  across  apex. 

(J.  Head  moderate  (3-3  mm.  across  eyes);  eyes  protuberant, 
deeplv  inclosed  in  large  orbits  posteriorly.  Prothorax  broader 
than  long  (-i-S  x  4-9  mm.),  widest  a  little  before  middle,  very 
lightly  narrowed  to  base;  apex  and  base  of  equal  width  (3-6  mm.); 
sides  lightly  rounded;  basal  angles  widely  obtuse,  marked  by  the 
posterior  marginal  seta  on  border ;  lateral  border  narrow, 
passing  round  basal  angles  on  to  sides  of  base;  median  line 
strongly  impressed;  lateral  basal  impressions  wide,  deep. 
Elvtra  oval  (9*2  x  5-5  mm.),  convex;  apex  widely  sinuate  on  each 
side;  tenth  interstice  short,  well  developed  towards  apex;  inter- 
stices convex,  subcarinate  on  apical  declivity,  eighth  wider  than 
ninth  on  basal  half.  Intercoxal  declivity  of  prosteruum  rounded 
in  middle,  of  mesosternum  widely  and  very  lightly  concave. 
Length  16-18,  breadth  5-5-6'3mm. 

ffab. — X.S.W.:  Verona  (Colls.  Sloane  and  Taylor). 

Given  to  me  by  Mr.  F.  H.  Taylor  of  Sydney  as  coming  from 
Verona  in  the  Bega  district  of  X.  S.  Wales.  It  has  the  facies  of 
^.  spenceri,  but  is  allied  to  X.  macoyi  SI.,*  from  which  it  differs 
bv  colour  not  wholly  black;  prothorax  more  convex,  more  evenly 


*  An  error  occurs  in  my  description  of  N.  macoyi  where  the  size  of  the 
head  is  given  as  "  4"1  mm.  across  eyes";  it  should  be  3-1  mm.  from  a 
remeasurement  of  the  type  still  in  my  possession. — T.G.S. 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  363 

rounded  on  sides,  less  strongly  narrowed  to  base,  posterior 
angles  wider  and  less  marked;  elytra  with  basal  border  more 
decidedly  raised  above  lateral  border  at  shoulders,  inner  inter- 
stices more  raised  and  narrower  at  apex;  legs  black,  &c. 

NoTONOMUS  vioLACEUs  Castelnau. 

Trigonoioma  violacea  Cast.,  Etud.  Ent.  1831,  p. 76;  Notonomus 
Jletcheri  SI.,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1902,  xxvii.  p. 277. 

M.  Petri  Semenow  of  St.  Petersburg  has  communicated  to 
me  a  MS.  description  of  Trigonotoma  violacea  Cast.,  by  the  late 
M.  Tschitscherine,  from  which  I  have  been  able  to  determine  it 
without  doubt  as  the  Sydney  form  of  N.  Jletcheri  SI.  M.  Tschit- 
scherine's  note  indicated  that  one  of  the  specimens  before  him 
(belonging  to  the  Paris  Museum)  was  ticketed  "  Sydney."  My 
description  of  N.  Jletcheri  was  founded  on  the  form  found  at 
Springwood,  which  has  the  head  and  prothorax  of  a  cupreous 
colour,  elytra  with  a  dark  cupi  eous  tinge.  I  believe  that  it  will 
be  found  advantageous  for  collectors  to  retain  this  name  for  the 
mountain  form  or  variety  of  X.  violaceus  Cast. 

NOTOXOMCS  JOHNSTOXI,  n.sp. 

9.  Elongate-oval.  Prothorax  subcordate,  posterior  angles  not 
marked,  posterior  marginal  seta  distant  from  base;  elytra  oval, 
deeply  striate;  interstices  convex,  third  3-punctate,  eighth  narrow. 
Black  with  a  very  obscure  brooze  tint  on  elytra. 

Head  rather  large  (3  3  across  eyes),  oval,  convex:  eyes  reni- 
form,  subprominent.  Prothorax  broader  than  long  (4x4  4:  mm.), 
widest  before  middle,  narrower  at  base  (2-7  mm.)  than  at  apex 
(3  3  mm.);  sides  rounded,  roundly-obliquely  narrowed  to  base; 
apex:  truncate:  basal  angles  not  marked,  very  neiir  peduncle; 
lateral  border  narrow,  very  narrow  behind  posterior  marginal 
puncture;  median  line  well  marked;  lateral  basal  impressions 
near  basal  angles,  shallow,  wide.  Elytra  oval  (9-5  x  5-5  mm.), 
convex;  basal  and  lateral  borders  meeting  without  interruption 
at    humeral    angles;    apex    widely    rounded  with  a   light  wide 


364  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,   XV., 

sinuosity  on  each  side.  Intercoxal  declivity  of  prosternum 
rounded  in  middle,  of  mesosternuiii  flat.  Length  16*5,  breadth 
5-5  mm. 

Eah. — N.S.W.:  Barrington  River  (Colls.  Sloane  and  Taylor; 
taken  by  Mr.  S.  J.  Johnston). 

I  owe  a  specimen  of  this  species  to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  F.  H. 
Taylor  of  Sydney.  It  is  most  nearly  allied  to  .V,  eMcisipennis  SI., 
but  is  differentiated  by  colour;  elytra  not  deeply  sinuate  on  each 
side  of  apex;  posterior  marginal  seta  of  prothorax  more  distant 
from  base,  &c.  The  convex  narrow  eighth  interstice  is  not  wider 
than  ninth,  except  just  near  the  base,  but  it  is  not  so  linear  as  in 
N.  excisipennis.  N.  johnstoni  has  almost  exactly  the  facies  of 
N.  scotti  SI.,  from  which  it  may  be  distinguished  at  once  by  the 
narrower  eighth  interstice,  posterior  marginal  seta  of  prothorax 
0"75  mm.  from  basal  angle,  not  at  basal  angle,  tkc, 

NoTONOMUS  SCOTTI,  n.sp. 

N.  kingi  SI.  (not  Chaudoir),  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.S.  Wales,  1902, 
xxvii.  p. 286. 

I  have  no  doubt  but  that  the  late  M.  Tschitschetine  was  right 
in  considering  N.  excisipennis  SI.,  as  synonymous  with  N.  kingi 
Chaud.,*  specimens  of  which  he  saw  in  the  Paris  Museum;  this 
leaves  the  species  which  I  have  regarded  as  N.  kingi  without  a 
name;  N.  scotti  is  now  proposed  to  replace  N.  kingi  SI.,  my 
description  of  which  is  sufficient  for  purposes  of  recognition.  It 
seems  fitting  to  associate  this  species  with  the  name  of  the  late 
A.  W.  Scott,  the  well  known  naturalist,  formerly  resident  at 
Ash  Island,  where  this  species  is  plentiful. 

NoTONOMUS  SiEPISTRIATUS,  n.Sp. 

Robust,  oval;  elytra  with  twelve  interstices.  Upper  surface 
bronzy,  submetallic,  brighter  towards  sides  of  prothorax  and 
elytra;  under  surface  and  legs  black,  or  piceous-black. 


*  It  is  doubtful  whether  Chaudoir  considered  he  was  redescrihing  Pcecilus 
kingi  W.  S.  Macleay,  or  not;  but  I  believe  not.  If  P.  kingi  W.  S.  Macleay, 
be  taken  to  be  a  Notonomus,  then  N.  kingi  Chaud.,  will  be  a  nom.  prceoc.  and 
N.  excisipennis  must  stand;  for  this  reason  I  do  not  propose  to  replace  N. 
excisipennis  SI.,  by  iV.  kingi  Chaud. 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  365 

Head  large  (3-3  mm.  across  eyes),  strongly  bi-impressed  between 
antennae.  Prothorax  transverse  (3  8  x  5  mm.),  wider  at  base 
(4  mm.)  than  at  apex  (3-4:  mm.),  depressed;  sides  arcuate,  shortly 
subsinuate  just  before  base;  basal  angles  subrectangular,  obtuse 
at  summit;  border  narrow  towards  apex,  wide  towards  base; 
posterior  marginal  puncture  on  border  at  basal  angle;  median 
line  strongly  impressed;  lateral  basal  impressions  short,  foveiform, 
joining  marginal  channel  by  a  narrow  impression  posteriorly. 
Elytra  truncate-oval  (9  x  5*6  mm.),  deeply  striate;  twelve  convex 
more  or  less  undulate  interstices  on  each  elytron,  first  bearing  a 
short  deep  striole  at  base,  second  catenulate  on  apical  declivity, 
third  bipunctate  on  apical  half,  costiform  behind  second  puncture, 
eleventh  very  narrow,  seriate-punctate,  twelfth  linear,  extending 
forward  for  half  the  length  of  elytra;  basal  border  raised  and 
obtusely  dentate  at  humeral  angles.  Intercoxal  declivity  of 
prosternum  flat,  of  mesosternum  wide,  not  concave.  Ventral 
segments  nitid,  punctate  laterally.  Length  14'5-16"5,  breadth 
5'l-5-6  mm. 

Hah. — Q.  :  Athertou. 

Two  specimens  {$^)  of  this  remarkable  species  occurred  to  nie 
in  dense  scrub  at  Atherton  on  the  upper  waters  of  the  Barron 
River,  North  Queensland,  in  June,  1906.  Its  position  is  near 
N.  australasice  Dej.,  though  probably  it  has  more  affinity  to 
N.  opacistriatus  SI.,  than  to  any  other  described  species.  The 
remarkable  interstitial  sculpture  of  the  elytra  differentiates  this 
species  from  all  others  hitherto  described.  If  the  interstices  at 
the  apex  are  counted,  ten  will  be  found  (ninth  seriate-punctate), 
which  is  the  normal  number  in  Notonomus,  but  towards  the  base 
there  are  twelve  (eleventh  seriate-punctate);  the  two  extra  inter- 
stices result  from  the  seventh  interstice  branching  into  three 
interstices  of  normal  width  a  little  before  the  apex. 

NoTONOMUS  KiNGi  W.  S.  Macleay. 
Poecilus  kingi  W.   S.  Macleay,  King's   Survey,  1827,  ii.  p. 438. 
The  description  of  Pcecihis  kioigi  W.  S.  Maclea37-,  is  brief  and 
vague  in  the  extreme,  not  even  the  size  being  given,  so  that  it 


366  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

is  impossible  to  know  from  it  even  the  genus  to  which  it  should 
be  referred;  its  identification  would  be  absolutely  impossible 
were  it  not  that  Castelnau  in  his  "  Histoire  Naturelle  des  Insectes 
Coleopteres,"  I.  (p.  105),  supplies  a  clue  when  he  says  of  his  Poecilus 
marginatus  (  =  Notonomns  marginatus)  at  the  end  of  the  descrip- 
tion : — "  It  est  voison  du  P.  Kingii  Macleay."  If  we  accept  this 
clue  it  appears  to  me  that  we  must  consider  P.  kingi  W.  S. 
Macleay,  to  be  a  species  of  Notonomns,  and  judging  from  the 
description  it  should  be,  in  all  probability,  the  species  which 
Chaudoir  afterwards  named  N.  incrassalu9,  though  I  do  not  wish 
to  assume  that  this  suggestion  of  mine  finally  settles  the 
question  that  these  two  names  are  synonyms,  but  it  will  serve  to 
keep  the  subject  before  the  minds  of  other  investigators. 

iSToTONOMUS  MINIMUS,  n.sp. 

Elliptical.  Prothorax  cordate,  posterior  marginal  seta  on 
border  at  basal  angle;  elytra  strongly  striate,  basal  border  den- 
tate at  shoulders,  third  interstice  bipunctate,  eighth  interstice 
narrower  than  ninth;  intercoxal  declivity  of  prosternum  flat,  of 
mesosteruum  wide,  not  convex;  tarsi  with  onychium  glabrous 
beneath.      Black,  legs  and  antennae  piceous-red. 

Head  oval,  convex  (1-8  mm.  across  eyes),  smooth,  very  feebly 
bi-impressed  between  antennae  ;  eyes  (with  orbits)  reniform, 
rather  prominent.  Prothorax  convex,  cordate,  broader  than 
long(2-3  X  2-65mm.),  widest  before  middle;  sides  lightly  rounded, 
shortly  sinuate  before  base;  apex  (1-8  mm)  narrower  than  base, 
(•2-15  mm.);  basal  angles  rectangular  with  summit  obtuse;  lateral 
border  narrow,  reflexed;  median  line  deeply  marked,  not  reaching 
base ;  lateral  basal  impressions  deep,  narrow.  Elytra  oval 
(5-2  X  3-3  mm.),  lightly  and  evenly  rounded  on  sides,  narrowed  to 
base;  apex  obsoletely  sinuate  on  each  side;  striae  deep;  interstices 
convex,  eighth  narrow  (narrower  than  ninth),  tenth  short  (only 
noticeable  just  before  lateral  apical  sinuosities).  Lengtli  9, 
breadth  3-3  mm. 

Hab. — Vict.:  Bright  (C.  French,  Junr.;  Coll.  Sloane ;  two 
specimens). 


BY    TIIOxMAS    G.    SLOANE.  367 

Very  distinct,  being  by  far  the  smallest  species  of  the  genus; 
I  have  seen  no  other  species  of  Notonomus  less  than  12  mm.  in 
length;  it  has  the  facies  of  a  small  specimen  of  Rhytisternus 
miser  Chaud.  According  to  the  classification  adopted  in  my 
"  Revision"  (1902)  its  place  is  next  N.  incrassatus  Chaud. 

Notonomus  australis  Castelnau. 

Triyonotoma  australis  Castelnau,  Hist.Nat.Ins.i.p.l20(li840). 

I  believe  that  Trigonotoma  australis  Cast.,  (which  is  not 
indexed  in  Masters'  Catalogue;  nor  have  I  found  it  in  Gemminger 
&  Harold's  Catalogue)  is  a  species  of  Notonomus,  and  that  the 
species  afterwards  described  by  Chaudoir  as  N.  ((^neomicans  is 
conspecific  with  it.  The  only  discrepancy  would  be  that  Castelnau 
described  the  elytra  of  T.  australis  as  having  three  punctures  on 
the  third  stria,  whereas  in  N.  (eneo7nicans  there  are  four  or  live; 
but  Castelnau  had  formerly  (1834)  described  N.  {Trigonotoma) 
violaceus  as  having  two  punctures  on  the  third  interstice,  though 
in  reality  there  are  three  or  four,  so  that  it  is  evident  he  did  not 
take  care  to  be  thoroughly  accurate  in  this  matter.  It  might  be 
thought  that  T.  australis  Cast.,  was  N.  colossus  SI.,  but  Castelnau's 
statement  under  su7'/ace  and  legs  black  applies  to  N.  (Eneomicans 
rather  than  to  N.  colossus,  the  latter  having  the  legs  piceous  with 
the  tarsi  reddish.  Though  I  hold  the  view  that  Notonomus 
australis  Cast.,  will  likely  ultimately  supplant  N.  oineomicaiis 
Chaud.,  yet  the  species  is  a  variable  one  with  a  wide  distribution, 
which  will  probably  be  found  to  include  several  varieties  entitled 
to  names;  so  that  I  do  not  feel  certain  that  the  name  N.  ceneo- 
micans,  which  I  consider  to  belong  to  the  form  found  in  South 
Queensland,  may  not  be  capable  of  retention,  at  least  for  a 
variety. 

Castelnau's  "  Historie  Naturelle  des  Insectes  Coleop."  is  a 
work  hardly  to  be  seen  in  Australia;  therefore,  that  other 
students  may  be  able  to  weigh  the  evidence,  I  reproduce  the 
description  : — 

"  Trigonotoma  australis.  Long.  9  lig.  Larg.  3  lig.  —  D'unnoir 
luisant;    tete  un  peu   bronzee,  avec   deux  impiessions  entre  les 


368  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  P:NT0M0L0GY,  XV., 

yeux;  corselet  en  coeur,  reborde  lateralement,  avec  une  ligne 
longitudinal  au  milieu,  et  deux  traits  au  bord  posterieur,  d'un 
vert  brillant,  un  peu  bronze  au  milieu,  elytrees  bronzees,  ovales, 
striees,  avec  trois  points  sur  la  troisieme  strie,  le  bord  exterieur 
d'un  vert  eclatant;  dessous  du  corps  et  pattes  noirs.  Nouvelle- 
Hollande.  Collection  de  M.  Gory." 

Genus  Setalimorphus. 
Setalimorphus  nanus  Sloane. 

Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales  (2)  ix.,  1894,  p.435;  Phcenaulax 
stenomorpha  Tschitscherine,  Hor.  Soc.  Ent.  Ross.xxxii.l898,p.l67. 

The  late  M.  Tschitscherine  had  recoa:nised  his  genus  Phcenaulax 
as  synonymous  with  Setalimorphus f'  and  a  comparison  of  speci- 
mens of  *S'.  nanus  with  the  description  of  Ph.  stenomoj'pha  con- 
vinces me  that  they  are  the  same  species.  I  am  not,  however, 
convinced  that  Phcenaulax  is  absolutely  congeneric  with  Setali- 
rtioT2')h%is\  points  of  dijBPerence  being  the  presence  of  a  setigerous 
puncture  at  the  basal  angles  of  the  prothorax,  and  two  foveiform 
punctures  on  the  apical  ventral  segment  in  S.  punctiventris  SI. 
(the  type-species  of  the  genus),  characters  which  are  not  found 
in  aS'.  nanus  SI.  My  present  conclusion  is  that  while  Tschits- 
cherine's  genus  Phenaulctx  is  likely  to  obtain  ultimate  recognition 
as  valid,  the  species  on  which  it  is  founded  must  be  considered  a 
synonym  of  Setalimorphus  nanus  SI. 

Rhytisternus  l^vidorsis  Tschitscherine. 

Hor.  Soc.  Ent.  Ross.  xxv.  1891,  p.  169. 

In  these  Proceedings  (1894  p. 4 10)  I  published  the  opinion 
that  Rhytisternus  Icevidorsis  Tschits.,  was  synon3'^mous  with  R. 
{Pcecilus)  Icevis  Macl.,  but  having  recognised  a  species  sent  to  me 
by  Mr.  F.  P.  Dodd  from  Townsville,  Queensland,  as  jK.  Icevidorsis, 
I  have  no  doubt  but  that  it  is  a  good  species,  thoroughly  distinct 
from  R.  Icevis.     In  R.  Icevidorsis  the  posterior  angles  of  the  pro- 


*  Hor.  Soc.  Ent.  Ross.  xxxv.  p.508  (1902). 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  369^ 

thorax  are  described  as  more  rounded  at  the  summit  than  in  R. 
liopleurus  Chaud.,  whereas  in  R.  Icevis  these  angles  are  more 
rectangular  and  marked  than  in  B.  lioj^leurns. 

LoxoGENius,  n.gen. 

Mentuin  short ;  sinus  shallow,  wide,  bordered  and  roundly- 
advanced  at  bottomj  lobes  obtusely  rounded  at  apex,  oblique  on 
inner  side.  Subntentuin  raised  above  mentum,  with  about  six 
setigerous  punctures  on  each  side;  a  wide  deep  concavity  behind 
middle  of  submentum.  Mouth-parts  similar  to  those  of  Castel- 
naudia;  labial  palpi  with  penultimate  joint  2-setose.  Labrum 
prominent,  6-setose,  lightly  and  widely  emarginate.  Faragence* 
with  upper  margin  forming  a  border,  a  deep  elongate  subfovei- 
form  depression  between  this  upper  border  and  a  median  ridge. 
Frothorax  opaque,  subcordate;  lateral  channel  and  border  wide; 
a  lateral  seta  on  each  margin  at  widest  part;  two  lateral  basal 
seta3  on  each  side  behind  posterior  sinuosity;  two  set?e  on  margin 
at  each  anterior  angle.  Elytra  convex,  a  little  narrowed  to  base, 
opaque;  ninth  interstice  and  lateral  margin  nitid;  basal  border 
nitid,  with  a  strong  obtuse  tooth  at  each  humeral  angle  closing 
the  space  between  the  second  carina  and  the  lateral  margin; 
third,  fifth  and  seventh  interstices  strongly  carinate.  Frosternum 
with  a  median  channel  extending  backwards  from  about  anterior 
third  almost  to  base;  intercoxal  part  bordered  on  base  and  bear- 
ing three  or  four  set^.  Mesosterjium  with  intercoxal  declivity 
glabrous.  Metasternuin  glabrous;  episterna  concave,  short,  but 
together  with  epimera,  longer  than  broad.  Vetttral  segments 
transversely  sulcate  and  bordered  posteriorly;  apical  segment  in 
^  with  two,  in  ^  with  four,  setigerous  punctures.  Fades  of 
Cadtelnaudia,  Apterous.  ^.  A7iterior  tarsi  with  three  basal 
joints  dilatate  and  with  squamulse  beneath. 

Type. — Honialosoma  opacipeniie  Maclea3^  Length  20,  pro- 
thorax  5x6,  elytra  10-7  x  6*3  mm.      Several   specimens  sent   to 

*  -Chaudoir  gave  the  name  paragena  to  the  space  between  the  subocular 
antennal  scrobe  and  the  buccal  fissure. 


370  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN   ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

me   by  Mr.  F.  P.  Dodd  from  K^uranda,  Queensland,  have  been 
compared  with  Macleay's  type  in  the  Macleay  Museum. 

This  species  evidently  never  came  under  the  observation  of  the 
late  M.  Tschitscherine;*  I  regard  it  as  a  primitive  form  apparently 
more  allied  to  Tschitscherine's  genus  Liopasaf  than  to  any  other 
described  form. 

Genus  S  e  t  a  l  i  s. 

Setalis  rubripes,  n.sp. 

Oblong,  oval,  robust.  Head  small  (1*4  mm.  across  eyes),  front 
strongly  bi-impressed;  eyes  hemispherical,  distant  from  buccal 
fissure  beneath;  prothorax  convex,  deeply  bi-impressed  on  each 
side  of  base;  two  marginal  setae  on  each  side,  anterior  seta  at 
anterior  third,  posterior  near  basal  angle  at  inner  side  of  lateral 
channel  ;  el3^tra  convex,  strongly  crenulate-striate,  without 
scutellar  striole,  third  interstice  impunctate.  Black ;  legs, 
antennae,  and  mouth-parts  red. 

Prothorax  subcordate  (1-8  x  2*3  mm.),  widest  about  middle, 
wider  at  base /(2  mm.)  than  at  apex  (1-4  mm.);  sides  arcuate, 
lightly  narrowed  to  base;  apex  lightly  emarginate,  angles  obtuse; 
base  emarginate  in  middle;  basal  angles  subrectangular  (obtuse 
but  marked);  lateral  border  narrow;  marginal  channel  narrow, 
ending  abruptly  just  before  base;  median  line  lightly  marked  on 
disc;  inner  lateral  basal  impression  deep,  short,  sulciform,  not 
reaching  base;  inner  basal  impression  forming  a  shallow  oblong 
fovea.  El3^tra  oval  (4  x  2-7  mm.),  convex,  declivous  to  base; 
striae  deep,  crenulate;  interstices  convex,  sixth  and  ninth  con- 
tiguous near  apex,  seventh  wide  and  well  developed  on  basal 
two- thirds,  eighth  only  developed  (and  linear)  on  basal  third, 
ninth  seriate-punctate;  basal  border  forming  a  short  strong  tooth 
at  humeral  angles;  apex  sinuate  on  each  side.  Metasternum 
very  short  and  bearing  about  three  fine  punctures  on  each  side 

*  Vide  supra  under  Castelnaudia  sp.  p.  360. 

t  Mr.  H.  J.  Carter  recently  found  Liopasa  crepera  Tschitgch.,  on  the 
Tweed  River,  N.S.W.;  its  exact  habitat  has  not  been  recorded  before.  It 
resembles  Notonoinus  angustibasis  SI. ,  in  f aeies  and  striation  of  elytra. 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOAXE.  371 

between  inteimediate  and  posterior  coxae,  episterna  sliort.  Basal 
ventral  segments  bearing  some  punctures,  three  apical  segments 
deeply  transversely  sulcate  and  with  a  deep  fovea  on  each  side, 
apical  segment  with  two  foveiform  punctures.  Length  7,  breadth 
2 "7  mm. 

Hah. — Q.:  Atherton.  One  specimen  occurred  to  me  in  thick 
scrub  in  June,  1906. 

Very  different  from  S.  niger  Cast.,  (the  other  species  of  the 
genus  Setalis)  from  which  it  is  easily  distinguished  by  its  smaller 
size,  narrower  and  more  convex  form,  very  diJBFerently  shaped 
prothorax,  elytra  with  striae  crenulate,  &c.  It  is  remarkable  that 
the  same  unusual  conformation  of  the  lateral  elytral  interstices 
should  occur  in  two  such  very  different  species  as  S.  niger  and 
S.  ruhripes.  In  my  description  of  Loxogmus  ohscurus  (  —  S.  niger 
Cast.),  I  have  said  the  eighth  elytr&l  interstice  is  punctate,  having 
overlooked  the  true  eighth  interstice,  which  only  shows  in  a  linear 
form  near  the  base.  In  S.  niger  the  seventh  interstice  also  dis- 
appears about  the  posterior  third,  so  that  the  sixth  and  ninth 
interstices  become  contiguous  near  the  apex  as  in  *S'.  rubrijjes. 

CosMODiscus,  n.gen. 

Mentum  not  deeply  excised;  lobes  obtuse  at  apex;  sinus  oblique 
on  sides,  a  short  wide  triangular  median  tooth  at  bottom.  Falpi 
stout :  labial  with  penultimate  joint  bisetose;  apical  joint  short, 
hardly  longer  than  penultimate,  compressed,  truncate:  maxillary 
v/ith  apical  joint  short,  hardly  longer  than  penultimate,  obtuse  at 
apex.  Za6?'i<.7;i  shagreened,  truncate,  sexsetose.  Alandibles  ^hovt, 
without  a  seta  in  outer  groove.  Ciypeus  bisetose.  Head  small; 
front  deeply  and  shortly  bi-impressed  :  eyes  hemispherical,  nar- 
rowly separated  from  buccal  fissure  beneath.  Antennce  short, 
moniliform,  lightly  incrassate;  joints  1-3  glabrous,  6-11  com- 
pressed, first  large,  about  as  long  as  second  and  tliird  together, 
second  shortest.  Prothorax  widely  transverse,  wider  at  base 
(2*7  mm.)  than  at  apex  (2  mm.);  basal  angles  obtuse;  apical  border 
entire;  two  marginal  setas  on  each  side,  anterior  just  before  middle, 
posterior  at  basal  angle.     Elytra  bordered  on  base,  not  dentate 


372  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,   XV., 

at  humeral  angles;  apex  sinuate  and  with  margin  interrupted  by 
an  internal  plica  on  each  side;  interstices  convex,  without  a  basal 
striole  on  first  or  second,  third  irapunctate.  Prosternum  leevigate, 
bordered  between  cox?e;  episterna  finely  shagreened.  Mesosteryial 
episterna  densely  punctate.  Metasternum  on  each  side,  and 
episterna  densely  punctate.  Ventral  segments  not  transversely 
sulcate,  densely  punctate,  except  in  middle  between  ambulatorial 
set£e.  Legs  short :  femora  short;  anterior  tibiae  with  apex  wide, 
rounded  and  spinose  externally;  tarsi  short,  glabrous  on  upper 
surface,  onychium  glabrous  beneath,  ungues  simple;  anterior  tarsi 
with  first  joint  about  as  long  as  three  succeeding  joints  together, 
strongly  produced  at  apex  internally  in  an  elongate  spiniform 
process,  joints  2-4  successively  shorter,  second  with  apex  sharply 
produced  internally;  posterior  tarsi  slender,  first  joint  about  as 
long  as  three  succeeding  joints  together,  these  successively  shorter, 
fourth  very  small;  posterior  trochanters  with  a  setigerous  puncture 
near  base. 

The  position  of  this  genus  is  evidently  near  Stomonaxus,  which 
is  unknown  to  me  in  nature;  it  differs  from  Motschulsky's 
description  of  the  genus  Stomonaxus  by  mandibles  short,  first 
joint  of  antennse  longer  than  third;  I  believe,  too,  that  the  form 
of  the  prothorax  (shaped  somewhat  like  that  of  ^j)hnidius, 
lateral  basal  impressions  feebly  marked,  base  wide  and  obtusely 
angled)  is  altogether  different  from  the  form  of  the  prothorax  in 
Stomo7iaxus. 

COSMODISCUS    RUBRIPICTUS,  n.sp, 

Piceous-black;  prothorax  with  border  testaceous;  elytra  with 
ferruginous  pattern  (ferruginous  pattern  reaching  the  fourth  inter- 
stice at  base,  spreading  over  the  three  outer  interstices  on  the 
middle  of  the  sides,  sending  off  a  wide  oblique  uneven  fasciaform 
branch  inwards  on  each  elytron  to  join  the  corresponding  branch 
of  the  other  elytron  at  the  suture  about  apical  third),  lateral 
channel  testaceous  backwards  to  apical  sinuosity,  inflexed  margin 
ferruginous,  infuscate  opposite  metepisterna;  coxea,  middle  of 
metasternum,  mesosternum,  prothorax,  and  under  parts  of  head 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOAXE.  373 

ferruginous;  femora  and  ))Osterior  trochanters  testaceous;  tibiae 
and  tarsi  reddish-piceous;  antennae  ferruginous,  paler  near  base, 
infuscate  towards  apex.  Prothorax  transverse  (1-7x3  mm.), 
depressed  on  disc  and  across  base,  lightly  declivous  to  sides  on 
anterior  two-thirds;  apex  lightly  emarginate;  anterior  angles 
obtuse,  not  prominent;  sides  lightly  rounded;  basal  angles  obtuse; 
base  lightly  sinuate-truncate  in  middle  between  lateral  basal 
impressions,  sinuate  on  each  side;  border  entire  on  apex,  rather 
wide  on  sides,  obsolete  just  before  basal  angles;  median  line 
hardly  marked;  lateral  basal  impressions  linear,  short,  shallow, 
punctulate.  Elytra  widely  ovate  (4-8  x  3-7  mm.)  ;  shoulders 
rounded;  interstices  convex,  narrower  and  more  raised  at  apex. 
Length  7  7,  breadth  3*7  mm. 

Hah. — Q.:  Kuranda  (Dodd;  Coll.  Sloane;  unique). 

Tribe  LEBIINI. 

Genus  Phlceodromius. 

Phlcegdromius  plagiatus  Macle^. 

This  species,  described  from  Yule  Island,  New  Guinea,  is  here 
recorded  from  Australia  for  the  first  time.  It  is  at  once  dis- 
tinguished from  Ph.  piceus  Macl.,  the  only  other  species  of  the 
genus,  by  the  large  black  patch  common  to  both  elytra  which 
extends  from  about  the  basal  third  to  the  apical  fifth  and  reaches 
laterally  to  the  ninth  interstice,  but  not  to  the  border.  Length 
9,  proth.  1-5x2,  el.  5x35  mm. 

Hab. — Q.:  Townsville  and  Kuranda  (Dodd;  Coll.  Sloane). 

Note.—  In  the  genus  Phloeodromuis  the  mesosternum  is  small 
and  narrow  between  the  intermediate  coxse,  and  the  metasternum 
meets  it  by  a  very  narrow  intercoxal  prolongation;  the  tarsi  have 
all  the  joints  clothed  beneath  with  chestnut-coloured  hairpads; 
in  the  male  two  narrow  rows  of  paler  squamulse  are  noticeable  in 
the  middle  of  joints  1-3  of  the  anterior  tarsi,  and  the  third  joint 
of  the  intermediate  tarsi;  the  third  interstice  of  the  elytra  is 
3-punctate,  the  anterior  puncture  is  near  the  base  beside  the 
third  stria,  the  second  puncture  a  little  before  the  middle  near 
27 


374  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

the  third  stria,  the  third  puncture  about  the  apical  fifth  near  the 
second  stria.     The  ungues  are  strongly  pectinate. 

Sarothrocrepis  mucronatus,  n.sp. 

Head  large  (2  mm.  across  eyes);  prothorax  transverse,  base 
wide,  lobate;  elytra  wide,  strongly  striate,  third  interstice  bi- 
punctate  near  course  of  third  stria,  each  elytron  with  a  short 
spiniform  process  at  outer  and  inner  angle  of  apical  truncature; 
legs  as  in  Sarothrocrejns;  tarsi  with  penultimate  joint  deeply 
emarginate,  ungues  strongly  pectinate.  Dark  piceous;  prothorax 
with  explanate  margins  testaceous;  elytra  with  reflexed  border 
and  marginal  channel  ferruginous;  under  surface  of  prothorax, 
mesothorax,  metathorax,  inflexed  margins  of  elytra  and  femora 
pale  testaceous;  abdomen  piceous,  lighter-coloured  near  posterior 
COX80;  tarsi,  antennae,  and  palpi  ferruginous. 

Head  convex  between  eyes,  not  narrowed  behind  eyes;  upper 
surface  distinctly  punctate;  front  and  clypeus  rather  rugulose; 
eyes  very  large  and  prominent.  Antennae  slender,  inserted  close 
to  eyes,  three  basal  joints  glabrous.  Prothorax  transverse 
(1'85  X  2*8  mm.);  apex  truncate,  same  width  as  neck;  sides 
roundly  ampliate  from  apex  without  marked  anterior  angles, 
attaining  greatest  width  and  rounded  about  middle,  very  little 
(roundly)  narrowed  to  base ;  basal  angles  strongly  marked, 
rectangular  but  not  acute,  bearing  a  setigerous  puncture;  disc 
convex;  lateral  margins  explanate,  very  wide  at  base,  becoming 
narrow  near  apex;  base  truncate  on  each  side  of  peduncle  (behind 
testaceous  explanate  margin),  middle  rather  strongly  produced 
backwards  and  forming  a  well  marked  wide  lobe;  sinuosity  on 
each  side  of  basal  lobe  wide  but  decidedly  marked.  Elytra  wide 
(6-5  X  4-5  mm.),  widest  behind  middle,  convex;  base  widely 
rounded  on  each  side  of  peduncle;  striae  strongly  impressed, 
finely  crenulate  at  bottom,  seventh  ending  near  suture  in  an 
ocellate  setigerous  puncture  opposite  apical  extremity  of  third 
interstice;  interstices  convex,  four  inner  ones  not  convex — 
except  towards  base,  first  narrow,  ending  at  apex  in  a  short 
mucro,  becoming  wider  and   bearing  an   elongate   strongly  im- 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  375 

pressed  stride  on  basal  fifth;  interstices  5-7  strongly  convex, 
ninth  wide  (wider  than  eighth),  seriate-punctate;  space  between 
eighth  stria  and  margin  very  wide  near  apex;  border  narrowly 
reflexed  on  sides,  feeble  on  base  near  scutellum;  apical  truncature 
sloping  lightly  obliquely  forward  from  suture  to  extremity  of 
eighth  interstice,  then  curving  very  lightly  backwards  to  the 
sharply  marked  external  angle.     Length  10*5,  breadth  4*5  mm. 

Hab.—Q.:  Townsville  (Dodd). 

I  have  placed  this  species  in  ^arothrocrepis,  at  least  pro- 
visionally, on  account  of  its  evident  affinities  to  that  genus, 
though  it  differs  from  all  the  other  species  by  the  punctures  of 
the  third  elytral  interstice;  the  apical  truncature  of  each  elytron 
dentate  at  outer  and  inner  angle;  the  elytra  with  deeply  im- 
pressed stride;  interstices  4-6  strongly  convex  near  base,  ninth 
as  wide  as  eighth;  the  abdomen  setigero-punctate.  It  is  also 
isolated  by  its  dark  colour  (elytra  not  widely  margined  with 
yellow). 

Genus  E  u  l  e  b  i  a  . 

EULEBIA    BICOLOR,  n.Sp. 

Testaceous;  elytra  Avith  a  very  broad  dark  blue  fascia  (almost 
two-thirds  of  elytra)  across  middle  from  side  to  side;  antennae 
after  third  joint  infuscate. 

Head  nitid,  minutely  punctulate;  eyes  black,  very  prominent, 
globular.  Prothorax  transverse,  a  little  wider  than  head 
(1x1-5  mm.);  sides  roundly  narrowed  anteriorly,  oblique  pos- 
teriorly; base  much  wider  than  apex,  truncate  on  each  side  of 
peduncle,  median  part  produced  backwards,  rounded;  anterior 
angles  widely  rounded;  basal  angles  subrectangular,  obtuse  at 
summit;  lateral  margins  explanate,  very  wide  posteriorly;  two 
marginal  setigerous  punctures  on  each  side,  anterior  at  widest 
part,  posterior  on  border  at  basal  angle.  Elytra  wide  (4  x  2 •9mm.), 
finely  striate;  interstices  a  little  convex,  shagreened,  minutely 
punctulate,  first  with  a  fine  striole  at  base,  third  3-punctate, 
anterior  puncture  just  outside  anterior  margin  of  blue  part, 
second  at  its  posterior  margin,  third  at  apex  of  interstice;  blue 


376  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,   XV., 

area  having  anterior  margin  a  little  sinuate,  the  testaceous  colour 
of  the  base  extending  back  a  little  along  the  fourth  interstice; 
anterior  margin  of  apical  testaceous  area  extending  forward  from 
outer  apical  angle  to  second  puncture  of  third  interstice,  then 
running  back  a  little  towards  suture.  Ungues  serrate.  Length 
5-3,  breadth  2-9  mm. 

Uab.  —  Q.  :  Kuranda  (Dodd  ;  ''on  ilow^ers  of  Eucalyptus"; 
Coll.  Sloane). 

The  three  known  species  of  Eulehia  are  before  me;  they  may- 
be distinguished  from  one  another  as  under  : — 

Elytra  bicolorous  on  disc.     Testaceous  with  four  inner 

interstices  black  on  disc. .,, E.  plagiatalsl-^Q\. 

Elytra  bicolorous  on  disc.      Blue  with  base  (widely) 

and  apex  testaceous , E.  bicolor  SI. 

Elytra  unieolorous— brownish E.  jjicijieniiis  Ma:Gl. 

J^ote. — Eulehia  is  closely  allied  to  Sa7'othrocrepis;  in  fact  it 
seems  to  me  rather  a  section  of  Sarothrocrepis  than  a  distinct 
genus. 

Genus    COPTODERA. 

Eucalyptocola  Macleay. 
The  three  Austialian  species  of  Coptodera  may  be  tabulated  as 
under  : — 

Prothorax  with  lateral  margins  wide. 

Elytra  piceous-black,  with  a  narrow  zigzag,  or 
V-shaped  ferruginous  fascia  on  posterior  half, 
sometimes  with  also  a   faint  discal  macula  on 

each  elytron  injront  of  the  fascia C.  aiistralis  Chaud. 

Elytra  piceous-black,  with  an  intricate  pattern  in  the 
form  of  two  broken  zigzag  transverse  testaceous 

fasciae C.  mastersi  Macl. 

Prothorax  with  lateral  margins  narrow... C.  marcida  Blackb. 

CoPTODERA  AUSTRALis  Chaudoir. 

Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Belg.  xii.,  1869^  p.  184.  Fhilophlosus  duhius 
Macl.,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  ii.,  1871,  p.90. 

I  have  determined  Phihphloeus  duhius  Macl.,  by  examination 
of  the  type   in   the  Australian   Museum,  and,  after   comparing 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE.  377 

specimens  in  my  possession  with  the  description  of  C.  australis 
Chaud.,  feel  no  doubt  of  the  identity  of  these  species.  Philo- 
phloeus  dubius  MacL,  is  certainly  congeneric  with  C.  eleganiula 
Schmidt-Goebel,  from  Burma,  to  which  it  is  closely  allied. 

Hah.  —  Eastern  Australia. — Q.:  Atherton  (Sloane);  Kuranda 
(Dodd)  ;  Gayndah  (Masters).  —  N.  S.  Wales  :  Tweed  River 
(Carter);  Richmond  River  (Helms). 

CoPTODERA  MASTERSi  Macleay. 

Eucalyptocola  mastersi.  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  ii.  1871, 
p.91. 

This  species  is  known  to  me,  and  is  congeneric  with  C.  australis 
Chaud.  Macleay  was  in  error  in  describing  his  genus  Eucalynto- 
cola  as  having  the  mentum  with  a  "large  acute  median  tooth." 
I  have  dissected  the  mouth-parts  of  Eucalyptocola  mastersi  MacL, 
and  found  the  mentum  with  the  sinus  edentate.  C.  mastersi 
must  be  very  near  Coptodera  {Rhi^iocheila)  levrati  Perroud,  from 
New  Caledonia. 

Hab.—Q.:    Kuranda   (Dodd);    Gayndah   (Masters);    Brisbane 

(Hacker). 

Coptodera  marcida  Blackburn. 

Eucalyptocola  marcida  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  South  Aust.  1903, 
p.91. 

This  species  is  unknown  to  me  in  nature.  I  have  placed  it  in 
the  table  above  by  the  aid  of  the  description,  which  leaves  us  in 
some  doubt  as  to  whether  it  is  actually  congeneric  with  C. 
australis  Chaud.,  or  not. 

Hah. — Vict.:  Gleuelg  River  (Blackburn). 

Genus  M  o  c  t  h  e  r  u  s. 

MOCTHERUS  MACLEAYI,   n.Sp. 

Oval;  elytra  strongly  and  simply  striate;  prothorax  deeply 
emarginate  at  apex,  widely  margined  on  sides,  base  truncate; 
mentum  edentate.  Black;  elytra  with  four  round  testaceous 
spots,  anterior  near  each  shoulder  on  interstices  4-8,  posterior  at 
apical  fourth  on  interstices  3-6;  under  surface  piceous;  legs  and 
middle  of  abdomen  brownish. 


378  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,  XV., 

Head  convex  (1*1  mm.  across  eyes),  shagreened;  front  not 
impressed;  eyes  convex,  prominent,  coarsely  faceted.  Prothorax 
wider  than  head,  transverse  (0'9  x  1-5  mm.),  widest  and  sub- 
angulate  in  middle;  disc  convex,  canaliculate;  sides  obliquely 
narrowed  to  apex  and  base,  a  little  more  strongly  and  roundly 
so  to  apex;  anterior  margin  finely  bordered;  anterior  angles 
obtuse,  rather  distant  from  head;  base  truncate,  slightly  oblique 
on  sides;  basal  angles  obtuse  but  marked;  lateral  margins  reflexed, 
explanate  (widely  so  posteriorly),  bearing  two  setae  (anterior  at 
middle,  posterior  at  basal  angle);  basal  area  depressed.  Elytra 
widely  ovate  (3*2  x  2-35  mm.),  lightly  convex;  humeral  angles 
widely  rounded;  apex  obliquel}'^  truncate;  external  angle  widely 
rounded,  sutural  angle  decidedly  marked;  interstices  Isevigate, 
subconvex,  first  with  a  short  striole  at  base,  third  with  a  fine 
puncture  on  subapical  macula,  ninth  not  narrower  than  eighth, 
seriate-punctate;  marginal  channel  wide,  depressed;  border  ex- 
tending from  peduncle  to  apical  sutural  angle.  Mesosternum 
with  intercoxal  part  small,  narrow;  metasternum  meeting  meso- 
sternum in  a  narrow  point  between  the  coxae.  Tarsi  with 
penultimate  joint  entire.     Length  4-5-5,  breadth  2*35  mm. 

Hah.  — Q. :  Cairns  District  (Froggatt);  Normanby  River  (Sloane). 

I  have  been  able  at  the  Macleay  Museum  to  compare  specimens 
brought  from  the  Cairns  District  by  Mr.  Froggatt  in  1887  with 
M.  tetraspilotns  W.  S.  Macleay,  and  have  found  that  M.  macleayi 
differs  by  size  smaller;  prothorax  shorter,  wider,  sides  not  sinuate 
posteriorly;  head  less  rugulose,  ifcc.  Several  specimens  occurred 
to  me  on  the  Upper  Normanby  River,  40  miles  south-west  of 
Cooktown,  in  June,  1906,  beneath  a  log  upon  the  ground  in  scrub. 
The  genus  Moctherits  has  not  been  recorded  previously  from 
Australia. 

Stricklandia  nigra,  n.sp. 

Depressed;  head  large,  eyes  prominent;  prothorax  deeply 
emarginate  at  apex,  lateral  margins  explanate;  elytra  much 
wider  than  prothorax,  striate,  interstices  subcostate,  a  sharp 
spine  at  inner  and  outer  apical  angles  of  each  el3^tron.       Black; 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOANE  379 

under  surface    piceous;    tarsi,    palpi,   and     six    apical    joints    of 
antennae  reddish,  four  basal  joints  of  antennse  piceous. 

Head  large  (2-5  mm.  across  eyes),  strongly  obliquely  and  everdy 
narrowed  behind  eyes,  subconvex  between  eyes,  widely  and  feebly 
impressed  on  each  side  between  antennse;  eyes  large,  hemi- 
spherical, not  inclosed  at  base,  very  close  to  buccal  fissure  beneath; 
clypeus  truncate;  labrum  long,  almost  covering  mandibles, 
roundly  truncate  and  6-setose  at  apex  (the  lateral  setse  long). 
Mentum  with  a  short,  widely  obtuse  prominence  in  middle  of 
sinus.  Labial  palpi  with  apical  joint  elongate;  penultimate 
hardly  shorter,  bisetose  in  front.  Antennse  slender;  basal  condjde 
exposed.  Prothorax  broader  than  long  (1-8  [2'2  at  sides]  x  2-85 
mm.),  widest  and  subangulate  just  before  middle;  sides  narrowed 
to  apex  in  an  oblique  curve,  more  lightly  and  subsinuately 
narrowed  to  base;  apex  deeply  and  roundly  emarginate;  anterior 
angles  prominent,  obtuse;  base  truncate;  basal  angles  wide;  disc 
canaliculate,  transversely  striolate;  margins  explanate,  widely 
retlexed,  widest  at  basal  angles;  a  wide  round  depression  near 
each  basal  angle,  these  depressions  connected  by  a  rather  wide 
transverse  impression;  a  setigerous  puncture  on  edge  of  explanate 
border  at  basal  angle,  and  another  at  widest  part  of  prothorax  on 
each  side;  a  few  fine  setse  on  margin  near  each  anterior  an^le. 
Elytra  lightly  convex,  shortly  ovate  {Q  5  x  4-8  mm.),  about  twice  as 
wide  at  base  as  the  base  of  the  prothorax;  humeral  angles  wideh^- 
rounded;  apical  truncature  of  each  elytron  obliquely  arcuate,  a 
short  acute  spine  at  outer  angle;  a  long  acute  spine  at  apex  of 
second  interstice;  striae  finely  punctate;  interstices  convex  or 
subcostate,  with  a  row  of  minute  punctures  down  middle,  third 
with  two  distinct  setigerous  punctures  about  apical  third,  ninth 
seriate-punctate,  narrow  and  catenulate  near  shoulders;  border 
narrowly  reflexed  on  sides,  reaching  peduncle;  inflexed  maroin 
wide  near  base.  Prosternum  with  intercoxal  part  narrow, 
bordered  on  each  side;  mesosternum  narrow  between  coxjb;  meta- 
sternum  meeting  mesosternum  between  middle  cox^b  in  a  sharp 
point.  Tarsi  long,  slender;  three  basal  joints  of  anterior  in  male 
slightly  inflated;  ungues  finely  pectinate  near  base.  Length  11, 
breadth  4*8  mm. 


380  STUDIES  IN  AUSTRALIAN  ENTOMOLOGY,   XV., 

Hab. — Q. :  Kuranda  (Dodd;  March  and  April). 

I  compared  ihis  species  with  the  type  of  S.  jjericalloides  Macl., 
in  the  Australian  Museum  and  found  it  thoroughly  distinct.  It 
differs  decidedly  from  S.  ^jericaZ^oic/e^j  by  the  shape  of  the  pro- 
thorax,  which  has  the  sides  far  less  ampliate  at  middle,  much 
less  strongly  sinuate  posteriorly,  and  without  the  six  or  seven 
long  marginal  setae  of  the  anterior  half;  the  anterior  angles 
triangular,  not  obtusely  rounded,  &c.  The  New  Guinea  genus 
Stricklandia  is  now  recorded  for  the  first  time  from  the  Australian 
mainland. 

Genus  Scopodes. 

SCOPODES    CYANEUS,  n.sp. 

Upper  surface  bluish ;  elytra  violaceous ;  legs  testaceous. 
Head  wider  than  prothorax  (1-2  mm.  across  eyes),  smooth,  nitid; 
eyes  large  and  prominent.  Prothorax  a  little  broader  than  long 
(0-75  X  0*9  mm.),  convex,  nitid^  widest  at  anterior  marginal  seta 
(this  on  a  sharp  triangular  process),  narrowed  and  transversely 
impressed  behind  posterior  marginal  seta  (this  on  a  small  angulate 
prominence  a  little  before  the  base);  lateral  border  reflexed 
between  marginal  setae.  Elytra  oval  (2-3  x  1"6  mm.),  punctate- 
striate;  interstices  depressed,  third  without  distinct  discoidal 
punctures.*     Length  4,  breadth  1-6  mm. 

Hab. — Q.:  Kuranda  (Dodd). 

A  distinct  species.  Its  colour,  the  striae  of  the  elytra  formed 
of  rows  of  strong  punctures,  and  the  third  interstice  without 
foveiform  punctures,  are  features  that  differentiate  it  from  all 
the  other  Australian  species.  According  to  the  table  of  the 
Australian  species  of  Scopodes  given  by  me  in  these  Proceedings, 
(1903,  p. 637),  it  would  be  placed  nearest  S.  aterrimus  Chaud.,  and 
S.  Sydney ensis  SI.,  but  it  is  not  at  all  closely  allied  to  these 
species. 

Scopodes  angulicollis  Macleay. 

Tians.Ent.Soc.  N.S.Wales,ii.,1871,p.92;  S.  r iiJiosicoUis  Slos^ne, 
Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.Wales,  1903,  xxviii.,  p. 639. 


*  In  my  unique  specimen  I  am  able  to  detect  only  one  fine  puncture, 
almost  confused  with  the  punctures  of  the  third  stria,  placed  about  the 
anterior  fourth. 


BY    THOMAS    G.    SLOAN E.  381 

I  have  compared  my  specimens  of  S.  rimosicollis  with  the  type 
of  S.  angulicollis  and  found  them  the  same. 

Ilab.—Q.:  Kuranda  (Dodd);  Gayndah  (Masters)— N.  S.W.: 
Dunoon  (Helms);  Illawarra  (Carter). 

ScopoDES  DENTicoLLis  Macleay. 

Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  i.  1864,  p.  112;  S.  sex/oveatus 
Macleay,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  (2),  iii.  1888,  p.  456. 

I  have  examined  the  types  of  ^.  denticollis  and  S.  foveatus  in 
the  Macleay  Museum,  and  could  find  no  difference  between  them. 

ScoPODES  LAEVis  Macleay. 

Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  ii.  1871,  p.92. 

I  have  seen  the  type  of  S.  laevis  in  the  Australian  Museum, 
Sydney,  and  found  it  allied  to  S.  denticollis,  Macl.  It  has  all 
the  features  necessary  to  bring  it  into  the  same  group  as  aS'. 
denticollis  according  to  the  tabular  view  of  the  species  I  have 
given  in  these  Proceedings  for  1893  (p.637).  I  also  compared 
with  it  S.  sydneyensis  SI.,  and  considered  them  distinct. 

Genus  Ectinochila. 

EcTiNOCHiLA  aurata  Macleay. 

Scopodes  auratus  Macleay,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  N.S.Wales,  ii.  1871, 

p.92;     Ectinochila  tessellata  Chaudoir,  Col.   Nov.   1883,  i.  p.  21; 

Scopodes  Jasciolatus  Macleay,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  Wales,  1887 

(2),  ii.  p.219. 

I  have  only  recently  been  able  to  compare  Chaudoir's  descrip- 
tion of  Ectinochila  tessellata  with  fresh  specimens  of  Scopodes 
auratus  Macl.,  with  the  result  that  1  feel  no  doubt  as  to  their 
identity.  The  types  of  Scopodes  fasciolatus  Macl.,  are  in  the 
Macleay  Museum,  where  are  also  specimens  of  Scopodes  auratus 
from  Gayndah;  a  recent  examination  of  these  convinced  me  of 
their  identity. 

Hah. — Q.:    Kuranda  (Dodd);    Gayndah   (Masters);    Coomera, 
south  of   Brisbane  (Sloane;  under  the  bark  of  a  dead  sapling; 
June,  1906). 
28 


382 


ON  DIMORPHISM    IN  THE   FEMALES    OF 
AUSTRALIAN  AGRIONID^. 

By    R.    J.    TiLLYARD,    M.A.,   F.E.S. 

In  the  Proceedings  of  this  Society  for  1905  (p.302)  I  described 
a  dimorphic  form  of  the  female  of  Ischnura  heterosticta  Burm. 
Since  that  time  further  examples  of  dimorphism  have  come 
to  light,  and  the  present  paper  is  the  outcome  of  the  results  of 
my  investigations  in  this  direction. 

Of  all  the  genera  comprising  the  Australian  Agrionidfe,  there 
are  only  two  in  which  I  have  been  able  to  discover  the 
phenomenon  of  dimorphism.  These  two  contain  the  smallest  and 
weakest  species  of  the  dragonflies  known  in  Australia,  a  point 
which  serves  to  strengthen  the  contention  that  the  existence  of 
dimorphic  females  is  in  some  manner  or  other  connected  with  the 
preservation  of  the  species.  The  two  genera  in  question  are 
Ischnura  and  Agriocnemis.  Of  the  former,  three  species  (/.  hetero- 
sticta Burm.,  /.  delicata  Selys,  /.  senegalensis  Rambur)  are 
known  to  inhabit  Australia.  The  case  of  /.  heterosticta  has  been 
already  dealt  with.  /.  seiiegalensis  I  have  never  yet  taken,  but 
its  similarity  to  /.  heterosticta  leads  me  to  believe  that  in  any 


BY  R.  J.   TILLYAHD.  3^3 

Spot  where  it  is  common,  a  careful  search  will  reveal  the 
existence  of  a  dimorph.  As  regards  /.  delicata,  this  insect  differs 
greatly  both  in  size  and  colouration  from  the  other  two;  however, 
I  was  confident  that  a  dimorphic  form  would  be  found  to  exist. 
But,  in  spite  of  its  abundance  all  over  the  Eastern  States,  a 
careful  search  for  many  months  failed  to  reveal  the  desired  form. 
It  was  only  during  my  trip  to  Western  Australia,  in  January 
last,  that  I  was  successful  in  discovering  the  dimorphic  female. 
It  is  a  distinctly  rare  form,  and  where  it  occurs,  it  numbers  only 
about  10%  of  the  females  taken;  whereas  in  the  case  of  hetero- 
slicta  the  dimorph  occurs  in  every  locality  and  is  nearly  as 
common  as  the  ordinary  form. 

As  regards  the  genus  Agriocneniis,  on  account  of  the  rarity  of 
most  of  the  species,  my  data  are  necessarily  incomplete,  but  they 
are  suflficient  to  show  the  existence  of  a  series  of  dimorphic 
females  of  a  different  type  from  those  of  Ischnura.  The  dimorphs 
of  Ischnura  in  Australia  are  male-mimicking,  but  in  other 
countries,  dimorphs  of  this  genus  liave  been  recorded,  known  as 
"  orange  "  forms  from  their  prevailing  colour.  The  dimorphs  of 
A  gi^iocne  mis  ma.y -aI^o  be  classed  as  "  orange  "  or  "red  "  forms, 
and  are  remarkable  for  showing  not  the  slightest  resemblance 
either  to  the  male  or  to  the  ordinary  form  of  the  female,  so  much 
so  that  in  some  cases  I  have  been  for  a  long  time  deceived  as  to 
the  identity  of  the  insect  (see  Agriocnemis  pruinescens  below). 
The  series  is  very  incomplete  in  this  genus,  and  in  onl}'  one 
species  have  I  found  both  forms  of  the  female;  but  in  the  other 
species,  the  one  form  of  female  that  is  so  far  known  to  occur  is 
sometimes  an  ordinary  form  and  sometimes  an  "orange"  or 
"  red  "  form.  Hence  I  have  arranged  all  the  known  females  into 
two  groups,  feeling  certain  that,  as  in  the  case  of  /.  delicata,  a 
careful  search  for  a  second  form  of  the  female,  where  still 
wanting,  will  be  well  rewarded.  There  is  of  course  also  the 
possibility  that  amongst  these  extremely  rare  species  of  Agrioc- 
nemis  one  of  the  two  forms  of  female  has  already  died  out,  thus 
accelerating  the  final  demise  of  the  species. 


384  DIMORPHISM  IN  FEMALES  OF  AUSTRALIAN  AGRIONIDiE, 

Genus  Ischnura. 

/.  heterosticta  Burm.,  possesses  a  well-developed  dimorphic 
female,  a  complete  mimic  of  the  male.  This  form  occurs  in  all 
localities  where  the  ordinary  form  is  found  and  is  fairly  common, 
comprising  from  30-40%  of  all  the  females  taken. 

/.  delicata  Selys. — The  dimorphic  female,  which  is  a  well- 
developed  male-uiimicking  form,  is  exceedingly  rare,  only 
occurring  in  a  few  localities  in  South- Western  Australia.  I  took 
it  first  at  Bridgetown  on  the  Blackwood  River.  The  species  is 
by  no  means  common  here;  out  of  a  dozen  females  taken  two 
were  dimorpbs.  At  Wilgarrup,  some  fifteen  miles  from  Bridge- 
town, and  in  the  Warren  Kiver  district,  this  species  was  in  great 
abundance,  the  males  flying  up  in  clouds  from  the  rich  grass 
that  fringes  the  continually  running  and  often  boggy  creeks. 
Here  I  was  able  to  capture  a  great  many  females,  with  the  result 
that  about  10%  were  dimorphs.  Three  of  these  had  the  tips  of 
the  abdomen  smeared  with  brown  mud,  indicating  that  they  had 
already  been  ovipositing  along  the  margins  of  the  creek. 

The  following  is  a  comparative  description  of  the  two  forms:  — 
Ischnura  delicata  Selys  9. 

Total  length  24-25  mm.  ;  abdomen  19-20  mm.  ;  forewing 
14-15  mm.;  hindwing  13-14  mm. 

Wings:  Neuration  very  slender,  pterostigma  lozenge- 
shaped,  0'6mm.,  very  pale  dirty  brown.  Nodal  Indicator  2  6-8 
Head:  Eyes  black  above,  yellowish-green  in  front  and  \2  5-6 
below;  a  brilliant  pale  blue  spot  on  the  orbit  behind  each  eye. 
Upicranium  black,  with  a  transverse  yellowish-green  band  in 
front  next  the  clypeus,  in  a  line  with  the  green  portion  of  the 
eyes.  Clypeus  black ;  labrum  yellowish ;  labium  pale  dirty 
greyish-white,  or  straw-coloured.  Thorax:  Prothorax  black 
above,  yellowish  on  sides.  Meso-  and  metathorax  black  above, 
with  a  pair  of  narrow  olive-green  or  yellowish-green  bands,  sides 
greenish.  Leys  pale  yellow  or  straw-coloured,  femora  marked 
with  a  black  line  for  half  their  length  from  elbow. 


BY  R.  J.   TILLYARD. 


385 


Form  A. 
A  b  d  o  m  e  n  cylindrical, 
stouter  than  in  male.  Colour: 
1-7  metallic  black  above  (some- 
times dull  black  or  greenish- 
black),  a  pale  transverse  line  in 
each  suture;  8-10  dull  black. 
Sides  of  all  segments  greenish. 


Form  B. 
Abdomen  shaped  as  in  A . 
Colour:  1  black  above;  sutures 
between  1  and  2  red;  2  with  an 
irregular  black  basal  patch;  3-5 
bright  red,  a  fine  black  trans- 
verse band  along  all  the  sutures; 
6,  four-fifths  bright  red,  anal 
one-fifth  black;  7  deep  metallic 
black,  basal  and  anal  sutures 
touched  with  red;  8,  basal  two- 
thirds  black,  anal  third  pale 
blue;  9  blue,  touched  with  black 
at  base;  10  short,  black.  Sides 
of  all  segments  pale  orange. 
Appendages seipa,vsiie,0'l 5mm.,  Appendages  shaped  as  in  A, 

subconical,  rather  blunt,  black,      brownish. 

In  a  variety  of  Form  B,  taken  at  Wilgarrup,  segment  2  of 
abdomen  has  basal  half  red  with  a  large  cup-shaped  black  mark, 
anal  half  black;  3-4  have  a  transverse  anal  black  band,  and  3  a 
transverse  central  black  line;  also  the  black  line  along  the 
sutures  of  3-5  is  enlarged  into  a  conspicuous  narrow  band,  A 
similar  variety  occurs  in  the  male,  also  intermediate  forms. 


Genus  Agriocnemis. 

A.  pruinescens  Tillyard. — The  male  of  this  insect  is  a  dull 
blackish  insect  with  the  first  two  and  last  but  one  segments  of 
abdomen  clouded  with  greyish  bloom.  While  in  North  Queens- 
land I  failed  to  capture  the  female,  but  a  few  months  later  I 
received  from  Mr.  E.  Allen,  of  Cairns,  one  male  and  three  females 
of  this  species.  The  females  are  most  remarkable,  bearing  not 
the  slightest  resemblance  to  the  male;  a  first  examination  of 
them  made  me  think  they  were  orange  forms  of  some  species  of 
Ischmcra,  as  they  bear  a  remarkable  resemblance  to  that  genus. 
However,  the  position  of  the  first  antenodal   arising  before  the 


386  DIMORPHISM  IN  FEMALES  OF  AUSTRALIAN  AGRIONID.F., 

arculus  fixes  them  in  the  genus  Agriocnemis,  and  their  size  and 
general  facies  show  that  they  cannot  possibly  be  the  females  of 
any  but  this,  the  largest  of  the  genus.  As  the  only  specimens 
of  this  insect  known  are  the  three  males  and  three  females  in  my 
own  collection,  it  is  quite  possible  that  an  ordinary  form  of  the 
female  may  be  found  to  exist  when  further  captures  are  made. 
The  following  is  a  description  of  the  female  : — 
Form  A. — (Not  known). 

Form  B. — Size  variable.     Total   length    29-34  mm.;   abdomen 
22-26  mm.;  forewing  18-20  mm.;  hindwing  17-19  mm. 

Wings:  Pierostigma  lozenge-shaped,  08  mm.,  very  pale 
brownish,  darkest  at  inferior  angle.  Nodal  Indicator  |2  8 
Head:  Epicranium  velvety  black,  a  broad  transverse  ]2  7 
yellow  band  in  front  reaching  to  the  eyes  and  enlarged  so  as  to 
enclose  the  postclypeus;  ocelli  pale,  front  one  transparent.  Post- 
clypeus  jet-black,  anteclypeus  yellow;  labrv.m  dull  yellowish; 
labium  dirty  straw-colour,  Thorax:  Prothorax  black  above, 
yellowish  on  sides.  Mesa-  and  metathorax  rich  orange,  w  ith  a 
broad  black  dorsal  ray,  narrowing  somewhat  anally.  Legs,  coxae, 
and  femora  orange,  rest  dull  blackish.  Abdomen  cylindrical, 
1-2  and  8-9  slightly  enlarged.  Colour  :  1  pale  orange;  2  orange 
with  a  large  black  dorsal  mark  shaped  like  a  bishop's  mitre,  or 
sometimes  like  an  inverted  goblet;  3-7  metallic  bronzy-black,  a 
pale  transverse  yellowish  line  in  the  sutures;  8-9  black,  with  a 
pale  yellowish  spot  on  each  side;  10  black.  Sides  and  underside 
of  abdomen  j^ellowish.  Appendages  very  short,  separate, 
conical,  black. 

[For  description  of  male,  see  these  Proceedings  for  1906  (p. 177) 
"  New  Australian  Species  of  the  Family  Agrionidse."] 

A.  splendida  Martin. — This  is  the  commonest  of  the  Australian 
species  of  this  genus,  having  been  taken  by  myself  at  Atherton 
in  North  Queensland,  and  also  by  Captain  Billinghurst  on  the 
Goulburn  River  at  Alexandra  (Vic).  M.  Rene  Martin  has 
described  the  species,  but  owing  to  the  colouration  of  the  living 


BY  R.  J.   TILLYARD. 


387 


insect  fading  when  dead,  his  description  varies  considerably  from 
that  of  the  living  insect  itself.  Last  December  I  took  a  long 
series  of  this  insect  at  Alexandra  (Vic),  and  the  description  I 
made  from  them  corresponds  almost  exactly  with  that  of  the 
North  Queensland  specimens  which  I  took  two  years  ago,  although 
the  Victorian  insects  are  slightly  larger.  This  species  exhibits 
strong  dimorphism,  having  both  an  ordinary  type  of  female 
(similar  to  the  male)  and  also  a  fairly  abundant  red  form,  nearly 
as  common  as  the  other. 


The  colour  of  the  male  is  a  rich  bronze-green,  not  a  brilliant 
green  as  stated  by  M.  Martin.  The  dimorphic  female  is  a  deep 
brick-red,  not  yellow  or  orange.  The  following  is  a  comparative 
description  of  the  two  females  : — 

A.  splendida  Martin  Q. 

Total  length  20-23mra.;  abdomenl7-19mm.;  forewing  ll-14mm.; 
hindwinoj  10-13  mm. 


Wings 


Pterostigma  rhomboidal,  0*5  mm  ,  dull  olive-brown. 


Nodal  Indicator 


7 
6-7 


Form  A. 
Head. — Eyes   black   above. 


greenish  beneath,  orbits  black 
underneath.  Epicraniinn  bril- 
liant bronze,  giving  copper-red 
reflections;  behind  each  eye  is  a 
large  s^jot  of  deep  metallic  blue. 
Postclypeus  pale  blue  shading 
to  greenish  in  centre ;  the  blue 
colouration 


enlarged 


on     to 

the  eyes;  anteclypeus  metallic 
hro7izy -green,  clypeal  suture 
black.  Labrum  pale  blue ; 
labium  dull  dirty  yellowish- 
white,  mouth  tipped  with  black. 


Form  B  (dimorph). 

Head. — Eyes  black.  Epi- 
cranium  deep  bronze,  lacking 
the  m,etallic  blue  postocular  spots', 
a  broad  transverse  yellowish 
band  in  front  extending  to  the 
eyes  and  surrounding  the 
clypeus.  Postclypeus  black ; 
anteclypeu  sand  labrum  yellow- 
ish; labium  pale  dirty  yellowish- 
white. 


388 


DIMORPHISM  IN  FEMALES  OF  AUSTRALIAN  AGRIONID^, 


Form  A. 

Thorax. — Prothorax  bronze. 
Meso-  and  metathorax  deep 
bronze-green  with  an  irregular 
light  blue  patch  low  down  on 
each  side,  extending  from  hind 
wing-join  to  between  meso-  and 
metacoxse;  the  blue  edged  with 
black.     Scuta  and  scutellah\MQ. 

Legs  very  long;  deep  brown 
or  black. 

Abdomen  cjdindrical;  1-8 
rich  bronze  touched  with  j'-ellow 
lines  in  the  sutures;  8  with  a 
transverse  blue  anal  mark;  9 
blue  with  a  double  basal  bronze 
spot  (separated  into  two  sepa- 
rate spots  in  some  specimens); 
10  blue  with  a  small  double 
central  spot  of  bronzy-black. 
Underside  dull  blackish. 

Appendages  short,  separate, 
rather  blunt,  dull  brownish. 


Form  B.(dimorph). 

T  h  o  r  a  x. — Prothorax  rich 
brick-red.  Meso-  and  metatho- 
rax deep  metallic  bronzy-black 
above;  sides  and  notum  7'ich 
brick-red. 


Legs  very  long,  femora  rich 
brick-red,  or  red-brown,  rest 
dull  blackish. 

A  b  d  o  m  e  n  cylindrical;  1 
rich  brick-red;  2  red,  with  a 
narrow  transverse  basal  black 
band  and  a  black  anal  spot;  3-9 
dark  bronze,  sutures  pale;  sides 
of  8-9  dull  orange-red;  10  black 
above,  orange-red  on  sides. 


Appendages     as     in    A, 
yellowish-brown. 


dull 


A.  argentea  Tillyard. — Only  one  form  of  female  is  known.  The 
colour  of  the  male  is  silvery-white,  due  to  a  bloom  forming  all 
over  the  insect.  Where  this  is  rubbed  off,  the  groundcolour  is 
seen  to  be  black.  The  colour  of  the  female  is  black.  I  consider 
this  as  the  ordinary  form  of  female;  the  '*  red  "  or  dimorphic 
form  being  either  not  known  or  obsolete. 

A.  velaris  Selys. — This  rather  rare  insect  occurs  in  North 
Queensland  at  Atherton,  and  also  sparingly  about  Sydney.  In 
both  localities  I  have  taken  only  one  form  of  female,  which 
differs  completely  from  the   male,  being  a   "  red  "   or  dimorphic 


BY  R.  J.  TILLYARD. 


389 


form.  The  markings  of  the  thorax  show  great  similarity  with 
those  of  the  "orange"  female  of  A.  pruinescens  described  above, 
but  the  groundcolour  is  dull  red  and  the  insect  is  very  much 
smaller.  There  may  be  also  an  ordinary  form  of  female,  yet  to 
be  found  or,  it  may  be,  obsolete.  I  have  only  half-a-dozen  females 
of  this  insect  altogether. 

The  following  table  exhibits  the  classification  proposed  for  the 
known  forms  of  the  two  genera. 

Genus  Ischnuka. 


Male. 

Females. 

Proportion  of 

Form  B 

to  total  number 

of  Females. 

Name. 

Form  A 
(ordinary) 

Form  B 
(dimorph) 

/.  heterontieta 
I.  delkata 

bronze  and 

blue 
red  and  blue 

dull  black 

dull  black  or 
olive-green 

imitates  J" 
imitates  ^ 

:^0-40  %. 

10%   in   S.  W. 

Australia  ;   ab- 
sent elsewhere. 

Genus  Agriocnemis. 


Females. 

Proportion  of 

Form  B 

to  total  numbei 

Name. 

Male. 

Form  A 

Form  B 

(ordinary) 

(dimorph) 

of  Females. 

A .  pruinescens 

black  with 
grey  bloom 

(wanting) 

orange 

100%. 

A.  splendida 

bronze  and 
blue 

similar  to  (^ 

red 

40%. 

A.  aryentea 

silvery-white 

(groundcolour 

black) 

black 

(wanting) 

0%. 

A.  velaris 

bronze  with 
red  tip 

(wanting) 

red 

100%. 

In  conclusion  I  would  remark  that  the  two  genera  in  which 
dimorphism  is  shown  to  occur,  though  differing  widely  in  their 
wing-structure,  have  many  points  of  similarity,  notably  the  small 
size  and  weak  flight  of  almost  all  the  species,  the  general  facies 


390  DIMORPHISM  IN  FEMALES  OF  AUSTRALIAN  AGRIONID^. 

of  the  insects,  particularly  the  build  of  the  head  and  thorax,  and 
the  relative  proportion  of  expanse  of  wing  to  total  length  (about 
5  to  4  in  both  genera).  So  great  is  this  similarity  that,  if  the 
wings  were  removed  from  one  of  the  "orange"  females  of 
Agriocnemis  priiinesceiis,  one  would  unhesitatingly  declare  it  to 
be  a  new  form  of  the  female  of  /.  heterosticta  or  an  allied  species; 
and  such  I  took  it  to  be  until  I  saw  the  difference  in  the  neura- 
tion  of  the  wings.  That  the  same  cause  has  brought  about  dimor- 
phism in  both  genera  is  scarcely  open  to  doubt;  and  it  is  probable 
that  the  dimorphism  is  in  some  way  connected  with  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  species. 


391 


WEDNESDAY,  JUNE  26th,  1907. 


The  Ordinary  Monthly  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  in 
the  Linnean  Hall,  Ithaca  Road,  Elizabeth  Bay,  on  Wednesday 
evening,  June  26th,  1907. 

Mr.  A.  H.  Lucas,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  President  called  attention  to  a  presentation  copy  of  the 
Biography  of  Carl  von  Linne,  by  Professor  Th.  M.  Fries  (2  vols.), 
kindly  forwarded  by  Count  Morner,  Consul  for  Sweden  in  Sydney, 
on  the  author's  behalf;  and  he  stated  that  the  Consul  had  been 
asked  to  convey  to  the  distinguished  author  the  Society's  very 
cordial  thanks  for  this  exceedingly  opportune  and  highly  appreci- 
ated gift,  because  many  portraits,  and  representations  of  historic 
scenes  and  objects  to  be  found  in  these  volumes  had  hitherto  been 
out  of  reach. 

The  President  also  called  attention  to  another  most  interesting 
souvenir,  namely,  a  presentation  copy  of  the  "  Record  of  the 
Celebration  of  the  Two  Hundredth  Anniversary  of  the  Birth  of 
Benjamin  Franklin,  under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Philo- 
sophical Society  held  at  Philadelphia  for  promoting  Useful 
Knowledge,  April  17th-20th,  1906  (1906)"  from  the  American 
Philosophical  Society.  An  appropriate  acknowledgment  would 
be  made  at  the  earliest  opportunity. 

At  the  request  of  Professor  Liversidge  the  attention  of 
Members  was  called  to  circulars  of  information  respecting  the 
recently  established  "British  Science  Guild  "  whose  objects  are  : 

1.  To  bring  together,  as  members  of  the  Guild,  all  those  throughout  the 
Empire  interested  in  Science  and  Scientific  Methods,  in  order  by  joint 
action  to  convince  the  people,  by  means  of  publications  and  meetings, 
of  the  necessity  of  applying  the  methods  of  science  to  all  branches  of 
human  endeavour,  and  thus  to  further  the  progress  and  increase  the 
welfare  of  the  Empire. 


392  ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

2.  To  bring  before  the  Government   the  scientific  aspects  of    all   matters 

affecting  the  national  welfare, 

3.  To  promote  and  extend  the  application  of  scientific  principles  to  industrial 

and  general  purposes, 

4.  To  promote  ssientific  education  by  encouraging  the  support  of  Universities 

and  other  Institutions  where  the  bounds  of  science  are  extended,  or 
where  new  applications  of  science  are  devised. 

An  Association  with  aims  of  this  character  was  certain  worthy 
of  support;  and  Members  who  desired  to  come  into  touch  witli 
it,  were  recommended,  in  the  first  plaoe  to  appl}^  for  the  litera- 
ture, which  w^as  available  on  application. 

Attention  was  also  directed  to  a  circular  from  the  promoters  of 
the  proposed  ''Souscription  Universelle  pour  elever  un  Monument 
a  Lamarck."  The  President  commended  the  matter  to  the  notice 
of  the  Society;  and  he  stated  that  Dr.  H.  G,  Chapman,  of  the 
University,  would  hd  glad  to  receive  contributions,  and  forward 
the  same  to  Paris. 

A  letter  of  thanks  from  Mrs.  Alexander  Morton,  of  Hobart, 
for  kind  sympathy  was  communicated  to  the  Meeting. 

The  Donations  and  Exchanges  received  since  the  previous 
Monthly  Meeting,  amounting  to  14  Vols.,  83  Parts  or  Nos.,  14 
Bulletins,  1  Report,  and  28  Pamphlets,  received  from  54 
Societies,  &c.,  and  3  Individuals,  were  laid  upon  the  table. 


NOTES  AND  EXHIBITS. 

Mr.  David  G.  Stead  recorded  that  during  the  month  an 
exceedingly  large  shoal  of  great  Tunnies  had  made  its  appearance 
on  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  having  been  reported  from 
the  entrances  of  both  Port  Hacking  and — a  few  days  later — 
Port  Jackson.  Individuals  of  the  shoal  averaged  about  six  feet 
in  length.  One  large  example,  forwarded  to  the  Department  of 
Fisheries,  had  been  examined  by  Mr.  Stead,  who  stated  that  the 
species  was  an  addition  to  the  New  South  Wales  fish-fauna,  and 
that  he  had  identified  it  provisionally  as  6^er»io  maccoyi{CaHte\na.u). 


NOTES    AND    EXHIBITS.  393 

It  had  been  placed  in  Jordan's  genus  Germo  because  of  the  large 
pectoral  fins,  but  the  validity  of  that  genus  was  open  to  doubt. 
Tlie  species  was  closely  allied  to  Temminck  and  Schlegel's 
Thynnus  macropterus. 

Mr.  T.  G.  Taylor  exhibited  photographs  which  filled  a  gap 
between  ordinary  camera  photos  {\)  and  microphotos  (Y*), 
obtained  by  the  use  of  an  Express  Enlarger,  giving  magnifica- 
tions direct  from  the  micro-section  of  2  up  to  10  diameters.  This 
apparatus  is  ordinarily  used  for  bromide  enlargements  or  lantern 
slides,  but  is  very  suitable  for  enlarging  large  coral  calices,  which 
are  not  wholly  visible  in  the  microscope  field.  Imperial  Special 
Rapid  Plates  were  used;  blue  sky,  2-10  seconds  exposure. 

Mr.  Froggatt  exhibited  a  sample  of  the  seed  of  some  forage 
plants,  recently  imported  from  France,  which  had  mixed  with 
it  numbers  of  dried  land  snails  {Helicella  candidula  Studen). 

Dr.  Woolnough  showed  a  number  of  photographs  taken  in 
Fiji,  in  illustration  of  his  paper.  A  series  of  lantern  slides  will 
be  shown  at  a  future  Meeting  when  the  lantern  is  ae^ain  available. 


394 


NEW  AUSTRALIAN  SPECIES  OF  THE  FAMILY 
CALOPTERYGID^. 

By  K  J.  TiLLYARD,  M.A.,  F.E.S. 

Only  one  species  of  this  exceedingly  beautiful  and  interesting 
family  has  so  far  been  described  from  Australia,  ^^iz.,  Diphlehi a 
lestdides  Selys.  Two  additions  are  now  made,  one  being  a  com- 
mon East  Indian  species,  and  the  other  a  beautiful  Diphlebia  from 
Northern  Queensland. 

It  is  probable  that  systematic  collecting  in  the  Cape  York  and 
Port  Darwin  districts  would  add  several  more  species  of  this 
family  to  our  Australian  Odonata^  since  the  Calo'pterygidcf  are 
exceedingly  well  represented  in  the  tropical  zone. 

1.  Diphlebia  EUPKCEOiDES,  n.sp. 

(J.  Total  length  48-52  mm.,  abdomen  35-38  mm.;  wings,  fore 
29-31  mm,  hind  28-30  mm.  Wings  rather  broad;  suffused 
almost  completely  with  dark  brown  or  black  (in  the  young  $ 
with  pale  yellowish-brown);  the  only  portions  not  suffused  being 
the  tip  beyond  the  pterostigma  and  also  the  basal  part  of  the 
wing  including  the  costal,  subcostal,  and  median  spaces.  Ptero- 
stigma 4  mm.  black.  Nodal  Indicator  \  5-8  circ.  24  Head: 
All  parts  jet  black;  vertex  and  gense  j  5-6  circ.  20  hairy ;  a 
slight  dark  brown  patch  close  under  the  eyes  next  the  vertex; 
middle  of  labium  dirty  grey.  Front  ocellus  transparent;  antennae 
black,  nearly  3  mm.  Thorax:  Prothorax  jet  black  with  four 
bright  blue  spots,  two  narrow  transverse  elongated,  one  of  which 
is  basal  and  the  other  anal,  and  two  lateral,  oval,  pointed  inwards. 
Meso-  and  metathorax  soft  rich  sky  blue,  dorsal  ridge  black, 
widening  into  a  black  triangular  patch  next  the  prothorax  and 


BY    R.    J.    TILLYARD.  395 

curving  round  to  join  the  subhumeral  black  rays  of  which  there 
is  one  on  each  side,  reaching  to  the  fore  wing-joins,  and  below  it 
a  parallel  lateral  black  ray  reaching  to  the  hind  wing-join;  all  the 
sutures  marked  by  thin  black  lines.  Wing-joins  black,  spotted 
with  blue;  scuta  and  scutella  blue.  Underside  dirty  grey  or 
brown,  edged  with  black.  Legs  black,  powdered  with  grey. 
Abdomen  cylindrical,  1-3  slightly  swollen.  Colour  :  1,  blue, 
with  black  suture;  2,  blue,  suture  broadly  black,  a  black  semi- 
elliptical  spot  two-thirds  of  the  way  from  the  base  and  connected 
to  it  by  a  thin  black  line  along  the  dorsal  ridge;  sides  of  2  black; 
3,  basal  two-thirds  blue,  rest  black,  a  thin  black  line  along  the 
dorsal  ridge,  sides  and  underpart  black;  4-7,  jet  black;  8,  blue; 
9,  blue  between  broadly  black  sutures,  the  black  on  the  basal 
suture  sharply  pointed  inwards  along  the  dorsal  ridge;  10,  black 
with  a  pair  of  oval  blue  spots;  9,  swollen  below  into  a  small 
pointed  tubercle.  Underside  black,  powdered  with  grey  around 
the  genital  appendages  of  segment  2,  which  are  large  and  black. 
Appendages:  Sujoerior  forcipate,  nearly  2  mm.,  jet  black, 
tips  blunt,  slightly  clubbed  and  downy,  nearly  touching;  seen 
sideways  the  tips  are  slightly  curved  downwards.  Inferior  (two) 
about  1  mm.,  subcylindrical,  black,  tips  blunt,  in  some  specimens 
divergent,  in  others  close  together  and  parallel. 

9.  Total  length  44-46  mm.;  abdomen  31-33  mm.;  wings,  fore 
32-34  mm.,  hind  31-33  mm.  Wings  longer  and  narrower  than 
in  (^,  generally  almost  completely  suffused  with  dull  brown  or 
yellowish-brown;  sometimes,  especially  in  immature  specimens, 
hyaline.  Pterostigma  4  mm.,  brown  or  dark  brown.  There  are 
two  distinct  types  of  the  $  which  I  shall  designate  A  and  B.  In 
A  the  ground  colour  of  the  thorax  and  abdomen  is  either  dull 
olive  brown,  slightly  metallic,  or  else  dull  smoky  black.  In  B  it 
is  bright  yellowish-brown.  Head:  Vertex,  A,  dark  olive  brown, 
B  pale  brown;  a  curved  black  band  between  the  antennae  touch- 
ing the  front  ocellus;  behind  this  an  irregular  black  band  or  series 
of  spots  reaching  from  eye  to  eye  and  enclosing  the  two  other 
ocelli.  Behind  this  the  occiput  is  swollen,  almost  tubercled; 
colour  next  the  eyes  black;  a  black  or  dark  brown  line  across  the 


396      NEW  AUSTRALIAN  SPECIES  OF  THE  FAMILY  CALOPTERYGID^, 

occipital  ridge.  Ei/es  black,  bordered  in  front  by  a  bright  creamy 
or  yellowish  band.  Clyjjeus  and  labium  brownish,  darker  in  A 
than  B;  labium  pale  dirty  brownish,  mouth  deeply  edged  with 
black.  Thorax  as  in  ^J,  but  with  the  blue  parts  replaced  by 
the  ground  colour  of  A  or  B.  Underside  dusted  with  grey.  Legs 
black,  dusted  with  grey  on  underside  of  femora.  Abdomen 
cylindrical;  8  slightly  narrowed  basally;  10  very  small.  Colour 
as  mentioned  above  and  marked  as  follows  :—  dorsal  ridge  black, 
swelling  out  in  4-8  into  an  anal  black  spot;  3,  with  a  wide  black 
spot  three-fourths  of  the  way  from  the  base;  2,  with  a  suspicion 
of  the  same.  Sides  edged  with  dull  black.  These  markings  are 
very  conspicuous  in  ^,  but  indistinct  in  A.  Segments  8-10,  very 
much  swollen  below,  ovipositor  large,  ending  in  a  pale  blunt  tip 
pointed  slightly  upwards  and  carrying  below  the  tip  two  curved 
filaments,  black,  divergent  and  inclined  downwards,  about 
0*6  mm.  long.  B  has  a  brown  colouration  on  sides  of  9  and  10. 
Underside,  A  black,  dusted  with  grey;  B  shining  black. 
Appendages  black,  1  mm.,  subcornute,  separated. 

Hab. — Kuranda,  N.Q.,  Nov.-Feb.,  where  it  is  fairly  abundant 
on  the  small  and  densely  wooded  mountain  creeks,  but  it  is  not 
found  along  the  main  river.  I  have  also  received  specimens  from 
the  Cape  York  district. 

It  has  a  graceful  easy  flight,  often  fluttering  like  a  butterfly 
round  twigs  and  leaves.  It  is  extremely  fond  of  settling  on  logs 
or  twigs  near  the  water  with  expanded  wings.  The  females  are 
very  retiring,  and  are  generally  found  a  short  distance  in  the 
bush  away  from  the  creek  where  the  males  are  disporting  them- 
selves. One  form  of  the  female  is  about  as  common  as  the  other, 
and  it  is  possible  that  the  difference  is  only  one  of  age,  the  form 
A  being  the  fully  matured  female;  though,  as  I  found  both  forms 
common  late  in  the  season,  I  cannot  say  for  certain  that  this  is 
the  case. 

There  is  no  doubt  as  to  the  specific  distinctness  of  this  beautiful 
insect,  though  perhaps  it  will  be  as  well  to  give  the  points  of 
difference  between  it  and  D.  lesidides  Selys,  the  only  other  known 
species  of  the  genus,  which  is  common  in  Victoria   and  Southern 


BY    R.    J.    TILLYARD.  397 

New  South  Wales.     The  following  characteristics  will   at  once 
distinguish  the  two  species  : — 

(J.  The  (J  of  D.  lestdides  is  a  larger  insect  that  D.  euphoeo'ides, 
but  its  wings  are  decidedly  narrower.  Moreover,  the  wings  of 
D.  lestdides  ^  are  never  clouded  even  with  the  palest  brown, 
while  those  of  D.  euphoeo'ides  ^  even  in  v^ery  immature  speci- 
mens are  distinctly  clouded.  In  D.  lestdides  (J,  about  half-way 
between  the  nodus  and  pterostigma,  there  is  a  milk-white  bar  of 
thickness  varying  from  1*5  to  3  mm.  running  across  the  wing; 
this  is  absent  in  D.  euphoBdides.  In  D.  lestdides  ^  the  ground 
colour  of  the  whole  abdomen  is  blue;  in  D.  evphcedides  ^  only 
the  first  three  segments  and  8-9  are  blue,  the  rest  being  black. 
As  regards  the  appendages,  the  superior  ones  in  1).  lestdides  are 
distinctly  larger  than  those  of  D.  euphoedides;  while  the  inferior 
are  absolutely  different;  those  of  D.  eiiplioedides  being  subcylin- 
drical  and  with  blunt  rounded  tips,  while  those  of  D.  lestdides 
are  scarcely  one-fourth  as  long  as  the  superior,  and  are  wide  and 
distinctly  square  at  the  tips,  and  even  somewhat  hollowed  out  so 
as  to  appear  slightly  bifid  when  viewed  laterally.  It  may  also 
be  observed  that  the  abdomen  of  D.  lestdides  ^  is  distinctly  flat- 
tened, rather  wide,  and  of  practically  the  same  width  from  end 
to  end,  while  that  of  Z>.  euphvedides  is  much  narrower  and  varies  in 
width,  being  widest  at  1-2,  then  tapering  gracefully  to  7,  then 
slightly  enlarged  again  to  10.  It  is  also  distinctly  rounded  and 
not  flattened.  The  second  segment  of  the  abdomen  is  hairy  in 
D.  lestdides  (J,  smooth  in  D.  euphcedides. 

5.  The  two  females,  if  placed  side  by  side,  would  be  more  diffi- 
cult to  distinguish,  as  they  are  very  similar  in  general  colouration 
and  appearance.  But  D.  lestdides  9  is  distinctly  larger  than 
D.  euphcedides  9;  its  wings  are  very  seldom  suffused  with  brown, 
and  are  much  narrower  than  those  of  the  latter,  especial]}'- 
towards  the  tips,  which  in  D.  euphcedides  are  beautifully  rounded. 
The  pterostigma  is  always  very  pale  brown  between  black  ner- 
vures  in  D.  lestdides;  in  D.  euphcedides  5  it  is  a  medium  brown, 
and  in  ^  a  very  dark  brown.  The  appendages  are  very  similar. 
29 


398       NEW  AUSTEALIAN  SPECIES  OF  THE  FAMILY  CALOPTERYGIDJi, 

The  specific  name  is  adopted  on  the  suggestion  of  M.  Martin  sa 
as  to  maintain  the  uniformity  of  the  specific  nomenclature  in  use 
for  this  genus. 

Note  on  D.  lesto'ides  Selys. — In  making  the  foregoing  compari- 
son, I  have  had  recourse  only  to  my  own  series  of  this  insect, 
taken  during  Dec- Jan.,  1905,  on  the  Snowy  River,  Jindabyne, 
N.S.W.  M.  Rene  Martin,  in  his  remarks*  on  the  specimens  sent 
him  from  Victoria,  says  : — "  Elle  varie  tellement  pour  la  taille  et 
la  coloration  qu'on  serait  tente  de  voir  deux  especes  distinctes, 
quand  on  considere  un  grand  male  tout  vert  mat  ou  bleu  luisant 
ayant  un  abdomen  de  35  a  36  mm.  et  7  antenodales,  et  d'autre 
part  un  petit  male  plus  on  moins  varie  de  noir  sur  le  corps,  ayant 
un  abdomen  de  30  mm.  et  seulement  4  antenodales,  mais  on 
trouve  toutes  les  tallies  et  toutes  les  colorations  intermediaires." 

The  specimens  to  which  these  remarks  apply  were  taken  on 
the  Goulburn  River,  Victoria,  if  I  mistake  not.  On  the  Snowy 
River  I  took  and  examined  hundreds  of  specimens,  and  I  can 
truly  say  I  found  exceedingl}''  little  variation  in  size,  not  more 
than  2  mm.  either  in  length  of  abdomen  or  expanse  of  wings. 
The  newly  emerged  $  has  a  flabby  brownish  abdomen  marked 
with  black,  very  similar  to  that  of  the  9,  and  it  takes  some  weeks 
before  the  rich  blue  colour  has  covered  the  whole  body.  A  male 
some  days  old  shows  the  blue  colouration  beginning  from  the 
2nd  segment  dow^nwards,  and  one  can  meet  with  them  in  all 
stages  of  colouration.  But  I  am  certain  that  the  insect  is  never 
dull  green  {vert  mat).  Dried  specimens  generally  lose  their 
colour  entirely  and  turn  dull  black  or  brown,  but  several  well- 
matured  specimens  I  had,  turned  a  deep  dull  green  and  remained 
so  for  many  weeks,  though  that  colour  has  now  disappeared. 
Doubtless  some  of  M.  Martin's  specimens  reached  him  in  this 
condition.  As  regards  the  variation  in  size,  it  must  be  due  to 
the  colder  climate  and  the  later  advent  of  summer  in  Victoria, 
whereby  many  specimens  never  reach  full  maturity;  for  even  on 
the  Snowy  River  at  the  end  of  January  most  of  the  specimens 
were  flabby,  ill-nourished,  and  but  half-matured. 

*  Memoires  de  la  Soci6t6  Zoologique  de  France,  1901,  pp. 243-244. 


BY    R.    J.    TILLYARD.  399^ 

2.    Rhinocypha  tincta  Ramb. 

A  single  male  of  this  species  which  I  now  possess,  in  very  bad 
condition,  was  taken  in  1869  on  the  Endeavour  River,  Cooktown, 
by  one  of  Sir  William  Macleay's  collectors.  The  species  is  an 
exceedingly  common  one  all  over  Oceania  and  the  Indies,  and  it 
is  a  practical  certainty  that  it  must  occur  at  Cape  York  and 
Thursday  Island ;  though  the  absence  of  any  collections  of 
Odonata  from  that  district  accounts  for  its  not  being  recorded 
before. 

The  specimen  I  possess  is  possibly  var.  semitincta  from  the 
degree  of  suffusion  of  the  wings,  but  all  colouration  has  been 
obliterated  long  ago.  It  would  be  useless  to  attempt  to  describe 
it;  the  description  of  the  type  is  given  by  Rambur,  and  Selysalso 
has  remarks  on  the  species  [Ramb.,  Ins.  Nevr.  p.  237  (1842); 
Selys,  Syn.  Calopt.  p.  64  (1853);  Mon.  Calopt.  p.  253  (1854); 
Bull.  Acad.  Belg.  (2),  xxvii.  p.  663  (1869);  (2),  xxxv.  p.  490 
(1873);  (2),  xlvii,  p.  395  (1879)]. 


400 


REVISION    OF    THE  AUSTRALIAN    CURCULIONID^ 
BELONGING  TO  THE  SUBFAMILY 

CR  YPTORHYNCHIDES. 

Part  VIIL 

By  Arthur  M.  Lea. 
(Continued  from  Proceedings,  1905^  2).'258.) 

In  this  contribution  and  Parts  5,  6,  and  7  of  the  revision,  the 
genera  allied  to  Cryi)torhynchns  are  dealt  with.  These  genera  may 
be  regarded  as  forming  several  closely  allied  sections,  Cryptorhyn- 
chus  and  Tyrtceosus  with  several  close  allies  forming  one  section; 
Perissops  and  its  many  close  allies  forming  another;  Protopalus 
with  its  allies  forming  a  third,  and  this  the  most  distinct  section.* 
Aonychus  and  Mecistocerus,  although  at  a  glance  widely  i^eparated 
(and  actually  placed  in  different  groups  by  M.  Lacordaire),  are 
closely  allied,  on  account  of  a  supplementary  prosternal  process 
(which  appears  to  denote  an  approach  to  Camptorrhinus);  with 
them  may  be  doubtfully  placed  Berosiris  and  Microherosiris; 
Imalithus,  Paratituacia  and  Sympediosoma  lead  off  to  and  might 
fairly  be  claimed  as  belonging  to  the  ChcBtectetorus  group;  Nechyrus 
might  be  regarded  as  belonging  to  the  Poropterus  group. 

In  most  of  the  species  the  clothing  is  not  very  dense;  it  is 
often  prettily  variegated,  and  can  usuall}^  be  relied  upon.  Few 
of  the  species  are  tuberculate,  but  many  are  granulate.  Many  of 
the  genera  are  very  distinct  and  may  be  readily  identified.  The 
rostrum  is  frequently  long  and  thin,  and  is  never  straight.     The 

*  Protojyalus  and  its  allies  have  been  regarded  as  forming  a  very  distinct 
and  isolated  section,  but  there  are  several  genera  that  clearly  lead  up  to  it 
from  Perissops. 


I 


BY    ARTHUR    M.    LEA.  401 

scute] lum  is  invariably  present,  and  is  often  of  comparatively 
large  size.  The  metasternum  is  usually  almost  as  long  as  the 
following  segment,  sometimes  it  is  even  longer;  its  episterna  are 
always  very  distinct.  The  abdominal  sutures  are  always  distinct; 
that  between  first  and  second  is  frequently  curved  in  the  middle, 
but  the  two  segments  are  never  closely  soldered  together;  the 
second-fourth  are  often  drawn  slightly  backwards  at  the  sides, 
and  the  second  is  sometimes  not  at  all  or  but  slightly  longer 
than  the  third  or  fourth.  In  Aonychus  the  claw-joint  is  absent, 
but  in  very  few  of  the  other  genera  are  the  tarsi  at  all  remarkable. 
All  are  winged. 

The   following    table    is    arranged    solely   for   convenience  of 
identification, 

A.  Tarsi  triarticulate Aonychus, 

AA.  Tarsi  quadriarticulate. 

B.  Body  greatly  depressed Imalithus. 

BB.  Body  more  or  less  strongly  convex. 

C.  Rostrum  barbed  in  the  male Glochixorrhinus. 

CC.  Rostrum  barbed  in  neither  sex. 
D.  Prosternum with  supplementary  processes....     Mecistocerus. 
DD.   Prosternum   without   supplementary   pro- 
cesses. 

E.  All  the  femora  bidentate Sybulus. 

EE.  Anterior  femora  only  bidentate Critomerus. 

EEE.  Femora  unidentate  or  edentate. 
F.  Middle  coxas  exposed  internally. 

a.  Ocular  lobes  distinct Berosiris. 

aa.  Ocular  lobes  absent Microberosiris. 

FF.  Middle  coxae  not  exposed  internally. 
G.  Mesosternal  receptacle  open. 
h.  Scape  shorter  than  funicle. 
c.  Suture   between  first  and  second  abdo- 
minal segments  distinct Neomystocis.  ,    ' 

CC.  This  suture  more  or  less  obliterated  in 

middle.. Nechyrus. 

hb.  Scape    the   length    of    or   longer   than  /^q    -. 

funicle.  [^   L  «  ^  P" 

d.  Elytra  at  base  not  much  wider  than  y^ 

prothorax Enteles. 

0 


402  REVISION    OF  THE  AUSTRALIAN  CURCULIONID.E,   VIII., 

dd.  Elytra    at    base    much    wider    than 
prothorax. 

e.  Elytra  bisinuate  at  base Pkotopalus  (in  part). 

ee.  Elytra  trisinuate  at  base. . .  Episodiocis. 

GG.  Mesosternal  receptacle  cavernous. 
H.  Metasternum  longer  than  the  following 
segment. 
/.  Three  intermediate  segments  of  abdo- 
men almost  equal Bleptocis. 

ff.  Abdomen  with  second  segment  much 

longer  than  third  or  fourth Notocryptorhynchus. 

HH.  Metasternum  shorter  than  the  follow- 
ing segment. 

I.  Eyes  coarsely  faceted. 

c).  Posterior  femora  passing  elytra. 

h.  Prothorax  longer  than  wide Pezichus. 

hh.  Prothorax  transverse Bothynacrum. 

gg.  Posterior  femora  not  passing  elytra. 
i.  Second   abdominal  segment  very 
little,  if  at  all  longer  than  third 
or  fourth. 

j.  Femora  dentate CryptgrhyiNchus. 

jj.  Femora  edentate Anipigraphocis. 

ii.  Second  abdominal  segment  much 
longer  than  third  or  fourth. 
k.  Femora  edentate. 
I.  Elytra    scarcely    wider     than 

prothorax Queenslandica. 

//.  Elytra  much  wider  than  pro- 
thorax at  base Scleropoides. 

klc.  Femora  dentate. 
m.  Suture    between    two   basal 
segments      of      abdomen 

straight Tyrtaeosus. 

myn.  This     suture     curved     in 
middle. 
n.  Elytra  bisinuate  at  base  ....     Pseudotepperia. 
nn.  Elytra  trisinuate  at  base. 
0.  Scape  the  length  of  funicle     Hyperiosoma. 
00.  Scape  shorter  than  funicle     Sympediosoma. 

II.  Eyes  finely  faceted. 

J.  Suture  between  two  basal  segments  of 

abdomen  straight Protopalus  (in  part). 


BY    ARTHUR    M.    LEA.  403 

JJ.  This  suture  curved  in  middle. 

K.  Posterior  femora  passing  elytra Dysopirhinus. 

KK.  Not  passing  elytra. 

L.  Femora  edentate Paratituacia. 

LL.  Femora  dentate. 
M.  Scape    considerably    longer   than 

f u nicle Blepiabda. 

MM.  Scape  the  length  of   or  shorter 

than  funicle. 
N.  Each  elytron  separately  rounded 
at  base. 

p.  Shoulders  projecting Orphanistes. 

pp.  Shoulders  not  projecting     Tepperia. 
NN.  Elytra  trisinuate  at  base. 

0.  Tibiffi  angular  externally Metraniomorpha. 

00.  Tibiae    (except   sometimes    the 
middle)  not  angular  externally. 

P.  Tibise  almost  straight Axionicus. 

PP.  Tibias  more  or  less  distinctly 

curved Perissops. 

Genus  Mecistocerus  Fauvel. 

Bull.  Soc.  Linn,  de  Normandie,  vii.  p. 159. 

Head  small,  convex,  not  concealed;  ocular  fovea  distinct  and 
usually  large.  Eyes  large,  triangularly  ovate,  widely  separated 
above  and  almost  contiguous  below,  coarsely  faceted.  Rostru7ri 
long  and  thin,  curved.  Antennc^  thin  or  raoderatel}^  thin;  inser- 
tion of  scape  variable;  basal  joints  of  funicle  variable;  club 
cylindrical  and  long  or  moderately  long,  sutures  oblique.  Pro- 
thorax  transverse,  sides  rounded,  apex  moderately  or  strongly 
narrowed  and  produced,  base  bisinuate,  constriction  slight,  ocular 
lobes  obtuse.  Scutellum  distinct.  Elytra  slightly  or  considerably 
wider  than  prothorax,  widest  across  shoulders.  Pectoral  canal 
deep  and  narrow,  terminated  at  base  of  or  just  behind  inter- 
mediate coxse,  with  walls  between  four  anterior  coxae  that  are 
formed  partly  by  the  pro-  and  partly  by  the  mesosternum.  Meso- 
sternal  receptacle  narrow  and  transverse,  scarcely  distinguishable 
from  the  metasternum  and  leaving  the  coxae  exposed ;  open. 
Metastermcm  shorter  or  slightly  longer  than  the  following  seg- 


404  REVISION  OF  THE  AUSTRALIAN  CURCULIONID^,  VIII., 

ment;  episterna  wide.  Abdomen  with  the  1st  segment  as  long 
as  2nd-3rd  combined,  intercoxal  process  not  \  ery  wide  and  semi- 
circular, apex  incurved  or  straight;  3rd  and  4th  combined  the 
length  of  2nd  and  distinctly  longer  than  5th,  their  sides  drawn 
slightly  backwards.  Legs  moderately  long;  femora  dentate,  not 
(or  scarcely  visibly)  grooved,  posterior  passing  elytra  or  not; 
tibiae  compressed,  more  or  less  distinctly  curved  or  bisinuate, 
sometimes  straight,  with  a  subapical  tooth  in  addition  to  terminal 
hook;  tarsi  not  very  long,  3rd  joint  wide  and  deeply  bilobed. 
Elliptic  or  subelliptic,  convex,  squamose,  nonluberculate,  winged. 

A  highly  remarkable  genus.  Between  the  four  anterior  coxae 
the  pectoral  canal  is  seen  to  be  bordered  by  distinct  walls;  these 
are  principally  formed  by  the  prosternum,  but  also  partly  by  the 
mesosternum.  It  is  the  only  genus,  other  than  Camptorrhinns 
and  Aonychus,  in  which  the  prosternum  has  a  supplementary 
process.  The  walls  are  polished  internally  and  appear  almost  to 
belong  to  the  mesosternum,  but  on  removing  the  prothorax  it 
can  be  seen  that  there  is  a  narrow  basal  ridge  (traceable  across 
summit  but  concealed  there  with  elytra  in  position)  that  imme- 
diately behind  the  coxae  becomes  elevated  and  forms  the  wall  on 
each  side  of  the  canal.  The  mesosternal  receptacle  is  not  entire, 
but  consists  of  a  short  basal  piece  (seldom  distinctly  separated 
from  the  metasternum)  and  a  short  process  (concealed  entirely 
unless  the  prothorax  be  removed)  on  each  side  that  fit  into  the 
sides  of  the  prosternal  walls.  The  rostrum  is  frequently  very 
long  and  is  never  stout.  The  sutures  of  the  joints  of  the  funicle 
are  often  indistinct.  The  sexual  differences  are  very  pronounced; 
the  male  has  a  shorter,  and  stouter  rostrum  which  is  ridged 
and  squamose  behind  antennae,  and  these  are  inserted  closer  to 
the  apex  than  in  the  female.  The  genus  is  not  confined  to  Aus- 
tralia, several  species  having  been  described  from  New  Guinea, 
New  Caledonia,  &c. 

The  species  of  the  genus  as  now  defined  are  not  very  homo- 
genous in  appearance,  but  it  was  not  considered  advisable  to 
generically  separate  any  of  them,  as  the  characters  of  the  pro-  and 
mesosternum  are  the  same  in  all.     It  is  true  that  they  are  the 


BY    ARTHUR    M.    LEA.  405 

same  in  AoiiycJms,  but  the  tarsi  of  that  genus  are  triarticulate. 
In  C amptorrhinus  the  canal  is  confined  to  the  presternum.  The 
most  aberrant  species  are  mcerens,  V2ilnercUu8,  egens  and  languiclus, 
and  for  each  of  these  it  may  eventually  be  considered  necessary 
to  erect  a  genus.  Both  7ncerens  and  vulneratus  have  a  compara- 
tively short  rostrum  with  rather  stout  antennae,  and  the  meta- 
sternum  longer  than  the  following  segment;  egens  has  also  a 
comparatively  short  rostrum  with  stoutish  antennae,  but  the 
metasternum  is  .'shorter  than  the  following  segment;  Imiguidus  in 
appearance  approaches  Pezichus;  it  has  the  femora  linear  and 
minutely  dentate,  the  claw-joint  very  long  and  thin,  and  the 
metasternum  longer  than  the  following  segment;  its  clothing  is 
very  peculiar. 

Elytra  not  much  wider  than  prothorax;  suture  between 
1st  and  2nd  abdominal  segments  straight. 
Metasternum  longer  than  the  following  segment. 

Femora  thin  and  minutely  dentate (anguickis,  n.sp. 

Femora  stouter  and  rather  strongly  dentate. 

Ocular  fovea  very  large rnlnerattt.'^,  n.  sp. 

Ocular  fovea  rather  small mcerens,  n.sp, 

Metasternum  shorter  than  the  following  segment. 

TibijB  moderately  curved compositns,  n.sp. 

Tibia  straight e^ens,  n.sp. 

Elytra  distinctly  wider  than  prothorax;  suture  between 
1st  and  2nd  abdominal  segments  curved. 
Metasternal  episterna  with  small  punctures  in  two 

rows tenuirostris,  n.sp. 

Metasternal  episterna  with   large  punctures  in  one 
row. 

Under  surface  densely  squamose dispar,  n.sp. 

Under  surface  rather  sparsely  squamose mastersi,  Pasc. 

Mecistocerus  mastersi  Pasc;  Mast.  Cat.  Sp.  No.5413. 

(J.  Blackish-brown,  antennajand  tarsi  red.  Moderatel}' densely 
clothed  with  fawn-coloured  scales,  slightly  variable  in  shade  and 
larger  on  prothorax  than  on  elytra,  the  latter  with  two  feeble 
pale  fasciae,  one  commencing  on  shoulders  and  meeting  suture  at 
basal  third,  the  other  postmedian;  each  puncture  and  the  iuter- 
31 


406  REVISION  OF  THE  AUSTRALIAN  CURCULIONID.E,   VIII., 

stices  with  series  of  stout  scales,  but  smaller  than  those  of  pro- 
thorax.  Under  surface  very  sparsely  squamose;  legs  densely 
squamose,  the  femora  each  with  an  obscure  (often  not  traceable) 
whitish  ring.  Head  and  basal  half  of  rostrum  rather  densely 
squamose. 

Head  with  dense  concealed  punctures;  ocular  fovea  rather  large 
and  deep.  Rostrum  much  longer  than  prothorax,  tliin  and 
moderately  curved;  basal  half  with  moderately  strong  but  con- 
cealed punctures  and  with  three  narrow  ridges,  apical  half  shining 
and  lightly  punctate.  Scape  inserted  two-fifths  from  apex  of 
rostrum  and  slightly  longer  than  funicle;  of  the  latter  the  1st 
joint  is  considerably  shorter  than  2nd  but  the  length  of  3rd, 
the  others  gradually  decreasing  in  length  but  none  transverse; 
club  cylindrical,  not  much  shorter  than  four  preceding  joints. 
Prothorax  with  dense,  round,  deep  punctures  partially  exposed 
on  sides  but  elsewhere  concealed  ;  median  carina  feeble  and 
concealed  by  clothing.  Elytra  cordate,  considerably  wider  than 
and  about  twice  the  length  of  prothorax;  with  series  of  large 
deep  punctures,  becoming  smaller  posteriorly;  interstices  lightly 
convex,  wider  or  narrower  than  punctures.  Under  surface  with 
distinct  but  sparse  punctures.  Metasternum  shorter  than  the 
following  segment,  its  episterna  each  with  a  single  row  of  large 
punctures.  Abdominal  sutures  straight.  Femora  feebly  dentate, 
the  posterior  just  passing  elytra  and  not  very  feebly  dentate. 
Length  12  J,  rostrum  5;  width  6;  variation  in  length  9|-13  mm. 

9.  Differs  in  having  the  rostrum  thinner,  more  noticeabl}' 
curved,  slightly  longer,  and  shining  throughout  except  at  extreme 
base,  where  also  only  the  median  ridge  and  strong  punctures  are 
present.  The  scape  is  inserted  almost  in  the  exact  middle  of 
rostrum. 

Hah.—^.^.W.:  "  Illawarra "  (Pascoe),  Illawarra  ;  Q.:  Wide 
Bay  (Sydney  Museum),  Rockhampton  (Mr.  George  Masters). 

The  punctures  on  the  basal  half  of  the  elytra  are  large  and 
more  or  less  confluent,  but  owing  to  the  clothing  they  appear  to 
be  smaller  and  not  very  close  together.  This  is  also  the  case 
with  some  of  the  other  species. 


BY    ARTHUR    M.    LEA.  407 

Mecistocerus  dispar,  n.sp. 

(J.  Blackish-brown,  scape  red,  rest  of  antennae  and  tarsi  darker. 
Rather  densely  clothed  with  dark  fawn-coloured  scales,  mixed 
with  spots  and  blotches  of  paler  and  blackish  scales,  the  dark 
scales  forming  four  feeble  lines  down  prothorax  and  a  rather 
distinct  but  interrupted  triangle  on  each  side  of  middle  of  elytra; 
prothoracic  scales  very  little  larger  than  those  on  elytra,  punctures 
of  both  containing  larger  scales.  Under  surface  densely  squamose, 
scales  of  3rd  and  4th  abdominal  segments  dark  except  at  sides; 
femora  and  tibiae  each  with  an  obscure  blackish  ring.  Basal 
third  of  rostrum  squamose. 

Head  with  dense  concealed  punctures;  ocular  fovea  of  moderate 
size,  subtriangular  and  deep.  Rostrum  slightly  longer  than  pro- 
thorax  and  scutelluni  combined,  thin  and  moderately  curved;  basal 
two-fifths  with  moderately  strong  punctures  and  with  three  narrow 
ridges,  elsewhere  shining  and  lightly  punctate.  Scape  inserted 
slightly  nearer  base  than  apex  of  rostrum  and  shorter  than 
funicle;  1st  joint  of  the  latter  the  length  of  3rd  and  noticeably 
shorter  than  2nd,  the  others  regularly  decreasing  in  length,  7th 
transverse;  club  cylindrical  and  moderately  long.  Prothorax 
with  large,  round,  deep,  non-confluent,  partially  concealed  punc- 
tures; median  carina  narrow,  shining  and  not  quite  continuous 
to  base  and  apex.  Elytra  cordate,  considerably  wider  than  and 
about  twice  the  length  of  prothorax;  with  series  of  large  punc- 
tures becoming  smaller  posteriorly  and  all  partially  concealed; 
interstices  gentl}^  convex,  on  basal  half  narrower,  on  apical  half 
wider  than  punctures,  but  apparently  wider  throughout.  Meta- 
sternum  slightly  shorter  than  the  following  segment;  with  large 
and  rather  dense  punctures,  which  on  each  of  the  episterna  are 
confined  to  a  single  row.  Abdomen  densely  punctate,  suture 
between  1st  and  2nd  segments  slightly  curved;  1st  with  almost 
as  large  punctures  as  on  metasternum.  Femora  stout,  acutely 
dentate,  posterior  extending  to  apex  of  elytra.  Length  9, 
rostrum  2|;  width  4  mm. 

9.  Differs  in  being  of  considerably  larger  size,  proportionately 
wider  across  shoulders  and  more  suddenly  narrowed  posteriorly 


408  REVISION  OF  THE  AUSTRALIAN  CURCULIONID^,  VIII., 

than  in  the  (J;  the  rostrum  is  longer,  shining  except  at  extreme 
base,  and  the  scape  inserted  at  basal  two-fifths.  Length  12f, 
rostrum  4 J;  width  6  mm. 

Hab. — Q.:  Endeavour  River  (Macleay  Museum),  Cooktown 
(Mr.  C.  French). 

Each  of  the  large  scales  of  the  under  surface  instead  of  being 
placed  in  the  middle  of  a  puncture  is  placed  at  its  base,  so  that 
although  the  depth  of  the  puncture  is  concealed  its  extent  is 
readily  seen. 

Mecistocerus  tenuirostris,  n.sp. 

(J(?).  Blackish-brown,  antennae  and  claw-joints  paler.  Not 
very  densely  clothed  with  rather  pale  ochreous-brown  scales, 
which  are  longer  on  prothorax  than  on  the  elytra;  on  the  latter 
they  are  moderately  dense  on  the  interstices,  on  the  former  they 
are  confined  to  the  punctures;  with  small  spots  and  blotches  of 
pale  scales  scattered  about.  Under  surface  rather  sparsely 
clothed,  the  clothing,  except  on  sides  of  sterna,  more  or  less  setose 
in  character;  femora  feebly  ringed.  Basal  third  of  rostrum 
squamose. 

Head  in  places  coarsely  and  densely  punctate,  the  punctures 
more  or  less  concealed;  ocular  fovea  deep,  narrow  and  elongate, 
being  fully  half  the  length  of  head.  Rostrum  long,  thin  and 
moderately  curved,  considerably  longer  than  prothorax;  basal 
two-fifths  rather  coarsely  punctate  and  with  three  narrow  ridges, 
the  median  one  of  these  being  traceable  to  between  the  antennae 
where  it  terminates  in  a  very  feeble  elongate  impression;  else- 
where shining  and  lightly  punctate.  Scape  inserted  very  slightly 
closer  to  apex  than  base  of  rostrum  and  slightly  shorter  than 
funicle;  of  the  latter  the  2nd  joint  is  thin,  twice  the  length  of 
the  1st,  and  the  length  of  the  3rd  and  4th  combined,  the  others 
gradually  decreasing  in  length  but  none  transverse;  club  the 
length  of  the  four  preceding  joints.  Prothorax  with  dense  round 
and  rather  shallow  punctures,  each  of  which  contains  but  is 
scarcely  obscured  by  a  scale;  median  carina  entirely  absent. 
Elytra  cordate,  considerably  wider  than  and  more  than  twice  the 


BY    ARTHUR    M.     LEA.  409 

length  of  prothorax;  with  series  of  moderately  large  elliptic 
punctures;  interstices  not  separately  convex,  wider  than  punc- 
tures throughout,  themselves  punctate.  Meiasternum  shorter 
than  the  following  segment,  triangularly  encroached  upon  by 
canal,  with  large  punctures  except  on  episterna,  each  of  which  is 
supplied  with  two  rows  of  small  punctures.  Abdomen  with 
straight  sutures,  1st  and  5th  with  dense,  the  1st  with  large 
punctures,  2nd-4th  ver}'  sparsely  punctate.  Femora  rather  thin 
and  acutely  dentate,  posterior  extending  to  apex  of  elytra. 
Length  9,  rostrum  3|;  width  4Jmm. 

Hah. — Queensland  (Herr  J.  Faust). 

The  pale  scales  form  five  feeble  spots  on  the  prothorax,  clothe 
each  shoulder  and  form  rather  irregular  spots  about  the  middle 
of  the  elytra;  on  the  head  they  form  a  very  distinct  large  round 
basal  spot. 

Mecistocerus  compositus,  n.sp. 

$.  Blackish-brown,  antennae  and  tarsi  jmler.  Densely  clothed 
all  over  (except  on  scutellum  and  apical  two-thirds  of  rostium) 
with  fawn-coloured  scales,  with  spots  and  blotches  of  dark  scales 
scattered  about  or  entirely  absent. 

Head  with  dense  concealed  punctures;  ocular  fovea  subtri- 
angular  and  not  very  large  but  deep.  Rostrum  the  length  of 
prothorax  and  scutellum  combined  and  (for  the  genus)  compara- 
tively stout;  basal  half  rather  coarsely  punctate  and  with  three 
narrow  ridges,  apical  half  shining  and  lightly  punctate.  Scape 
inserted  two-fifths  from  apex  of  rostrum  and  slightly  shorter  than 
funicle;  of  the  latter  the  first  joint  is  slightly  longer  than  the  3rd 
and  just  perceptibly  shorter  than  the  2nd,  6th  and  7th  feebly 
transverse;  club  elongate-elliptic.  Prothorax  with  large,  round, 
deep,  non-confluent,  scarcely  concealed  punctures;  median  carina 
distinct  only  in  middle.  Elytra  elongate-cordate,  not  much  wider 
than  prothorax  and  almost  thrice  as  long;  with  series  of  large 
elliptic  punctures  becoming  smaller  posteriorly;  interstices  (except 
posteriorly)  narrower  than  punctures,  although  apparently  every- 
where   wider;    basal    half    with   small  granules,   but   which   are 


entirely  concealed.      Metasternum  Bhovter  than  the  following  seg- 


410  REVISION  OF  THE  AUSTRALIAN  CURCULIONIDJi:,  VIII., 

ment,  with  large  partially  concealed  punctures  even  on  episterna, 
each  of  which,  however,  is  supplied  with  but  one  row.  Abdomen 
densely  punctate  and  with  straight  sutures.  Femora  stout, 
acutely  dentate,  posterior  almost  extending  to  apex  of  elytra, 
their  teeth  large,  tibiae  distinctly  curved.  Length  7|,  rostrum  2^; 
width  3i  mm. 

9.  Differs  in  being  considerably  larger  and  rather  wider,  the 
rostrum  much  longer  and  shining  except  at  extreme  base;  the 
scape  is  inserted  nearer  the  base  than  the  apex  of  rostrum. 
Length  9^,  rostrum  3^;  width  4J  mm. 

Hab. — Australia  (Herr  J.  Faust);  Q.:  Salisbury  Plain  (Mr.  A, 
Simson),  Cape  York  (Macleay  Museum). 

The  dark  patches  of  scales  are  very  variable  in  extent, 
especially  on  the  males;  they  usually  form  a  distinct  but  irregular 
postmedian  fascia,  but  this  is  sometimes  completely  absent; 
usually  there  is  a  smaller  and  less  distinct  fascia  beyond  it,  the 
intervening  space  being  clothed  with  slightly  paler  scales  than 
elsewhere;  usually  there  is  a  very  feeble  dark  stripe  on  each  side 
of  the  median  carina  (which  is  marked  by  paler  scales);  the 
femora  are  seldom  distinctly  ringed. 

Mecistocerus  m^rens,  n.sp. 

(J.  Black,  antennae  not  much  paler.  Moderately  densely 
clothed  with  obscure  sooty-brown  scales  indistinctly  variegated 
Avith  small  spots  of  pale  scales.  Head  and  basal  half  of  rostrum 
densely  squamose. 

Head  with  dense  concealed  punctures;  ocular  fovea  deep  and 
distinct  but  smaller  than  usual.  Rustrum  the  length  of  pro- 
thorax  and  scutellum  combined,  lightly  curved,  sides  feebly 
incurved  to  middle;  basal  half  with  coarse  partially  concealed 
punctures  and  with  three  ridges,  the  median  one  of  which  is 
traceable  to  apical  fifth,  apical  half  opaque  and  with  rather  dense 
and  coarse  but  not  concealed  punctures.  Scape  inserted  two- 
fifths  from  apex  of  rostrum  and  slightly  shorter  than  funicle; 
joints  of  the  latter  rather  stout,  the  1st  slightly  longer  than  the 
2nd,   3rd-7th  subglobular,   7th   feebly   transverse;  club   elliptic- 


BY    ARTHUR    M.    LEA.  411 

ovate.  Prothorax  scarcely  longer  than  wide;  with  dense,  round, 
deep,  clearly-cut,  non-confluent  large  punctures;  median  carina 
narrow  and  waved  by  punctures.  Elytra  elongate-cordate,  not 
much  wider  than  prothorax  and  almost  thrice  as  long;  with 
series  of  large  suboblong  punctures,  each  of  which  is  separated 
by  a  feeble  ridge,  both  ridges  and  punctures  partially  concealed; 
interstices  gently  convex  and  wider  than  punctures  throughout. 
Under  sjt^yaoe  densely  and  moderately  strongly  punctate  through- 
out. Metasternum  longer  than  the  following  segment.  Abdo- 
minal sutures  straight.  Femora  moderately  stout  but  sublinear, 
rather  acutely  dentate,  posterior  not  extending  to  apex  of  abdo- 
men. Length  12,  rostrum  3 J;  width  5;  variation  in  length 
9-13  mm. 

9.  Differs  in  having  the  rostrum  slightly  longer,  straighter  and 
narrower  (except  at  base),  shining  and  (except  at  basal  fourth) 
with  punctures  of  only  moderate  size  and  the  ridges  absent;  the 
scape  is  inserted  just  perceptibly  nearer  apex  than  base  of 
rostrum. 

Hab. — Australia(Herr  J.  Faust);  N.S.W.:  Orange( Mr.  Horace 
W.  Brown),  Forest  Reefs  (Lea);  Tasmania  (Mr.  A.  Simson). 

The  clothing  of  the  prothorax  is  rather  sparse,  except  at  the 
apex,  and  usually  forms  three  feeble  pale  lines;  usually  on  the 
elytra  the  (otherwise  ver}^  indistinct)  preapical  callus  is  supplied 
with  a  small  spot  of  pale  (almost  white)  scales;  the  patches  of 
pale  scales  elsewhere  seldom  cover  more  than  one  puncture.  On 
two  specimens,  however,  the  pale  scales  clothe  the  greater  part 
of  the  derm,  the  sooty  ones  being  distributed  in  small  spots  and 
blotches. 

At  one  time  I  thought  this  species  was  possibly  Boheman's 
Cryj)t07'hynchus  moestus,  but  that  species  is  described  as  having 
the  posterior  femora  obtusely  dentate  (^nd  by  implication  the 
others  edentate)  and  the  scutellum  clothed.  In  the  (eleven) 
specimens  under  observation  the  scutellum  is  perfectly  glabrous. 

Mecistocerus  vulneratus,  n.sp. 
^.  Blackish-brown,  elytra  paler,  antennae  of  a  rather  bright 
red.     Moderately  densely  clothed  with  rather  large   pale  (often 


412  REVISION  OF  THE  AUSTRALIAN  CURCULIONID^,   VIII., 

white)  scales,  having  a  more  or  less  speckled  appearance.  Legs 
densely,  under  surface  moderately  densely  squamose.  Head  and 
basal  half  of  rostrum  squamose. 

Head  with  coarse  partially  concealed  punctures;  ocular  fovea 
deep,  subtriangular  and  unusually  large,  its  walls  shining. 
Rostrum  very  little  longer  than  prothorax,  sides  lightly  incurved 
to  middle;  basal  half  with  coarse,  partiall}'  concealed  punctures 
and  with  three  acute  ridges;  apical  lialf  suhopaque  and  with 
moderately  large  but  not  dense  punctures.  Scape  inserted  at 
about  the  middle  of  rostrum  and  much  shorter  than  funicle;  of 
the  latter  the  2nd  joint  is  distinctly  longer  than  the  1st,  and  the 
7th  is  transverse;  club  cylindrical.  Prothorax  strongly  convex 
and  distinctly  transverse,  sides  strongly  rounded;  with  moderately 
large,  dense,  round,  clearly  cut,  non-confluent  punctures;  median 
carina  very  feeble  and  rather  short.  Elytra  not  much  wider 
than  prothorax  and  more  than  thrice  as  long;  with  series  of 
moderately  large,  oblong,  more  or  less  confluent  punctures, 
becoming  not  much  smaller  posteriorly;  interstices  not  separately 
convex,  much  wider  than  punctures,  themselves  rather  densely 
punctate.  Under  surface  densely  and  moderately  strongly  punc- 
tate throughout.  Metasternum  longer  than  the  following  seg- 
ment. Abdominal  sutures  straight.  Femora  rather  short  and 
not  very  acutely  dentate,  posterior  scarcely  extending  to  apical 
segment.      Length  8,  rostrum  2;  width  3^  mm. 

9.  Differs  in  having  the  rostrum  rather  wider  than  in  the  male, 
highly  polished  and  lightl}'  punctate  except  at  basal  third,  and 
the  scape  is  inserted  slightly  closer  to  base  than  apex  of  rostrum. 

Hah.—Q,.\  Cooktown  (Mr.  C.  French). 

A  narrow,  cylindrical  species  in  which  the  ocular  fovea  occupies 
more  than  half  the  space  between  the  eyes;  it  is  the  only  species 
here  described  in  which  the  rostrum  of  the  5  is  no  longer  than 
that  of  the  ^.  The  scales  are  sometimes  snowy  white  and 
usually  form  three  feeble  lines  down  the  prothorax;  on  the  elytra 
they  form  more  or  less  irregular  narrow  fasciae  (on  one  specimen 
six  of  these  are  traceable),  but  they  are  seldom  distinct. 


BY    ARTHUR    M.    LEA.  413 

Mecistocerus  languidus,  n.sp. 

(J.  Blackish-brown,  antennae  of  a  rather  bright  red.  Moder- 
ately densely  clothed  with  fawn-coloured  scales  of  an  almost 
uniform  shade;  on  the  prothorax  they  are  set  in  punctures,  most 
of  them  are  large  and  rounded  and  although  depressed  are 
slightly  elevated  above  the  derm;  they,  however,  (especially  in 
front)  are  setose  in  character;  on  the  elytra  the  scales  are  much 
smaller  than  the  large  prothoracic  ones  and  each  is  transverse; 
they  clothe  the  interstices  thickly  towards  the  apex  but  less  so 
towards  the  base;  each  puncture  is  supplied  with  a  concave  scale. 
Under  surface  sparsely  squamose,  the  scales  varying  from  short 
and  round  almost  to  setae;  legs  densely  clothed,  the  anterior 
tibise  with  long  thin  hair  on  the  apical  two-thirds.  Head  (except 
at  base;  and  basal  three-fourths  of  rostrum  rather  densely 
squamose. 

Head  with  coarse  concealed  punctures;  ocular  fovea  narrow 
and  elongate.  Rostrum  long,  thin,  parallel-sided  and  moderately 
curved,  longer  than  prothorax  and  scutellum  combined;  basal 
three-fourths  with  rather  coarse  concealed  punctures,  and  with 
a  feeble  median  ridge  that  terminates  between  antennae  in  a  feeble 
impression,  apical  fourth  shining  and  with  rather  small  punctures. 
Antennae  thin;  scape  inserted  one-fourth  from  apex  of  rostrum 
and  slightly  longer  than  funicle;  funicle  with  the  1st  joint  the 
length  of  3rd  and  considerably  shorter  than  2nd,  3rd  as  long  as 
4th  and  5th  combined,  /th  lightly  transverse;  club  cylindrical. 
Prothorax  moderately  convex,  apical  third  rather  strongly  and 
regularly  rounded,  basal  two-thirds  subparallel;  with  deep 
but  rather  small  punctures,  regularly  but  rather  sparsely  dis- 
tributed; median  carina  absent.  Elytra  oblong-cordate,  not  much 
wider  than  prothorax  and  almost  thrice  as  long,  base  almost 
truncate;  with  series  of  not  very  large  and  feebly  transverse 
punctures,  each  of  which  is  separated  by  a  feeble  ridge;  inter- 
stices not  separatel}^  convex,  wider  than  punctures  throughout. 
Metasternum  longer  than  the  following  segment,  with  moderately 
large  (except  on  episterna  where  they  are  small)  and  not  very 
dense  punctures.  Abdomen  with  rather  sparse  and  irregular 
32 


414  REVISION  OF  THE  AUSTRALIAN  CURCULIONID.^,  VIII., 

punctures;  sutures  straight.  Legs  long  and  thin;  femora 
linear  and  very  minutely  dentate,  posterior  passing  elytra;  tibiae 
straight;  4th  tarsal  joint  thin  and  almost  as  long  as  the  rest 
combined.     Length  7^,  rostrum  24;  width  3|  mm. 

tiab. — N.  S.Wales  (Macleay  Museum). 

The  clothing  and  punctures  are  remarkable;  the  transverse 
scales  of  the  elytra  are  almost  [li  not  quite)  unique  in  the  sub- 
family. The  scape  is  inserted  much  closer  to  the  apex  of  the 
rostrum  than  in  any  other  species;  the  claw-joint  is  unusually 
long  and  thin.  Several  of  the  characters  are  suggestive  of 
Pezichus.  On  the  rostrum  there  may  be  three  obtuse  ridges, 
but   only  one   can   be    traced    on   the    unique    specimen    under 

examination. 

Mecistocerus  egens,  n.sp. 

^C?),  Dark  reddish-brown,  antennae  of  a  rather  bright  red. 
Not  very  densely  clothed  (denser  on  legs,  sparser  on  under 
surface  and  rostrum  than  elsewhere)  with  obscure  ochreous  scales, 
which  are  condensed  in  places  into  small  spots  and  stripes. 

Head  with  coarse,  scarcely  concealed  punctures;  ocular  fovea 
large  and  open  posteriorly.  Rostrum  slightly  longer  than  pro- 
thorax,  moderately  curved,  parallel-sided;  basal  third  with  coarse 
concealed  punctures  and  a  distinct  median  ridge,  elsewhere 
polished  and  minutely  punctate.  Scape  inserted  slightly  nearer 
base  than  apex  of  rostrum  and  shorter  than  funicle;  1st  joint  of 
funicle  as  long  as  2nd  and  3rd  combined,  3rd-7th  gradually 
increasing  in  width  and  all  transverse;  club  ovate,  subcontinuous 
with  funicle.  Prothorax  with  large,  round,  deep,  scarcely  obscured 
punctures;  median  carina  feeble.  PJlytra  cordate,  not  much  wider 
than  prothorax  and  about  twice  and  one-half  as  long;  with  series 
of  large,  oblong,  subapproximate  punctures;  interstices  not  separ- 
ately convex  and  narrower  (except  posteriorly  where  they  are 
wider)  than  punctures.  Metaster^ium  slightly  shorter  than  the 
following  segment,  coarsel}^  and  irregularly  punctate.  Abdomen 
with  straight  sutures;  1st  segment  rather  coarsely  punctate,  2nd 
with  two  feeble  rows  on  basal  half,  3rd  and  4th  almost  impunc- 
tate.     Femora  rather  thin,  not  very  acutely  dentate,  posterior 


BY    ARTHUR    M.     LEA.  415 

extending  to  apex  of  elytra;  tibiae  straight.  Length  3 J,  rostrum  1; 
width  1^  mm. 

Hah. — Q.:  Cairns  (type  in  Macleay  Museum). 

A  small  dingy  species  which  at  first  sight  appears  to  belong  to 
Melanterius  (it  resembles  such  species  as  macidatus,  acacice  and 
tristis).  The  antennae  are  decidedly  aberrant,  but  it  has  not  been 
considered  necessary  to  generically  isolate  it  on  that  account. 

Mecistocerus  denticulatus  Pasc;  Mast.  Cat.  Sp.  No.5412. 

Hah.  —  ''  Port  Bowen  "  (Pascoe). 

I  am  confident  that  I  have  not  seen  this  species.  The  male  is 
described  as  having  a  number  of  small  s